There has been increasing studies on the different usage of ‘omou’and ‘saeng gakhada’in recent years. Prior research did not include a theoretical concept of ‘omou’ and ‘saenggakhada’and therefore was unable to provide a scientific expl anation in the comparative analysis of these two words. Drawing on the notion of hedge and politeness theory, this paper focuses on ‘omou’ and ‘saenggakhada’ used as assertives for politeness strategy. Prior research has shown that ‘omou’and ‘saenggakhada’ co-occurs with a se ntence which has illocutionary force as assertives. However, applying the “wei ghtiness (W) of a face-threatening act (FTAx)” from theory of politeness by Brown & Levinson (1978/1987) as a theoretical framework for the analysis, this paper finds that ‘omou’ is used as hedge in a sentence which has illocut ionary force as assertives, regardless of the degree of distance (D) and extent of risk (R). In contrast, ‘saenggakhada’ is constrained when used as hedge in a sentence which has illocutionary force as assertives in following incidences : a) where risk (R) is high and distance (D) is far, b) where risk (R) is low an d distance (D) is far in the value of relationship.
According to Itani (1996), “cultural aspects play an important role since the ‘appropriate’ amount of social hedging varies from culture to culture.” Using ‘o mou’ and ‘saenggakhada’ as hedge supports this observation, and it can be wit nessed in the context of both languages - Japanese and Korean.
This research performed subclassification targeting 'verb combination of the type which has medium morpheme' of which consequent verb (V2) has '行く', then indicated the common ground and difference between Japanese and Korean through the comparison with verb combination of the same type which has 'go' in V2 within the result. The result can be briefly summarized as follows. 1)～3) are common grounds, 4)～7) are differences. 1) The relevant verb combination are distributed sequentially from the most syntactic example to the most morphological example. 2) The examples such as '増えていく、ssah-yeo gada’ can be considered as a kind of the compound verb. 3) The examples such as '走って行く、dallyeo gada’ hold more characteristics of the phrases (句) which treat with two words. 4) While '連れて行く’ is available for adnominal modification using V1, however 'delyeogada’ is not available. 5) In case of 'ボーナスが飛んで行った' and 'boneoseuga nal-agassda' which accompanies specialization of meaning, the former is available for adnominal modification using V1, while the latter is not available. 6) '好んで’ of '好んで行く' has secured the position as the adverb, while 'jeulgyeo' of 'jeulgyeogada' still has not secured the position as the adverb. 7) Verb combination where V2 has '行く' mostly has the examples which have only literal meaning, while the verb combination where V2 has 'gada' has lots of examples which express metaphorical meaning besides literal meaning.
The River Ki is the utmost masterpiece of Sawako Ariyoshi that describes three generations of Japanese women who lived through different times. The amount of effort and passion she poured into the novel is apparent, and its plot wholly represents the aspects of women who endured such extreme era. Ariyoshi captured the dimensions of people being swayed by the torrent of the era in detail. Like the river Ki which seems to flow peacefully and yet hides swirling current underneath the seemingly gentle stream, the characters fully unravel the changes in the women’s sense of maternity that took place through the dynamic times. As studying The River Ki, it becomes apparent that Ariyoshi wrote this novel based on the sense of ‘maternity’ which she understood as the root of the womankind. In the novel, readers can witness how consistently antagonistic, drastically different senses of maternity of Hana and Humio are finally sublimated into one. Hidden underneath the changes lies the element of ‘loss’ -the absence of husband and the death of second son. Their opposing sense of maternity is united by Hanako-Hana’s granddaughter-who built the bridges of understanding between the two. Contrary to the first half where the mother-daughter conflict arose, as the novel runs to its latter half, the complete mutual communication between the three generations of women is finally achieved. Although the beginnings were different, the sense of maternity accomplished harmony transcending the lengthy time that began from the era of the mother, Hana, to her daughter Humio and ended in the generation of Hana’s granddaughter Hanako. Then it is sublimated into the ‘complete sense of maternity’ that Ariyoshi believes is the ultimate virtue. It is the core of description of maternity by Ariyoshi who realized early that complete portrayal of the sense of maternity can only be achieved by representing the voices of both the mother and the daughter
This paper investigated on what was an identity of 『Seito』. When discussing the identity of 『Seito』, no matter how commonly criticisms are quoted, novels can be the most useful text to understand what women wanted to seek out for the moment. Especially, 『Seito Works of Fiction』was a collection of special works condensing an awareness and central ideas of modern women only surpassing each work's characteristic. This tendency clearly appear in that 『Works of Fiction』preferred the works of young writers to those of existing famous ones. It indicate that 『Seito』 didn't mind the evaluation of the existing authors and literary circles and expressed what they pursued according to their own conviction. Another distinct feature of 『Seito』is its contents. The main themes of the works were the message that women should have a vocation using their talents, problems on a patriarchy and a romantic relationship and marriage based on discriminating relation between men and women. That's because the most urgent problem faced with women was the family system based on a patriarchy. It also demonstrates the real aspect of 『Seito』representing the agony, desire, demand, and question of the women in those days.
