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pISSN : 2092-769X / eISSN : 2733-6948

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2015, Vol., No.14

  • 1.

    Affirmation on the Effectiveness of Hybrid Arbitration Clause in the International Commercial Arbitration - from the perspective of legislation and judicature in Chinese mainland

    侯国跃 | 谢鹏 | 2015, (14) | pp.1~18 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Affirmation on the Effectiveness of Hybrid Arbitration Clause in the International Commercial Arbitration - from the perspective of legislation and judicature in Chinese mainland HOU GUOYUE·XIE PENG Chinese mainland has already recognized that the Higher People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Court have the exclusive judicial power over the effectiveness of the international commercial arbitration clauses. The proper law applying to affirm the effectiveness of hybrid arbitration clause shall be in accordance with the following order, namely the laws agreed upon between the parties, the laws at the place of arbitration, and the laws at the locality of the court. From the perspective of legislation and judicature in Chinese mainland, the critical elements which affect the hybrid arbitration clause are arbitration intention, arbitration matter and arbitration institution, but not arbitration rules. To evade the legal risks in the international commercial contract, this paper provides following advises. The hybrid arbitration clause shall be applied prudently in the contract. Whether the arbitration rules contain provisions relating to the exclusive use shall be well examined. Whether the arbitration rules involve the provisions which limit the modification of stipulation shall be concerned. And the accurate expression with regard to the arbitration institution, arbitration rules and proper law in the contract shall receive adequate attention.
  • 2.

    ENTIRE AGREEMENT CLAUSE AND CONTRACTUAL INTERPRETATION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

    HUR, SUH HEE | 2015, (14) | pp.19~52 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    RECENT ISSUES ON DIGITAL GAMING AND COPYRIGHT IN KOREA HUR, SUH HEE A contractual relationship is most often based on statements, expectations, acts and omissions that give rise to contractual obligations. For the avoidance of uncertainty on the agreed terms, the parties will enter into an express (written) contract that is presumed to state, inter alia, the conditions and obligations of the final agreement between the parties. The legal system will ensure a literal interpretation of the wording and prevented the parties from relying on rights and obligations not expressly provided for in the written contract. However, high levels of certainty may conflict with substantial fairness in certain circumstances. Thus, to what extent the entire agreement clause purports to support what the parties have agreed to and rule out claims based on alleged collateral warranties becomes an issue when interpreting the contract. The purpose of an entire agreement clause (EACs), depending on the words used, facilitates a record that all agreement of the parties is recorded in the express terms and excludes other alleged express terms; precludes a term that may be implied; inhibiting or estopping a party from claiming that one party was induced to enter into contract by the misrepresentation of a party; implying that the parties wish to deter courts from resorting to “factual context” or “surrounding circumstances” when interpreting the contract; and/or nullifying the effect of previous agreements or collateral contracts. Furthermore, the extent of the application of the parol evidence rule to contractual interpretation will be examined and to its effect when an EAC is provided for. This paper addresses the impact of EACs through the analysis of UK principles of contractual interpretation and the effect of EACs in this jurisdiction.
  • 3.

    Rechtliche Überprüfung der finanziellen Unterstützungsmassnahmen hinsichtlich der koreanischen Reederei

