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2015, Vol., No.67

  • 1.

    A Study on Modal Verbs of Possibility in Edo Language-With Special Attention to Edohanashibon · Edokabuki · Kibyoshi-

    Kim yong kyun | 2015, (67) | pp.5~24 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This research examines the expressions of possibility, especially, modal verbs denoting possibility with attention to 30 kinds of authentic materials of Edo language(Edohanashibon․Edokabuki․Kibyoshi) in the late modern times of Anei ~ Bunka (1772 ~ 1817) in comparison to Edosharebon. Analyzing modal verbs shown in Edohanashibon․Edokabuki․Kibyoshi, this study investigates the general characteristics and cause of the linguistic changes, focusing on the difference in slowness and quickness. As a result, several characteristics can be summarized as follows: (1) There exist the difference in slowness and quickness of change even within the materials of Edohanashibon․Edokabuki․Kibyoshi. They can be arranged in the folloing sequence: Edosharebon > Edohanashibon > Kibyoshi > Edokabuki. (2) Colloqual sentences are likely to change more quickly than literary ones from a viewpoint of stylistics. (3) The sequence of verbal conjugation types is as follows: Mizemkei > Renyōkei > Shuōshi․Rentaikei > Izenkei. (4) Considering the number of syllables, monosyllabic or disyllabic verbs change earlier than multisyllabic verbs do. (5) Simple verbs change earlier than compound verbs do. (6) Negative expressions change earlier than affirmative ones do. This study reveals that modal verbs of possibility experienced the linguistic changes of quickness and slowness in stylistics, verbal conjugations, the number of syllables, simple verbs and compound verbs, affirmative and negative expressions, etc. shown in the data of Edo language, such as Edohanashibon․ Edokabuki․Kibyoshi. Additionally, the above-mentioned (2),(4), (5), and (6) coincide in Edosharebon, while (1) and (3) differ from Edosharebon.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Difference between “osowaru”, “narau”,and “manabu”

    김창규 | 2015, (67) | pp.25~48 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    According to the analysis, osowaru is only used when it portrays the meaning “to listen” and the meaning of oshietemorau. The latter refers to the point of view of the one who teaches. Narau is only used when it is interpreted as “to imitate,” “to learn,” and “to study” and when the subject is centered in the one who learns. The subject should be specific as possible. Manabu is only used when it means “to study academically,” “to acquire,” and “to master a certain skill” and when the sentence is centered in the object, more vague and less distinguishable compared to other cases. Looking solely at the meaning, “to listen” is only used with the term osowaru. “To imitate,” “to learn,” and “to study” are only used with narau and “to study academically,” “to acquire,” and “to master a certain skill” are only used with manabu. Looking at the perspective, if the perspective is on the lecturer, osowaru is the term used. If the perspective is on the learner, both narau and manabu are used, however, depending on the size of the object range, the usage for narau and manabu is different. Narau is used if the object range is specifically mentioned and manabu is used if the range is unspecific. Meanwhile, the usage of all the terms,osowaru, narau, and manabu, can only be allowed at the same time if the interpretation of the sentence fulfills the meaning and the function of all three words.
  • 3.

    ‘The analysis of the ‘Awha Bga Vtearu’ sentence-Mainly on the comparison with a ‘Awha Bga Vrareteiru’

    Bae Eun jeong | 2015, (67) | pp.49~64 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I analyzed the meaning of ‘Awha Bga Vtearu’sentence and ‘Awha Bga Vrareteiru’ sentence with double subject structure. There were some precedent studies to compare ‘rareteiru’ and ‘tearu’, but The study about ‘rareteiru’ and ‘tearu’ to take the form of the double subject sentence structure into was not found. Therefore, in this paper, I paid attention to two sentences mentioned above and decided to compare and analyze it. As a result of analysis, it was ‘tearu’ sentence to be liked as a structure to express an effective aspect generally by a Japanese mother tongue speaker. but When the sentence with the double subject expressing an effective aspect is accompanied by, It was confirmed that the Japanese mother tongue speaker preferred ‘tearu’ to ‘rareteiru’. The next, it was confirmed that a noun not to express a position is more natural than a noun to express a position. Finally, it was said that the ‘Awha Bga Vtearu’ sentence was near a sentence expressing ‘characterization of A’ rather than ‘a position’ in the paper of Ooh(2009). And as a result of consideration, a sentence of the noun expressing a position was used for ‘A’ was felt more naturally, but the difference was not big.
  • 4.

