Journal of Japanese Culture 2022 KCI Impact Factor : 0.22

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pISSN : 1226-3605 / eISSN : 2733-8908
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2015, Vol., No.64

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    On the Sound Value of Dong(冬) Rime in Ancient Chinese and Northern Regions in Tang Era Based on Yamanoueno Okura‘s Phonetic Alphabet 農(/nu/) in Manyōshū

    KIM DAE SUNG | 2015, (64) | pp.45~63 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    I have two broader aims. The first is to explore when Dong(冬) rime was combined with Dong(東) one in DivisionⅠ during Tang era. My second aim is to attempt to reconstruct the sound value of Dong(冬) rime in Ancient Chinese and the one in Northern Regions in Tang era. We find that Dong(冬) rime was assimilated into Dong(東) rime before A.D.683 when Gao Zong, an emperor of Tang dynasty, died, because of his being the first user of the two rimes rhymed in an inscription. It is significant to note that Dong(冬) was [oŋ] in Ancient Chinese, and [ ŋ] in the Northen regional sound of Tang dynasty. The [oŋ] has been reconstructed by Sino-Korean /옹/, Manyōgana or Old Japanese phonetic alphabet 宗(/so/) except for 農(/nu/) representing the latter sound, and Sino-Vietnamese and Sino-Tibetan [oŋ] which are the secondary sources. The Northern [ ŋ] is mainly based on 農(/nu/) of which Yamanoueno Okura made use. We find 11 examples in Manyōshū in which Yamanoueno Okura wrote ten times and Yamabeno Akahito, who used 農 at the same time as Okura, had only one example. Okura stayed in Tang at least for two years in the early 8th century when Ancient Chinese was undergoing its great shift in sounds. It implies that he might have known very well the sound changes in the period. The [ ŋ] theory is also grounded in the 農 instances of Nihonsyoki and Fudoki. 農 is mainly represented as /nu/ in α group poems in the former, although a few characters of Mo(模) rime are illustrated for /nu/, and it is also recorded only for /nu/ in the latter with 努 having two different sounds /nu/ and /no/.
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    'omou' and 'saenggakhada' as Politeness Strategy -Using as Directives-

    李鳳 | 2015, (64) | pp.169~182 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    There has been increasing studies on the different usage of ‘omou’and ‘saenggakhada’in recent years. Prior research did not include a theoretical concept of ‘omou’ and ‘saenggakhada’, and therefore was unable to provide a scientific explanation in the comparative analysis of these two words. Drawing on the notion of hedge, speech act theory, and politeness theory, this paper focuses on ‘omou’ and ‘saenggakhada’ used as directives for politeness strategy. Prior research has shown that ‘omou’ co-occurs with a sentence which has illocutionary force as directives. However, applying the “weightiness (W) of a face-threatening act (FTAx)” from theory of politeness by Brown & Levinson (1978/1987) as a theoretical framework for the analysis, this paper finds that ‘omou’ is used as hedge in following incidences: a) where risk (R) is high and distance (D) is far, b) where risk (R) is low and distance (D) is far, and c) where risk (R) is high and distance (D) is intermediate in the value of relationship. In contrast, ‘saenggakhada’ is constrained when used as hedge in a sentence which has illocutionary force as directives, regardless of the degree of distance (D) and extent of risk (R). According to Itani (1996), “cultural aspects play an important role since the ‘appropriate’ amount of social hedging varies from culture to culture.” Using ‘omou’ and ‘saenggakhada’ as hedge supports this observation, and it can be witnessed in the context of both languages - Japanese and Korean.
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    Study on "hazuda" in adnominal clause

    Jeong-Hee Lee | 2015, (64) | pp.183~198 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The expression of adnominal clauses using "hazuda" shows some difference in its acceptance according to its meaning or usage. As a result, in the "relative clause", the usage of "yosou" is sometimes allowed within the adnominal clauses, but its frequency of occurrence is less. And the "discrepancy" type occupies most of the cases. The usage of "satori" is not accepted. Also, examining the contextual situation, in the known stage, "discrepancy" between the consequences of reasoning and status quo occurs in most cases and leads to a consequent contradictory situation. On the other hand, in the unknown stage, the "discrepancy" does not occur. The Limiting way is different in the depending on the "discrepancy". Meanwhile, if "discrepancy" exists, it becomes the non-limiting expression of adnominal clauses. If "discrepancy" does not exist, it becomes limiting expression of adnominal clause. Next, in the "appositive clause", if there is no intervention of "toiu", "hazuda" is not allowed. On the other hand, when there is an intervention of "toiu", the main noun is used the "noun thought".
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    Ahn yongbok’s identity tag

    Kwon,O-Yub | 2015, (64) | pp.219~240 | number of Cited : 7
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    Boat (舟) Represented in Mori Ogai’s Works - Centered on 「Mousou, 妄想」 -