    Sangkeun Jeong | 2015, (14) | pp.53~76 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Jetzt Reedereien sind mit der Krise konfrontiert. Die Situation ist ähnlich der IWF Rettungspaket. Wenn es keine Übereinstimmung in absehbarer Zeit der Rückgewinnung oder Unterstützung gibt, sind Reedereien bis zu dem Debakel aufgrund der verschlechterten Ergebnisverschlechterung. Unter diesen Umständen muss das Land systematisch die Seeverschiffenfirma unterstützen. Maritime Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Landes wird durch die verschiedenen Schiffahrt Support-System beeinflusst. Seit der weltweiten Finanzkrise sind die weltweit wichtigsten Ländern stark zum Schutz der nationalen Seeverkehr Corps. Nun, da die Rezession setzt sich fort, muss die Schwierigkeiten bei der Beschaffung des Working Capital der Reederei zuerst gelöst werden. In dieser Hinsicht können die folgenden Lösungen berücksichtigt werden. 1. Die Regierung muss die allgemeinen Mittel durch die Schaffung des Garantiefonds zur Seeverschiffenfirma fliessen zu überzeugen. 2. Tonnagesteuerregelung für Reedereien in der begrenzten Zeit vorhanden, sollten auch weiterhin zur Verfügung stehen. Sie können auch die Tonnagesteuersystem zu Körperschaftsteuersystem ändern. 3. Steueranreize für Schiffsfonds sollte ebenfalls fortgesetzt werden. 4. Die Zusammenarbeit zwischen den Reedereien und Frachteigentümer sollte erhöht werden. Eine solche Zusammenarbeit kann die langfristigen Verträge(COA) zu erhalten. 5. Schifffahrtsgesellschaften und Verlader sind durch die Aktivierung eines Frachtkosten Futures (FFA) Markt das Risiko von Änderungen der Frachtkosten in der Zukunft effektiv zu verwalten. 6. Sollte die Obrigkeit zu unterstützen, um Reedereien zur Finanzierung der sehr grossen Schiffen. KAMCO sollte Reedereien durch die Zusammensetzung des Schiff-Fonds unterstützen.
  • 4.

    Study on Oil Pollution Accidents in terms of the Private International Law

    Cheong Yeong Seok | 2015, (14) | pp.77~96 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Oil pollution cases make great legal disputes. When these accidents occur, most disputes are focused on the size of the damage and aiding of the victims. But unexpectedly the IOPC Fund raised an indemnity suit against Samsung Heavy Industries at the Ningbo Maritime Court, China with relation to the towing vessels which collided with the oil tanker in MT Hebei Spirit accident. Since this accident, in oil pollution cases as with other cases, it has been recognized that indemnity claims of the tanker vessels as well as damage claims of the victims under the Oil Pollution Compensation Act(OPCA) should be considered together. Consideration on the Private International Law is necessary because the resolution of an accident should begin from the decisions on the international jurisdictions, the civil jurisdictions, and the applicable laws of the respective claims. It is because where the ship is registered, where the accident occured, where the damage occured, and the crew members’ nationalities can be different. The following issues have been studied: the right to claim damages under 「OPCA」 and application to limit the ship owners' liability in severe oil pollution cases; issues with international jurisdiction, civil jurisdiction, and applicable laws for damage claims in vessel collision cases. This paper can provide practical help with interpretive standards by reviewing the civil issues.
  • 5.

    Study on Acceptance Contains Different Terms in CISG Article 19 - Focus on Members’Cases

    Choi Hye - sun | 2015, (14) | pp.97~120 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The general principle of CISG Article 19 is mirror-image-rule, but Article 19 para 2 provides the exceptions to that rule. As a result, reply with immaterial modifications of the offer constitutes an acceptance unless the offeror objects orally to the discrepancy or dispatches a notice to that effect. Para 3 sets out the matters that are considered as material modifications. Granting the exceptions is the useful effort to mitigate the demerit of the mirror-image-rule, but there remain some ambiguous problems regarding deciding whether certain modifications are material or not. For clearance, Article 19 para 3 provides criteria to determine materiality but these lists are not considered as exhaustive. And to the contrary, the terms which are not included in para 3 can be interpreted into material changes. Finally, for determining the reply purports to be an acceptance but adds to or different from the terms in the offer is a real acceptance or a rejection of the offer, we should consider the specific situations in the individual cases. This study tries to find some useful criterion and considerations to decide materiality by examining of Member countries' cases. To sum up, adding the payment conditions and forum selection clause to the offer did alter the offer and constitutes a counter-offer. While changing the governing law and the amount of goods are judged from the existing state of things. In prior transactions, if parties consider the governing law as a important term which needed to be agreed, alteration regarding that condition is material. And If a offeree made a modification about amount of goods just for the advantage of offeror, that would not constitutes a material change.