    A Study phenomenon of vowel added i in Sino-Korean-Focused on the comparative study with Sino-Japanese, Sino-Vietnam-

    Lee, Kyong Chul | Choi Ji-soo | 2015, (67) | pp.65~85 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study extracts some examples of consonant form with i vowel added in the Sino Korean according to each the rhymes and makes a comparative analysis of the Middle Chinese, Sino Japanese Go’on and Kan’on and the Sino Vietnamese. The results are as follows: The rhymes that have consonant form with i vowel added in the Sino Korean correspond to examine this according to each vowel in Korean language, it is found in almost all vowels and this cannot be regarded as a phenomenon in agreement with monophthongization. Initial that has the form of added i vowel in the Sino Korean appears after almost all of the consonants. Therefore, it cannot be considered that occurred by the effect of palatal consonants. The rhymes that have the consonant form of added i vowel in the Sino Korean seem to have derived not from the influence of Chinese language but from i vowel addition of Koran language itself since no factor to add i vowel is found in the history of phoneme of Chinese language or in the comparison with the Chinese character sound in other languages. I vowel addition in Korean language was proceeding before the 15th century, and this is still under way today.
  • 5.

    A study of analyze the preferences for major and teaching profession among undergraduate students Majoring in Japanese

    이금재 | Hur Young Ju | 2015, (67) | pp.87~103 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study was conducted to analyze the preferences for major and teaching profession among undergraduate students majoring in Japanese. The result of the study is that undergraduate students majoring in Japanese generally tend to show high preferences for their own major and high expectations for teaching profession. I could see that the higher preferences for major are, the higher expectations for teaching are shown. On the basis of these findings, the fact that there are teacher education classes offered in Japanese Department needs to be informed actively through high school PR activities. I suggested that it is necessary to evaluate major preferences and the degree to which students hope to become a teacher, in screening documents submitted and interviewing students.
  • 6.

    A Study on material properties of Chophaeshineo

    정강철 | 2015, (67) | pp.105~122 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This is a study on the value of Chophae shino as a material for linguistic study focusing on its linguistic characteristics and status (including abuse of dialect). As mentioned in the previous study, the status of Chophae shino in linguistic terms can be considered from 3 main aspects: (1) the influence of Kyushu dialect (2) Kyoto dialect (3) misuse by the interference of the mother tongue and incompetence in Japanese language Each aspect has enough probability. But concerning (3) misuse by the interference of the mother tongue (of the author) and incompetence in Japanese language, there seemed to be a need for a more sociolinguistic approach and accordingly such an approach was tried in this study. First of all, the Japanese version has 「kureru」and 「kutasaru」which have been revised from the original 「yaru」and 「yarasiraru」as in the example 1 and example 2. There are many cases of 「~(a)si ‘sasi’ raru」format, which is also a very rare format in the writing at that time. But examples of these features are found in Hirano (1964) and modern dialects (Fukuoka, Saga, Kumamoto). The Korean version has similar tendency to that of the Japanese version. One example is the case of「-Siso」(uniting ending) for request and describing) and noun indication . The published version has as many as 11 times of 「-Siso」form. Tae-young Lee (1997) points out that it is a characteristic of ‘Southeast dialect (of Korea)’. And Now that a long time has passed, there are is definite material in both the Korean and Japanese languages to provide a reliable definition. It is not known up to now in which place of Japan the author had served his sentence. The only thing we can do is to presume that the author might have stayed in areas in which Kyushu dialect is spoken (especially Fukuoka and Saga). It is unfortunate that the limitations of data prevent further discussion. More research may be needed on this subject as well as on linguistic phenomena unidentified so far.
  • 7.

    A Study of the Waka Titled ‘Sakimorinouta’ - Focusing on its position in the translation history of waka from the comparative perspective

    Park Sanghyun | 2015, (67) | pp.123~143 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigated the Korean translation of Sakimorinouta(防人歌) in a syntactic manner. The translations of Sakimorinouta released during the Japanese colonial period include Sakimorinouta (translated by Seo Doo-soo), Korean abridged translations of Manyoshu(万葉集) and One Hundred Patriotic Poems in Korean Translation (by Kim Eok). The translations published after the national liberation include Manyoshu in Korean Translation (Kim Sa-yeop), Manyoshu (Koo Chung-ho) and Recitation of One Thousand Lines of Manyoshu (Koh Yong-hwan, Kang Yong-ja). A comparative study on these translations revealed the position of Sakimorinouta in the translation history of waka(和歌). First, Seo Doo-soo’s text was the first Korean translation of Sakimorinouta. Second, Seo Doo-soo’s Sakimorinouta was a complete translation of the waka. Third, he added notes to this waka for the first time in the translation history of waka since the modern times. In fact, he expressed his view on this waka and how it should be introduced to Joseon through the notes.
  • 8.