    KIM OK JI | 2015, (64) | pp.259~274 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    After studying in Germany in the Meigi period, Mori Ogai (森鷗外, hereinafter “Ogai”) achieved a remarkable feat as a doctor and literary man. Serving in the highest position as an army surgeon and highly acknowledged as a literary man, he is evaluated as an ‘eternal complainer’. This is derived from the complaints represented in one of his works, “「Mousou, 妄想」” describing the main character who had to face a desperate contradiction between the state of his country and what he had learned in Germany such as advanced medicine, technology and thought. In Delusion, the blue bird, a symbol for the advanced culture, was accompanied on a boat (“boat” is written as “Boat (舟)” to analyze Ogai’s works). “Boat (舟)” is a tool for transporting the blue bird of a hope. This is shown in 「Kouseiniki, 航西日記」where he said he felt like a Boat sailing downwind when he went away to study. In 「Toitusniki, 獨逸日記」the Boat was described as the medium of memories and the tool of a hope. However, the blue bird, a symbol of a hope, was dead on the Boat in Delusion before he arrived at his country, so Boat is no longer the means of hope. The Boat in Delusion shows Ogai’s frustration at modernization and the shift of awareness of Ogai’s Boat. Thus, Boat in Delusion is the starting point where the main character began complaining, causing Ogai to hereafter be acknowledged as the ‘eternal complainer’ Also, the meaning of Boat was extended as an object embracing different actual problems. In 「Soteiniki, 徂征日記」written while encountering demotion, Ogai described the process of the modernization of the Japanese society suffering the contaminated sea in the landscape viewed from Boat. That is, Ogai represented frustration at his lost dreams and his life experiencing the frustration. The Boat of frustration in Ogruaniki is the same as Boat in Delusion where Ogai depicted his critical mind. This representation is shown in the Boat of 「Hyakumonogatari, 百物語」in which Ogai revealed the problems with him in his mid-aged life. Boat expressed in Hyaku Monogatar is where Ogai realized complicated feelings as a mid-aged man and critical mind as a literary man. That is, Boat is a medium showing the awareness of his life and the stream of times. Ogai revealed the state of modernization he was suffering and the aspect of his complaints about it. The complaints began to be seen in Delusion where his gift prepared for homecoming ended up as a futile hope. This shows the shift of Ogai’s consciousness from hope to frustration and the starting point as the ‘eternal complainer’ is illustrated in the Boat of his works.
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    A study of 『Obakasan』

    松橋幸代 | 2015, (64) | pp.275~291 | number of Cited : 0
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    Comprehensive Study of Cultural diversity in Japanese foot - Japanese gait(1) -

    栗山緑 | 2015, (64) | pp.363~374 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study is investigating cultural diversity in Japanese foot and leg from the point that human body could be an emblem of its culture. In this paper I discussed about Japanese gait forms. According to previous researches, there were six main characters of Japanese gait form between the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, from the end of Edoera to Meiji era(1). Those were ①shuffling, ②short strides, ③inward, ④fore-foot landing, ⑤leaning forward, ⑥odd sound. In the 20th century(2)‘pitch’walking forms(short-stride with many steps) and fast speed were proved physiologically and sociologically. The factor of (1) was mostly wearing Japanese traditional footgear (Geta:下駄, Zohri:草履), and (2) was considered an influence of high speed society in modern days. I presume that (1) might be Japanese natural gait forms regardless of footgear because most Japanese gait characters were inherited among modern Japanese who didn’t wear traditional footgear and whose physique were taller and bigger than before. And an interesting point was that there were Gait culture in Japanese gait character ① and ⑥. One was called ‘hachimonji (八文字)’ gait, which was special shuffling gait with ‘Taka-geta (高下駄)’by ‘Oiran(花魁)’ courtesans as a show in Edo era. The other was Japanese unique sense to enjoy walking sounds by ‘Setta (雪駄)’, ‘Pokkuri (木 履)’or‘Hikizuri-geta (引きずり下駄)’ as stylish or charm sound. Japanese had unique gait forms in the past and now. Furthermore nowadays foot reflexology, five-toe socks and pedicure were getting popular and popular because of so-called‘Healing’ therapy boom. I believe these Japanese new interests in foot and leg must add new cultural diversity.
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    A Comparative Study on the Pre-Service Teacher Education System and its Evaluation Certification : focusing on the evaluation of the Graduate School of Education in Korea and Japan

    Kim, Bo-Rim | 2015, (64) | pp.391~415 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article aimed to overview the pre-service teacher education system and reveal the differences of the evaluation certification between Korea and Japan. In the 21st century, knowledge-based society, it is important to provide the pre-teachers with an environment to improve the specialization as a teacher. The graduate school of education(敎職大學院) which is founded recently in Japan has two functions for training teacher and making teacher. It is similar to the graduate school of education in Korea. In order to evaluate these schools in Korea and Japan, two countries received the evaluation from the third-party and announce the result. Teacher Education Evaluation Center of the Korea Education Development Institute(KEDI) Korea takes a role of the evaluation for the graduate school of education in Korea. The Institute for the Evaluation of Teacher Education mainly works for the evaluation of the graduate school of education in Japan. In the case of Japan, the day for the evaluation is decided not by the Institute for the Evaluation of Teacher Education but the graduate school. Each evaluation index in Japan is mainly a qualitative assessment rather than quantitative assessment.
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    A Review of present condition and direction of Japanese Takesima/Dokdo Education

