The purpose of this study is to introduce the competency-based geography curriculum of Ontario in Canada, which is known as its high level of education, and to examine the implications of the Ontario geography curriculum. In Ontario, the citizenship education framework forms the fundamental scheme to realize the vision of geography, or fostering the responsible and active citizen. Within this framework, the Ontario curriculum systematically incorporated the components of geographic inquiry process, concepts of geographic thinking, big ideas and framing questions, and spatial skills to improve geographic competency. Based on this analysis, the following implications were suggested: 1) the importance of the unique geographic concepts and inquiry, 2) the possibility of spatial skills and tools, and 3) the systematic organization of scope and sequence. These three implications show directions of ‘outwards in’, ‘inward outwards’ and ‘crossing inwards’, respectively. This study provides insight into the implementation and development of an effective geography curriculum for promoting competency.
Yaodong (Cave-dwelling) is a ecological adaptation to the local environment on loess plateau in China for thousands of years. This study investigates on the social and cultural representations of Yaodong landscape instead of morphological approach. Yen-an in northern Shaanxi in which traditional Yaodong concentrated on loess plateau is a critical place of state formation in the Communist China. Various symbols and meanings of Yaodong such as ecological eco-friendly architecture, revolution heritage, rural poverty, and political school are being founded out in contemporary China. These various representations change ideas and perceptions of Yaodong and then these transform real regions with policies and practices such as Red Tourism, poverty reduction and rural development, patriotism eduction, and ecological preservation.
This empirical case study contributes to re-thinking the existential division between landscape considered as representational within new cultural geography and landscape considered as non-representational within post-new cultural geography. Specifically, this study focuses on a change to the apparent form of a feng-shui landscape in relation to four collective ancestors’ tombs located near a local-lineage-based village in South Korea, before and after a national reforestation project in the 1970s, to explore how the ontological dualism involved in apprehending this feng-shui landscape has been resolved in the villagers’ lived experiences of this landscape. In doing so, this paper attempts to empirically show that, in the lived experiences of human agents, the representational and the non-representational are inseparably interrelated.
This study tried to trace and unveil the process of accepting, transforming, borrowing and utilizing ideas and thoughts in the stadial theory of social development in civilization through geography textbooks in 19th century. It shows long journey from Europe through America to Asia, in which the stadial theory of social development in civilization starts first in Scotland in 18th century with three stages of savagery-barbarouscivilized, and moving toward The United States in the beginning of 19th century and accepted in Geography Textbook during almost 100 years in the transformed 4 stages or 5 stages type with adding the enlightened stage, in the late 19th century moving to Japan by Fukujawa Yukichi who visited New York and found the stadial theory in geography textbooks and Scottish Enlightenment books, finally moving toward Korea by Kil-Chun You who want to suggest the way toward enlightenment and civilization to Korean after studing in Japan and the United States.
This study analyzed the regional identity of Naepo New Town in Chungcheongnam-do. In 2006, Hongbuk-eup in Hongseong-gun and Sapgyo-eup in Yesan-gun were designated as Naepo New Town, and major administrative agencies and residential facilities were moved and constructed into the new town. The development of the new town for the relocation of Chungnam Provincial Government has problems of damaging and/or obscuring the regional identities of the region. So, this study tried to uncover the regional identities of Naepo New Town. According to the analysis, four regional identities were found in Naepo New Town: A region where openness and diversity through active links with the outside world (Cultural & Historical Identity), A region with excellent settlement conditions with a balanced distribution of mountains, sea, and hills (Geographic Identity), A region rapidly transformed from an agricultural landscape to an urban landscape (Landscape Identity), A region of urban and rural integration where agriculture still exists in the vicinity of the new town and, simultaneously, administrative services and high-tech industries are developed in the new town (Industrial Identity). These four regional identities are expected to complement each other and establish a major identity of Naepo New Town.
Beyond understanding urban regeneration as neoliberal urban development strategy or postdevelopmental/postneoliberal strategy, the governmentality approach allows us to see urban regeneration as a governmentalization program which aims to sustain the nation-state and civil society through the construction of citizens’ autonomous and voluntary cooperation by minimizing their critiques and resistances to government. In addition to this, this paper focuses on how urban regeneration as a governmentalization program is constructed through the (re)territorialization strategy in the Sewoon Urban Regeneration Area, Eulji-ro. The governmentality approach with an emphasis on (re)territorialization help us reveal that urban regeneration as a governmental discourse and program arranges the subjects and spaces to govern by territorializing a specific locality and autonomous operation principles rather than aims for governmentalization of the whole state space.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of urban sprawl in the sigungu scale of the metropolitan regions (MR). Measuring sprawl based on multiple dimensions considering density, land use mix, centering, and street accessibility proves the regional diversity of sprawl. Only density index shows compacting in the core regions and sprawling in the peripheral regions, and the other indexes have different distributions of sprawl. The results show that it is difficult to analyze the composite index including various sprawl factors. Cluster analysis based on sprawl factor indexes shows four clusters in sprawl types. Each MR identifies its specifications according to the ratio of clusters. Seoul MR and Busan MR have high density and diverse industrial structure, and Gwangju MR and Daejeon MR show the dual systems urban in the core regions and rural/specialized in the peripheral regions. Daegu MR shows diverse sprawl types. The characteristics of urban sprawl based on this research contribute to practically establish more detailed urban planning and policy.
This paper claims the civic stratification of immigrants is underway through the Korean migration regime and further fortified through their spatial division. Based on Lockwood (1996) and Morris (2002; 2003), the paper explores the civic stratification of immigrants in Korea and highlights the different civic rights which stem from the intersection of ethnicity, class, and gender are granted to different immigrant groups. It constructs dual control over migrant workers based on ethnicity generating socio-spatial division between non-Korean male-manufacturing workers (E-9) stuck around medium-sized cities and ethnic Korean female-service workers, for example, with greater job flexibility in the capital region. The overseas Koreans are, however, further divided along with class into elite overseas Korean (F-4) and migrant workers (H-2) showing a complex combination of ethnicity, class, and gender in civic stratification. Different civic rights cause spatial division among different groups by affecting mobility, job opportunities, and accessibility to infrastructure. Uneven regional development and spatial hierarchy where Seoul and the capital region have supremacy over the other areas provide the foundation of civic stratification of immigrants, suggesting civic stratification as socio-spatial processes.
International development cooperation has been changed in two aspects; horizontal cooperative partnership among countries replaces foreign aid by developed countries to developing countries and the implementation of SDGs targeting all countries includes diverse agencies and regional focus in addition to national governments. Local governments play important roles in which the real experiences in providing public services could be shared with those in partner regions who are in short of resources. European decentralized development cooperation begun rather early to put efforts on the recipients’ needs by diversifying target sectors and their circumstances. Local governments’ ODA in early stage could improve in several aspects. It needs to coordinate the ODA recipients’ lists designated by OECD DAC and the priority partner countries selected by Korean government into account with individual local government’s twin regions. Targeting sectors, sector-wide approach would be preferable after considering local conditions and priorities rather than donors‘ competency approach. Also important is sharing knowledge and experiences for better service provision and strengthening local governance. Collaborations among local governments and other agencies would enhance civil society participation. It leads to better understanding of development assistance, and further realizing the SDGs both in domestic and foreign localities.