    Japanese classical poetry as a part of cultural education-Through contents of “Manyoshu”

    하정숙 | 2015, (67) | pp.145~161 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    A cultural education was a term that there was no acquaintance in an educational history yet, it appeared as a critical countermeasure to inclined education of an existing knowledge transmission center after the chiefly 1990's though. It doesn't limit to specific study and the subject, openness of an educational content and the learner's active participation are done chiefly, and the spread power of a cultural education to show the concern to various phenomena of the culture is extremely large now. The Japanese poem of Japan has a Japanese sensibility. It is a Japanese cultural product. Therefore, it seems that it is not possible to remove from a cultural education. Then, how should be passed on to learners in South Korea the culture of the Japanese poem? It has a Japanese element, and a South Korean and an intimate element are collected. It seems that it is a text no the most much agreement of 'Manyoshu'. It is necessary to develop the cultural contents thing that popular sympathy can be done by making the best use of the original.
  • 9.

    A comparative study on women in Literature of Ihara Saikaku and Higuchi Ichiyo

    Yoon, Hye-Min | KIM, sanggyu | 2015, (67) | pp.163~177 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    It is considered for us that women in early modern literature of Japan were not in different circumstance from one in modern literature. There was no specific word for ‘date’ in the days of Saikaku but ‘Kosyoku’ which had same meaning. Even though it was written differently in the literature, the love of characters was undeniable. Both of Saikaku and Ichiyo described the heroine of their works couldn’t freely date in the Confucian system. In the days of Saikaku, dating someone without parents knowing was prohibited strongly and could result in the death penalty. It was regulated much harder than in the days of Ichiyo so that women of Saikaku’s works were described as tragic heroines. This paper concentrates on the life of women who dated freely and excludes men’s eyes even though Saikaku wrote works dealing with male-centered love including pederasty. It is surprising that women characters of Ichiyo are reluctant about the love even given difference of position of woman and man writers. This suspicion led to this study. Women in Saikaku’s works date freely beyond the system. They choose men active and spontaneously and risk their life for love. Considering Ichiyo advocated modern romantic literature, Saikaku’s heroine lived more modern life than Ichiyo’s.
  • 10.

    Toshiyuki Kajiyama’s “The Clan Records” Theory –Based on Character Description-

    Choe, Junho | 2015, (67) | pp.179~196 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Toshiyuki Kajiyama was born and raised in colonial Chosun as a second generation under colonization. He started creating his work after he returned to Hiroshima postwar, and this led him to publish “The Clan Records” set during colonial Korea criticizing the reformation policy of names to Japanese names led by the Japanese Government General of Korea. Various kinds of people appear in “The Clan Records” based on colonial Chosun. In this thesis, they are classified as soldiers withholding military force in colonial Chosun, administration governing by the Japanese bureaucrats, and the colonized people of Chosun, and “I” with overall perspective in the story. Analysis of the text in each category first, emphasizes the injustice of Chosun colonization by describing Japanese soldiers and bureaucrats with criticism. Second, emphasis is made on the resistant colonized people of Chosun by describing them as active and not only suffering persecution from the reformation policy of names to Japanese names. Lastly, Japanese who discriminated and despised the people of Chosun and speculated knowing the injustice of colonization are depicted in the description of “I.” Judging from an overall perspective, it can be interpreted that throughout the entire plot, Toshiyuki Kajiyama wanted to depict how he would have acted if he were in the same situation as the protagonist. In other words, the author is overlapping his ideality of colonizer Japanese by leaving in another virtuous Japanese over the binomial oppositional structure between the bad Japanese and the poor people of Chosun.
  • 11.

    A Critical Review on the Abe Cabinet’s Arguments for Collective Self-Defense Rights-Focusing on the discussion on 「Reconstruction of the legal basis for security」-

    KANG KYUNGJA | 2015, (67) | pp.197~215 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The Abe Cabinet's approval of Collective Self-Defense Rights is a very sensitive issue in Northeast Asia, characterized by high military tensions, the Asia's Paradox, and the security dilemma. This paper reviewed the reports of the first and second discussions on Reconstruction of the legal basis for security, which played a key role in entitling Japan to exercise collective self-defense rights, and criticized the Abe Cabinet's justifications for collective self-defense rights. It criticized the Abe cabinet's perception of collective self-defense rights as a deterrent to war and thus reduction in arms race, pointed to their distortion of the right to live in peace, and revealed their distorted perspectives of history. It is not desirable to tolerate Japan's exercise of collective self-defense rights because it directly affects the peace and security in Northeast Asia and Korea. The governments and societies should give voice to peace-building based on universal values such as peace with human rights.
  • 12.