    Hwi-Young Song | 2015, (64) | pp.481~502 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to check the present condition of Japan's Dokdo education and to examine the directionality of the movement of intensified Takesima/Dokdo Education by focusing on The Final Report(2012.3), from which the implications for our Dokdo education will be deduced. The Final Report mentioned above decided to use social studies textbooks in each subject in the field. In addition, for each course ‘Exercise’, and ‘Guideline for Map’, ‘Data /Historical Materials’ including glossary are specifically presented. In addition, Takesima/Dokdo Education of Shimane Prefecture will be good example for others, and increasingly will be used in the field of school education. It is clear that the guideline of Shimane Prefecture is sure to be spread throughout the country and the number of textbooks which defines Takesima/Dokdo belonged to Japan will increase. Qualitatively and quantitatively, this trend will be reinforced in various social studies textbooks. In our side, to respond to these Japanese education based on new teaching guideline, the contents of present auxiliary textbook including description of Dokdo in social studies textbooks need to be reorganized. Reform of Dokdo education appropriate to the student's eye-level will be made in the manner of which students at each level can easily understand and be interested in Dokdo.
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    A Study on the Characteristic of School Culture of Korean-Japanese

    Youngeon Yim , HEO SONG TAE | 2015, (64) | pp.529~546 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine the central figure and historic formation background and observe the differences of the regular schools and irregular schools with Korean school. Research method of this study is used of interpretation of conducting survey paper and interview at first-hand field in Japan. The findings of this study are as followings. First, in historic background, there is a division of Chosun schools and Korean schools as 'Hanshin education fighting' and some of Korean school select regular schools and irregular schools. Second, Chosun schools are detached from Japanese government's islands and expanded to whole country because of choosing as irregular schools, but Korean schools select as regular schools and plane to stable school management in Japan. Third, irregular schools tend to go under of Korean college entrance examinations for graduation because of relation with Korean school, but students of regular schools’ were expose that have many students who change schools to Japanese school. Forth, students of regular schools are not good at Korean language about role of ethnic school and unity education, irregular school's students chooses nation school by parents' inducement, and they thought that solidify nationality education. The findings of this study suggest that difference of ethnic school have differed according to confrontation of systematic adaptation of Japanese government and education demand of the global era.
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    A Comparative Study on Trends of Nuclear Policies after Fukushima Nuclear Disaster in Japan

    Seong Min CHA | 2015, (64) | pp.605~615 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    There was a big earthquake with a magnitude of 9 on the richter scale on 11th March 2011 in Japan. Along with the disaster, a large scaled tsunami attacked the east coast of Japan, it resulted in the destruction of nuclear power plant. After the crisis, Korea and Japan government modified and amended their related laws and organizations. This article would provide us with implications in amending our legal system for nuclear disaster measures, through the review of Japan's legislation for disasters after fukushima nuclear crisis. First, this article analyzes the important laws and policies of Japan, preventing mechanism of disasters. And then, it reviewes trends of Korean legal system after fukushima nuclear crisis. Finally, the comparative analysis of nuclear policy regimes in Korea and Japan gives us a couple of policy implications as follows. First, to have independence of a agency for nuclear safety regulation, the personal interchange between a agency for nuclear promotion and a agency for nuclear safety regulation must be prohibited. Second, it is needed to relax exemption provisions of nuclear operator in korean law.
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    The Critical Analysis of Lee Han Gi “Gando” Theory - To Establish the Correct Gando Territory Theory -

    Choi Jang-Keun | 2015, (64) | pp.617~634 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The critical points of this study are summarized as follows. In other words, Hangi-Lee said that have to succession laws of the Republic of Korea on procedures for solving problem after reunification. North Korea joined the United Nations with korea in 1990, but the resolution process may change because this paper wrote before. Hangi-Lee said that the Kando problem must go back before Japan's intervention on Critical Date. However, It was more than 100 years since 1909 Kando Convention tolerated by the Chinese occupation. what will you do? Hangi-Lee said that the legality of Kando Convention is invalid beacause Japan got the Kando of Korea territory to China without any separate treaty. In general, it is difference that Japan have no Diplomatic bargaining for Korea's territorial disposition. Hangi-Lee said violates the law of estoppel because China claimed the new boundaries with the boundary of Yalu River - the Tumen(頭滿) River but China claimed with the boundary of Yalu River - the Tomun(土門) Riverat Beaktusan Jeonggyebi. It must be accepted that reasonable logic. However, there are many parts can not be accommodate according to the change of the times and such as the lack of research level,