Yaodong (Cave-dwelling) is a ecological adaptation to the local environment on loess plateau in China for thousands of years. This study investigates on the social and cultural representations of Yaodong landscape instead of morphological approach. Yen-an in northern Shaanxi in which traditional Yaodong concentrated on loess plateau is a critical place of state formation in the Communist China. Various symbols and meanings of Yaodong such as ecological eco-friendly architecture, revolution heritage, rural poverty, and political school are being founded out in contemporary China. These various representations change ideas and perceptions of Yaodong and then these transform real regions with policies and practices such as Red Tourism, poverty reduction and rural development, patriotism eduction, and ecological preservation.