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2016, Vol., No.68

  • 1.

    Japanese Recognition on Ulleungdo and Dokdo in Regard of the Case of Tenpo-Takeshima-Ikken(天保竹島一件)

    Song, Hwi-Young | 2016, (68) | pp.5~27 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to verify the Japanese Hachiemon(八右衛門)'s recognition on Ulleungdo and Dokdo by chase him of the central role in the Case of Tenpo-Takeshima-Ikken(天保竹島一件). There was least Japanese invasion to the islands of Ulleungdo·Dokdo after the event of Ahn Yong-bok. But Korean(Choseon) fishers continuously landed on the island and Japanese might have landed secretly on the islands to fish often. They should have smuggled secretly but the fact was not revealed until Hahiemon event breaking out. This paper revealed as follows. First, as known the purpose of Hachiemon to cross to Ulleungdo was logging trees on the island but his main activity on the island was to smuggle the products from Philippine, China, and Southeast Asia. Second, Hachiemon at the time crossed to Ulleungdo on the basis of Ohya(大谷) family map during the Kenroku period and he created new map. The map he used and submitted to the court during the Bafuku lawsuit explain the recognition of Hachiemon on Ulleungdo and Dokdo. The two maps also expressed the two island red color as the same color of Korean (Choseon) territory. This fact reflected the recognition of Japanese who have lived around Sanin region on the two islands.
  • 2.

    Ulleungdo and Dokdo perceptions of Japanese with 『Jukdo magazine』the mid-19th century

    Choi Jang-Keun | 2016, (68) | pp.29~48 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This is the study on Ulleungdo Island researched two households of Japan in the 17th century. It was called the 『Jukdo Magazine』study.『Jukdo magazine』 recorded information confirmed and handed down on Ulleung Island in the middle of the 19th century. The work analysised 『Jukdo Magazine』. I wish the review which at the time the Japanese tried to recognition Ulleungdo and Dokdo through this study. First, the purpose of 『Jukdo Magazine』 written to extend as Japanese territory on Ulleungdo Island because there are many products which are not produced in Japan. Second, Jukdo is near by the Joseon Dynasty rather than Japan. But the Japanese thought Ulleungdo Island is Japanese territory because Japanese went to Ulleungdo Island to take license from Tokugawa for 70 years. The status of Ulleung island by lack of territory by the Tokugawa became Joseon's territory. two families of Oya and Murakawa went to Edo against the decision of the Tokugawa for a voyage again. Third, 『Jukdo magazine』is evident of Dokdo territory because Ulleung Island in the same vicinity as Dokdo.
  • 3.

    Hokkaido (北海道)'s Culture Policy

    KIM,DONG-MYUNG | 2016, (68) | pp.49~74 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    I observed Japan's regional culture policy in terms of Hokkaido's culture policy. As a case in point for Japan's regional culture policy, I categorized the island's culture policy into its establishment and development. Hokkaido has established and developed the culture policy from the 1990's ardently when Japan's regional policy has begun unfolding at full throttle. In 1994 prefectures enacted Hokkaido Culture Promotion Act, regulating culture policy on the whole relatively early. Then they appropriated Hokkaido Culture Promotion Guidelines, leading to detailed administrative plans and eventual establishment of the culture policy. Besides, they appropriated and implemented yearly culture promotion measures in order to execute the established culture policy. Concretely put, they have been implementing 90 businesses with regard to 7 items of culture promotion guideline out of Hokkaido Culture Promotion Act and 14 items concretely suggested in Hokkaido Culture Promotion Guidelines. Under this circumstances Hokkaido Culture Review Committee brought attention to three problematic areas: Firstly the planned businesses can not be sufficiently executed because of budget cuts. Secondly, because the culture policy has not been reviewed on the whole, creativity is desired for the policy. Lastly, the policy lags behind current Japanese regional culture policy, because it barely strikes a core with industry policies. These are unavoidable obstacles to surmount in order for Hokkaido to realize its banner pledges: creation of regional culture and construction of everyday cultural sphere.
  • 4.