    EKIBEN to withdraw from the train station

    Kim, Young-Soon | 2015, (67) | pp.217~237 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    I have so far examined the history of EKIBEN centering on historicity as reflected in KAKEGAMI (wrapping paper) of EKIBEN and the way in which EKIBEN is sold. KAKEGAMI not only contained information on EKIBEN but was also used as a medium to promote the famous tourist destinations, local specialties, and events from the era of Meiji, Taisyo up to the early SYOWA era. It also printed manners for railway travel and corporate advertisements, which gave us a glimpse of its social status. In the prewar era (1931-1945), it frequently had war slogans or pictures representing the war; and in the period of rapid economic growth, it often included tourism campaigns. KAKEGAMI will be able to find its place in history as a document that was influenced by the social conditions and at the same time represented the change of trends from local specialties, tourist packages, and health foods. The history of EKIBEN shows that the early EKIBEN contributed to the local tourist industry to a certain degree. However, as the kinds of special box lunch making use of the local specialties were reduced in the war period and ‘ordinary’ box lunch became more general, the attribute of EKIBEN as an unusual ‘Hare’ tended to dwindle. After the defeat in the war, EKIBEN contributed to promotion of railway travel with the boom in travel industry in the period of rapid economic growth. But with the diversification of means of transportation and food, the way it is sold is also being diversified. This leads to the dwindling significance of the railway station and railroad journey. With its history along with railway stations which has seen EKIBEN competitions, EKIBEN mail order sales, specialty EKIBEN shops, now EKIBEN is faced with a moment in history to reexamine itself to decide which directions it should take for the future. The experience and know-how acquired from the history of EKIBEN can offer an important pointer to the future direction of EKIBEN, and further to the improvement of railway box lunch sold by Korail such as ‘Rail Lak楽’ (Lak楽 meaning pleasure or joy).
  • 13.

    Social Structures and Neo-Confucianism of Chosun Dynasty and Tokugawa Japan

    Kim, Tae Young | 2015, (67) | pp.239~266 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences stated between Korea and Japan is the result of the Neo-Confucian acceptance process and the social characteristics of each nation. Japan and Korea have very different social structures. The Neo-Confucian acceptance process and the social characteristics of each nation lent significantly to the differences between Korea's and Japan's structure of consciousness.Since Neo-Confucianism was as much a moral and political philosophy as it was a religion the extent and rate of its implementation governed the thought and behavior of each society. Zhu Xi's family rituals and the national civil and military examinations solidified Neo-Confucianism as the dominant feature of Korea societal thought. On the other hand, Japan's eclectic coexistence of adopted religions and their placement of Military at the top of their social hierarchy, instead of intellectuals as in Korean society, drove Japan in a slightly different direction of social consciousness than happened in Korea. Also, most importantly, Japan's system allowed for little upward advancement regarding status. The societal pressures in Japan led the populace to find an occupational niche and in so doing thrive for a time individually and pass on their tradition to their progeny. Whereas, in Korea all were driven to compete in the same tests for the same coveted high status positions which created a disproportionete amount of jobs routed in abstrac thought and paper pushing rather than jobs that produced tangible items or services. Most families sought out an elevated status, thus Korean social consciousness was firmly rooted in the advancement of status.
  • 14.

    Acculturation and Locality of Shinokubo-Focused on Linguistic Landscape

    Park, Su-Kyung | 2015, (67) | pp.267~284 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study concentrates on Shin-Ookubo, the new uprising Koreatown in Tokyo, as a tour spot for local Japanese visitors to connect and assimilate with another culture, especially by analyzing the phenomenon by examining the names on restaurant and road signs. Restaurant signs are named from a process of “naming.” “Naming” not only happens individually, but also by a group of individuals of a certain culture. As the naming is approved, it soon acquires social characteristics. Especially, language on signboards sensitively portray the lifestyle and the changes in the society. This, in other terms can mean that individual lifestyles and psychological emotions get affected by being exposed to such signboards. However, language on signboards does not hold an exclusive meaning, and can be interpreted in different meanings. The meaning is not fixed. The user can take in the meaning of the signboard the same way as the namer(producer)’s intention or in a completely different way. Therefore, it is important to learn how Shin-Ookubo became the center of Koreatown by observing its history, space, and location, and to observe how the Korean wave, the term for Korean pop culture, assimilates and connects with different cultures by looking through store and road signs. As a result, modern awareness interpreted non-western, colored, and women as minorities in comparison to western, white, and men. Also, modernization caused alleys to disappear by newly constructed main streets. Meanwhile, while narrow alleys are symbolized as high-quality culture in Ginza, Shin-Ookubo welcomes women visitors with hand-written signs, and women also are attracted by meaningless pictures and Japanese letters that does not follow their norms. People are seeking change by experiencing new culture and space by recalling one’s family and home and recovering from the loss. Also, intertwined Korean and Japanese signboard languages can be interpreted as a resistance to norms and people have the ability to read out those resistance whether it is occurred consciously or unconsciously. Resistance and acceptance without subject also can be another key feature to understand the meaning of the space.
  • 15.