This study tries to discuss Tōson's Perceptions of Motherhood which has been so far overlooked by the bias that Tōson distrusts women, and review 「母(Mother)」(1911) in which Tōson, for the first time, mentioned Motherhood even before he stayed in France.
Tōson discovered and recognized the preciousness of woman's Motherhood through the years when he nurtured his children on his own after his wife died. 「Mother」was written around this time, and in this work, Tōson for the first time expressed dear love of a Mother towards her sons and daughters, which is the so called “Motherhood." This change in Perceptions of Motherhood is more apparent, compared with 「爺(Fathe r)」(1903) which was written earlier than「Mother」and based on the same incident.
While 「Father」reveals a typical man who views women with the eyes of distrust, 「Mother」is written from a viewpoint of a son who looks at his Mother. Specifically, a Mother named ‘德(Otoku)’ discards her previous passive self and actively tries to recover her relationship with her son through direct conversation. Otoku can be viewed as a projection of Tōson's deceased wife Hyuyuko who died unexpectedly leaving young children to her husband's hands. Moreover, Otoku's active attitudes towards her son can be interpreted as Tōson's intention to give the Mother a chance to show her Motherhood towards her son, despite being a short period. However,「Mother」closes its page with the dialogues between two uncles who wants to keep their relations secret and also negate their relations. The work concludes with the secret dialogues between men. It means that while Tōson acknowledges Motherhood women have, he intends to be clear that he would never acknowledge improper sexual pleasures of women.
After the war, the appearance of leftish Japanese (Jai-nichi) movie directors and their active working with expiating on suppression of Korean lead making a lot of movies which showed remorse of dominating Korea and represented negative view to the rounding-up of discrimination. But Japanese tend to evaluate those movies as reconstructing of minority in Japanese society. We should understand those movies with different point of view. The appearance of Jai-nich was built on close relationship with social and historical circumstances at that time so it’s certain to come at it from another angle. In this study, the Korean-Japanese film <Blood and Bones> is analyzed in different angle with Japanese view. This movie showed a history of first generation of Jai-nichi through a life of one man (Jun-Pyeong Kim). The Jai-nichi narratives in movies were regarded as a mirror of a Japanese society in transition towards becoming a multiracial country; a fact which post-war Japanese society strove to ignore and eliminate. The presence of a Jai-nichi identity in film, which emerged from the Japanese occupation of Korea represented a unique viewpoint. This study took a skeptical look at this interpretation, and analyzed the protagonist, Jun-Pyeong Kim’s brutality in historical and social perspective. The movie was separated to seven major sequences and analyzed to understand a structure and development of narrative. Greimas’ semiotic square model was used to grasp a diverse meaning of the narrative structure. The character’s acts were analyzed in social and political context and a relationship between Jun-Pyeon Kim and 3 other women became known as an important clue of analyzing Kim’s drastic brutality. So the study tried to find the origin of brutality applying that relationship into Greima’s actor model and Semiotic Square. This study concludes that the brutality of the protagonist, Jun-Pyeong Kim in the film『Blood and Bones』came from Japan's colonial rule of Korea. In other words, Kim’s several violent behaviors were symbolic of Jai-nichi who lived in the period of unstable and sudden changed imperialism of Japan and it was disclosed through this movie.
This article is pursuing the diplomatic transformation of Japan against Kaichitsujo(華夷秩序) of the China dynasty after the reversal of China and the barbarians, from the end of the 17 century to the early 18th century. It is considered the title of a Japanese King as a keyword. In the early 18th century Japan, the Qing(China) and Jungar battle after the reversal of China and the barbarians was followed by. And Asian countries political and economic which belonged to kaichitsujo have been unstable. Southeast Asian countries are often happening war and infighting. It was taken part in forces of China and Europe. And pirate activities become active around a southeast sea area. To grasp such situation, Japan also had to figure out the information. To be seperate from Kaichitsujo of the China dynasty, Japan actively used chinaese and Dutch ships. And Japan had plans to build new international relations. Also to settle international problems, it enhanced the position of daimyo and hatamoto which was connected to foreign countries, and tried to change the diplomatic title of Shogun. Japan asked Choseontongsinsa to a Korean letter which was written as a Japanese King. This ‘a Japanese King’ was unrelated to a Chinese official rank system. In other words a Japanese King was a Japanese original diplomat title of Shogun to do not have no relation with China. This is different from the interpretation about a Japanese king of the 17th century. Also means the positioning of a Japanese King is changing.