    A Critical Review of the Korea multicultural society through Korean Resident Society in Japan

    Hwang,Hye-Kyoung | 2016, (68) | pp.75~93 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The present study aims at examining the aspects of multicultural society of Japan and providing their implications. This study examines the community of the Korean residents in Japan, an ethnic minority in Japanese society, from the perspective of the Korean residents on themselves, from the perspective of the Japanese people on the Korean Japanese, and from the perspective of the Korean people on the Korean Japanese. First, the restrictive environment of the mainstream society on the minority group makes it difficult for the minority group to express its identity in a natural way. Second, the understanding of multicultural society reached through Japanese people’s perception of the Korean residents in Japan opens the possibility of improving the preconception and prejudice of people in the mainstream society by making use of cultural contents. Third, examination of the Korean people’s perception of the Korean residents in Japan showed that inspiring the patriotism of Korean youths improved their interest in and perception of the Korean residents in Japan. On the other hand, if education to foster the national spirit leans toward emphasis on the ethnically homogeneous nation, it would rather raise hostility to the immigrants of different ethnic origins and only increase adverse effects. Therefore, education of national identity should focus on general human rights education based upon multiculturalis.
  • 5.

    A Study on Pragmatic Usage of「かもしれない(Kamosirenai)」In Priority Status of Learning of Korean Japanese Learner

    Kwon Seong | 송만익 | 2016, (68) | pp.95~114 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Among expressions that Korean learners of Japanese have difficulty with are speculative expressions. Speculative expressions have 「だろう(darou)」 for subjective expression and 「かもしれない(kamosirenai)」 for possibility, and these are sometimes expressed in terms of subordinate clause with 「~けど(kedo)(が(ga))」 to convey euphemism. So this paper examined how this pattern of expression is used in Japanese and how it is translated into Korean. This paper also examined whether the learners are well acquainted with the expression. All the sentences with subordinate clauses by means of 「~けど(kedo)(が(ga))」 in the drama scripts of Japan selected were excerpted to examine the two forms in Japanese, 「だろう (darou)」 and 「かもしれない (kamosirenai)」. The results show that in sentences with subordinate clauses, 「かもしれない (kamosirenai)」 was used more frequently than 「だろう(darou)」, which indicates that it is more natural in periphrasis to use 「かもしれない (kamosirenai)」 than 「だろう (darou)」. As for the result of the survey on the learners, the learners chose 「だろう (darou)」 or conclusive expression for 「かもしれない (kamosirenai)」 used by Japanese people. Besides its speculative usage, 「かもしれない (kamosirenai)」 is also used to express periphrasis. So when the learners learn speculative expressions, it would be helpful for deeper understanding and use of speculative expressions to comprehend cases not only of speculative usage but also of pragmatics.
  • 6.

    Modern Japanese poetry teaching method for improving creativity of students   

    Nam, Yi-Sug | 2016, (68) | pp.115~139 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines how students creativity can be developed through teaching and learning modern Japanese poetry. Moreover, it explores how modern Japanese poetry can be effectively taught in the classroom. * Japanese modern poetry provides space and time in which readers can have access to a variety of experiences. Moreover, it also includes elements such as observation, curiosity, figurative reduction, empathy, multi-dimensional thinking, which correspond to the processes of producing creative ideas. In addition, various tools of expression including images, metaphors and symbols that are used in the verse let the learners enhance their expressive power and have creative language proficiency. Therefore, it has enough value as teaching materials for improving creativity. * It is difficult to understand poetry which includes metaphor and symbolism. However, it is possible to help students develop their creativity through a stepwise teaching of modern Japanese poetry. Learning much in Japanese modern poetry class will turn the students into human resources equipped with their own points of view of the subjects they encounter everyday and creative language proficiency as well as improve their communication skills which is highly needed by modern society.
  • 7.

    A Comparison of the Process of the Early Translation of the Bible in Korea and Japan

    An, Jeong-Whan | 2016, (68) | pp.141~161 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper has followed the subject of studying the Bible translated early in Korea and Japan, and provided a comparative analysis of the following two. One concerns notation centering on ancient scripts used in the Bible, the other is about a comparison of the process of accepting Chinese words in the Chinese Bible which is a source book. The research findings are summarized as follows. First, it is about notation. As the Bible was translated at first, there was a strong movement for the two countries to translate the Bible only in indigenous characters. However, when a complete translation phase reached, the two countries began to show different aspects. That is, while Korea had a strong tendency to write it only in Hangul, the Korean alphabet, Japan took the form of using Kana letters, Japanese own letters mixed with Chinese characters. Next, it is about the comparative outcome of the process of accepting Chinese characters in the Chinese Bible which is a source book. It was confirmed that Japan accepted all Chinese characters separating Sound and Meaning from the beginning while Korea accepted them only as Sound except for a very few. This must be a noticeable difference as a relative characteristic shown in the two Bibles. It was also verified that in case of the Japanese “Meiji Translation”, the Chinese characters accepted as Meaning far exceeded those accepted as Sound. This phenomenon was reconfirmed through the comparison between “the Korean and Chinese New Testament(1906)” and the Japanese “Kunten Bible(1980)”.
  • 8.

