This paper takes focuses on the migration history of Japanese Brazilian since 1908 and their returning phenomenon around 1980s, tries to make analyses on the establishment of JICA and some exhibited materials.
Japanese Brazilians mainly lived in the poor rural area, especially after the United States published the anti-Japanese immigration act in 1924, which completely forbid Japanese enter the US, and then the Japanese immigrants to Brazil increased greatly in 1925. In the era of globalization, the government of Japan had changed the immigration law, which attracted a large number of Japanese Brazilians to return to Japan, and greatly solve the labor problem in the home appliance industry and the car manufacturing industry.
The research results can be summarized as the following three aspects:1. The first Japanese immigrants (781people, mostly farmers) moved to Brazil in 1908 by the Kasato Maru(ship) from the Japanese port of Kobe to the Port of Santos of Brazil, which is the beginning to immigrate to the South America.
It mainly because of the prolonged depression in the rural area of Japan.
However, around 1945, owing to the great recession, exporting immigrants to Brazil became a very important policy for Japan to solve the extreme economy situation.
2. Since 1980, with the globalization of Japan and the requirement to revise the immigration Law from the 1st generation of Japanese Diaspora, the 2nd and 3rd generations of Japanese Diasporas in South America began to return to Japan as foreign labors. This phenomenon also called the ‘U-turn’ phenomenon of Japanese Diaspora. These Japanese Diasporas were accepted as the legal labor force, which solved the labor shortage problem in the home appliance industry and the car manufacturing industry. To some degree, it also limited the illegal foreign labors.
3. The immigration history of Japanese Brazilian began from 1908 and their returning phenomenon around 1980 had gained a great attention in Japan,which made the founding of JICA become possible. In JICA, through using the information system, the photos of Japanese Diasporas, the exhibited material in the digital archive and internet and searching material over the network can be easily shared. In addition, through the international center or the culture education department, people can learn the immigration history and experience the miserable life of these Japanese Diasporas indirectly.
The implications of this study are as follows: why did Japanese Diasporas move to Brazil after the anti-Japanese immigration act of the US and the two way investigation on the returning phenomenon of Japanese Diasporas have a great implication. Furthermore, the investigation on the immigration history of JICA and the exhibited culture contents and the analysis on how to apply the immigration history of Japanese Diasporas into education from the modern perspective, which presented some implications to the multi-culturalization of Korean society and the founding of Overseas Korean data library.