    A comparative Study of Nebuta and Neputa –Focused on the Aomori Nebuta and Hirosaki Neputa-

    Lee, Deok-Ku | 2015, (67) | pp.285~300 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The present paper examines the difference between Nebuta of Aomori and Neputa of Hirosaki, and explores the reason for Hirosaki’s adherence to Neputa not to Nebuta which is a name more common and widely known. Nebuta of Aomori is a tourism product that involves a newly established host organization to attempt changes of Nebuta in various aspects and attract a great number of tourists nationwide as a great event. In comparison, Neputa of Hirosaki adheres to the original form of the event due to the strong awareness that Hirosaki is the originator of the festival. This difference is closely related to the self-perception of each city: openness and pragmatism of Aomori as a port and commercial city; conservatism and pride of Hirosaki as a historic city of tradition and education. This was confirmed by the ‘Star Wars Nebuta (スターウォーズねぶた)’ happening in 2015.
  • 16.

    Gonsuke Hayashi and Korea

    伊藤政彦 | 2015, (67) | pp.301~322 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In Secheon-dong, Dong-gu, Daejeon there is a portal to the old Jeungyak 1st tunnel of the Gyeongbu Railway (Seoul-Busan Railway). On the upper part of the portal is installed a stone plaque with the inscription ‘嶽神驚奔(Akshinkyungbun)’. It is the handwriting of Gonsuke Hayashi, who served as the Envoy Extraordinary of Japan to Korea from 1899 to 1906. The present study examined the role of Hayashi in Japanese invasion of Korea, and the significance of the plaque he left behind. While working as an Envoy Extraordinary, Hayashi played an important and decisive role in the conclusion of the ‘Japan-Korea Treaty of 1904’, the ‘Japan-Korea Agreement of August 1904’, and the ‘Japan-Korea Treaty of 1905.’ These treaties and agreement were needed during the process in which Japan deprived Korea of the functions as an independent country and extended its dominion. Hayashi had a very negative view of the Koreans and the government of the Korean Empire. In 1904, when he was in office as the Envoy Extraordinary to Korea, Japan started the rapid construction of the Gyeongbu Railway in preparation for the war with Russia. Yet the residents stood against the construction because the mountain, where the Jeungyak 1st tunnel was to be built, was deemed sacred. But their voice was ignored and the construction began. In the winter of 1904, a riot broke out at the construction site. The reason was that, compared to the Japanese laborers, Korean laborers had been receiving discriminatory treatment, and a Japanese supervisors beat the Korean laborers. But eventually the riot was suppressed by the military police. After the construction of the tunnel, someone in the legation asked Hayashi for writing an inscription for the plaque, and the result is aforementioned ‘嶽神驚奔(Akshinkyungbun)’, meaning “the mountain god took flight in fright.” Later in his memoirs, Hayashi said it was “a funny thing” to have enforced the construction. This shows that his attitude to Korean culture was that of derision. The plaque reflects his understanding of Korea. It was a pity that he had no mind to pay respect to the nation and culture in which he was working. The plaque extant tells us of the fact.
  • 17.

    A comparative study on a thoughtless socie-A real state in Korean society compared with Japanese cases

    이형철 | Jung Geun Ha | 2015, (67) | pp.323~346 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the Korean society through the lens of a 'thoughtlessness' phenomenon being widely observed in Japan. The term, 'thoughtlessness' used in this paper does not literally mean stopping thinking and instead means acting without critical thinking to achieve goals no matter how they are irrational, illogical. Through the research, we find a strongly identical 'thoughtlessness' phenomenon in both Japanese and Korean society. Japanese people tend to thoughtlessly stick to outmoded ways that they have been doing to maintain their national identification; Koreans show the growing tendency of being 'thoughtlessness' when they try to achieve the goals of moving up in the social class and winning success and fame.