    Co-occurrence of Time Nouns and Particle “ni” Focusing on Time Nouns Based in the Present in Korean JSL leraners.

    YASUDA KANJI | 2016, (68) | pp.163~181 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
     The present research is about the co-occurrence of time nouns and the particle ni in the Japanese output of Korean JSL learners. The paper focuses on time nouns based in the present. This research on the study of second language acquisition investigates the co-occurrence of time nouns and the particle ni in Korean JSL learners based on comparing Japanese and Korean by contrastive study. Reasons behind the learners' output are considered. It is speculated that differences in the usage of time nouns in Korean and Japanese influence the choices of the learners. Influence from practice and interlanguage are suggested as additional factors.
  • 9.

    The Effects of the Media to Narrative -Taking the "EBI(SU)-NAMASU" of "HANATARE-KOZOU-SAN" for Instance-

    大谷鉄平 | 2016, (68) | pp.183~207 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper considered the relationship between the elements of a folk story and a change or variation in media, focused on a tale left in MIYAMA-shi, Fukuoka-prefecture, whose name is "HANATARE-KOZOU-SAN, A Sniveling Boy". The writer chose four investigation methods namely: (1) To make the influence from media about "narratives by ORAL" clear by interview survey from the people who live in MIYAMA-shi. (2) To make the influence from media about "narratives by a PRINTING TYPE" clear by reading document material and historical sources including the one left only in a local (=MIYAMA-shi) library. (3) To make the influence from media about "narratives with a PRINTING TYPE + a PICTURE" clear by watching a remaining cartoon as archive material of television media. (4) To make the influence from the media about "narratives on the web" clear by reading sites made privately or publicly, using a checking function of web.
  • 10.

    A Contrastive Study of Telops in Korean and Japanese Comedy Programs -Focusing on Type Classification Analysis-

    LEE CHUNG KYU | 2016, (68) | pp.209~235 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to conduct type classification targeting telops of Korean and Japanese comedy programs and to present the similarities and differences between them with a focus on the linguistic aspects by contrasting and analyzing the results. The findings in this study are as follows: Japanese comedy programs have overwhelmingly many telops faithfully transcribing 100% what is being verbally spoken at that time while Korean comedy programs have 100% non-verbal telops completely irrelevant to the actual verbal words such as noun(phrase)・adverb・exclamation telops or root telops, inner voice telops. Based on this, telops of comedy programs in both countries can be characterized by 'speech focusing type' in Japanese and 'non verbal general-purpose type' in Korean. Also, this study can be said to be different from the previous studies in a sense that it predicts important points which have not been fully discussed in them:stem telops classified into non verbal 100 telops, e.g.“aswib(sorry)” “bangab(glad)” occur in Korean comedy programs and these involve a potential that can gain citizenship in an everyday colloquial style in the future.
  • 11.

    Perception rate of the pronunciation of the katakana word of the Japanese learner

    Lee, Hyang-Ran | 2016, (68) | pp.237~255 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    For this study, Koreans learning Japanese language were divided according their level to carry out perception rate tests on katakana pronunciation to examine the differences in perception rate in dictation test as proposed in my earlier study (2014) and the perception rate for each competence and mora (拍数). Also, factors affecting each perception rate were analyzed to contribute to education of katakana. The results of multilateral analysis and examination of the perception rate of katakana pronunciation can be summarized as follows: First, the perception rate for dictation of katakana was average 64.4% and the perception rate for the pronunciation as surveyed in this study was unexpectedly low with 53.3%. Second, similar to the results of dictation test, the lower the competence in Japanese language was, the lower the perception rate was; and the longer the mora was, the lower the perception rate was. Third, factors affecting perception rate for pronunciation include the problem of the sense of the special mora, especially the difficulty of pronouncing 「hikuon」, the phenomenon of 「sokuon」 insertion as well as the phenomenon of 「sokuon」 falling off, the difficulty of voiceless sound phenomenon of vowels, the interference of the mother tongue, the length of mora, and the problem of perceiving syllables such as 「ティ・ファ・フォ」 As discussed above, in order to reduce factors hindering perception rate in instructing katakana, the sense of the special mora should be first mastered sufficiently so that the learners reach confidence in the letters/characters and pronunciation of those words of short mora, and then the learners would be able to learn slowly the words of longer mora and words that include syllables such as 「ティ・ファフォ」
  • 12.

    A Study on Chosun Stagnation Theory by Japanese Intellectuals -focused on noncivilizaton, noneconomization, nonrationalization-

    Lee, Bok-Lim | 2016, (68) | pp.257~273 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article reviews, in terms of nonciviliaztion, noneconomization and nonrationalization, the logical reasonings by enlightment philosopher Fukuzawa Yukichi, economist Fukuda Tokuzo and literateur Shiba Ryotaro who have been selected as representatives out of the intellectuals who had advocated Chosun Stagnation Theory after Japan’s modernization. In Japanese society, it has been verified that Chosun Stagnation Theory, which had been based on ‘the theory of Escape Asia’ by Fukuzawa Yukichi and shaped up by economists including Fukuda Tokuzo, had been revived by national author Shiba Ryotaro. That is to say, the reasoning of Fukuzawa and Fukuda that 19th century Chosun was unable to get civilized on its own socially as well as economically was delivered to Shiba Ryotaro and resulted in the justification of the rationalization of Qing-Japan war, Russia-Japan war and Korea-Japan annexation. The reasoning of stagnation has been spread by historians and mass media without any filtering and Japanese distorted historical view of Korea has been succeeded. In conclusion, the Chosun Stagnation Theory by noncivilization, noneconomization and nonrationalization has been a one-sided trial in the whole system and continuous interest in the historical view of Korea by Japanese intellectuals are necessary.
  • 13.

    ‘The 1965 System’ and Its Impacts on Koreans in Japan -The Origin of Two-Sided Political Vulnerability in South Korea and Japan-

    Woongki Kim | 2016, (68) | pp.275~291 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss the reasons why Koreans in Japan have not been able to improve their social status in Japan. This thesis intends to analyze how their social status in South Korea, a divided nation overwhelming anti-communism, has imposed constraints on improving status in Japanese society. At the same time, a fact that pro-norths and pro-souths live altogether imposes political vulnerability on them. South Korean-Japanese diplomatic normalization brought Koreans in Japan logics of South Korean politics backed by anti-communism. Their loyalty toward the nation of South Korea has been endlessly doubted since both pro-Norths and pro-Souths are living altogether in Japan. From late 1970s to 1980s, many of youngsters were concocted by South Korea’s dictatorial authorities under the name of spy of North Korea. Even after South Korean society achieved democratization, diversity of political value existing in the community of Koreans in Japan has not been approved by their mother nation. This situation becomes constraints for them to assert the improvement of their social status in Japan. For the purpose of the enhancement of social status of Koreans in Japan, they should consider not only their own circumstance in Japan but also that in their mother nation.
  • 14.

    Research of 「Takasagoya(高砂や)」

    Hyeon wook Kim | 2016, (68) | pp.293~308 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    With a perspective view of Noh’s popularization, Noh ‘Takasago’ and ‘Utai’ were centrally researched in this paper based on how after the Muromachi(室町) era to the modern period accepted Noh. ‘Takasago’ is a one of the Noh pieces that have popularized throughout the Muromachi era to today. Noh has standpoint which known as an art only opened to a specific classes such as warriors. However, Noh has continued as the public entertainment, and especially ‘Utai’ was spread out to a mass culture. ‘Utai’ was first considered as basic knowledge among warriors, sooner or later it began to spread out to the public. Also, ‘Goutai’ was selected for an educational use at ‘Terakoya’ where they educated people. ‘Utai’ became popular in the entire region, and at parties or weddings participants commenced to sing a song ‘Suegen Utai’ which includes the meaning of the celebration. Even today, the Goutai ‘Takasagoya’ is a popular song at weddings. However, the Goutai ‘Takasagoya’ does not include any meaning of blessing in the song. Moreover, the song contained words such as ‘Shadow(影)’ and ‘Drift Apart(遠クナル)’. Instead, a Goutai ‘Shigainami’ included meaning of blessing and preferred to be use in any celebrational parties. Notwithstanding the meaning, why does ‘Takasago’ indicates weddings? The answer may found in the topic of Noh ‘Takasago’. Mainly, Sumiyoshi and Takasago‘s ’Aioi(相生)’ pine story, an image of a marriage couple who lived long and concorded together may reflected. After Muromachi, Noh ‘Takasago’ was found in a mass culture as the main subject. ‘Takasago’ has been a subject in ‘Utekoyagoutai engraving(寺子屋小謡図版画)’ by Utamaro(歌麿), Rakugo ‘Takasagoya(高砂や)’, Haikai(俳諧) by Dakai Kito(高井几董), and novels from Natsume Soseki(夏目漱石). Based on diffusion and fame of ‘Utai’, acceptance of Noh ‘Takasago’ in mass culture appeared.
  • 15.

    Korea recognition of intellectuals of the Meiji era - Between the tangle of "a solidarity" and "the contempt" -

    라의규 | 2016, (68) | pp.309~331 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Even now the problem concerning the Korean image is largely reflected by historical differences which produced a variety of fiction and conflict between Korea and Japan. For example, Japan’s cultural image of Korea is mainly painted as being󰡒backward󰡓and󰡒savage󰡓. A major reason for this is evident in the lack of mutual understanding that exist to date. In this way, according to Takashi Hatada, the modern image of Korea began with research by Japanese concerning the Korean image in the midst of confusion surrounding the normalization of relations between Korea and Japan. However, he claims that until present such research is merely a comparison of the Korean image appearing in Japanese publications. With this historical background in mind, I decided to explore Japan’s modern history from the Meiji restoration to the Sino-Japanese war based on the Korean image. Due to this mutual conflict of confused󰡒solidarity󰡓and󰡒contempt󰡓, it is thinkable that Japan’s distorted mentality of Korea became evident with Japan’s victory in the Sino-japanese war.
  • 16.

    Study on the Japanese Emperor’s Responsibility for War through Hideki Noda's “Pandora no Kane”

    Song, Sunho | 2016, (68) | pp.333~353 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to identify the Japanese emperor’s responsibility for war through “Pandora no Kane” published in 1999 by Hideki Noda, a playwright and director who has led the new trend of Japanese modern theater since the 1980s. This study raises questions on the nature of the problem Noda presents through his drama, which was brought to the attention of the theatrical world when it was first released in the late 1990s. It also understands what type of historical perception Japan's renowned modern playwright has. It is anticipated that exploring the critical mind and its limit regarding the emperor's war responsibility, which presents quite a political and historical idea of the playwright loved by both the Korean and Japanese theatrical circles, would help understand the social attitudes of modern Japanese theater. The immunity of the Japanese emperor from the Second World War remains a root cause of unresolved issues of past history, as well as an issue to be investigated from the modern history of Japan, Asia, and further beyond to the world. In this regard, it is right to take into consideration many Asian countries and their people, who suffered due to the war and invasion, when modern dramas are to deal with this issue. If criticism of the emperor is limited to reflect the mind of the Japanese people, it can only be understood as an expression of 'victim mentality', only to confirm the limit of the domestic view of Japan represented in the drama. In order to investigate the meaning and limitations, this study will first discuss the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, then analyze Noda Hideki's critical view of the war and the emperor's war responsibility in the body of the research.
  • 17.

    Adaptation and resistance of the overseas Chinese in the Philippines during Japanese occupation

    Dukhoon Lee | 2016, (68) | pp.355~381 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The Philippines existed under Japanese Occupation for only a short period of three-and -a half years between 1942 and 1945, yet this period did more to awaken a sense of identity and independence among the Filipino than had either the eras of Spanish colonization(1517-1898) or U.S. colonization (1898-1946). From their position as outsiders within the Philippines, the Chinese in particular acquired a distinct identity as huaqiao, citizens of the new Republic of China created with the Xinhai Revolution 0f 1911, and Japan's first invasions of China led them to participate in the movement against Japan. Though their primary emphasis as recently as the time of Sun Yat-sen's revolution had been on economic support, the Huaqiao population in the Philippines responded to Japan's occupation of the Philippines by taking up the arms to fight the invading forces. By participating in the war as residents during the Philippines's movement of crisis, they arguably took another step toward fuller assimilation into Filipino society.
  • 18.

    A Study on the School Establishment Pattern and Policy of the NIKKEIJIN Diaspora

    Youngeon Yim | Ajay K. Dubey | 2016, (68) | pp.383~403 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to analyse about school's establishment background and school typology, operation process of abroad dwelling Japanese's educational policy, Japanese dwelling Nikkeijin's educational policy, Korean dwelling Japanese's educational policy etc. The findings of this study are as follows: First, Japanese government's overseas educational facility is recognized School Education Law observance, Japanese domestic educational method observance and course of study preservation on condition. Second, Japanese School's type has Japanese group or Japanese business operations school, and there is school which Japanese domestic corporation establishes etc. Third, Educational policy of Japanese foreigners regards as temporary resident and stick to assimilationism. But it is showing social integration movement to secure public education by the latest Japanese society member. Fourth, Nikkeijin School pattern of Japanese domestic was classified by three pattern that it is experience of teacher, Japanese enterpriser, establishment of Brazil school law. In conclusion, the findings of the study suggest that Diaspora school pattern was decided in relation with group's strategy, relationship of mother country government, private purpose etc.