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2017, Vol., No.72

  • 1.

    Textual interpretation of the San Francisco Peace Treaty

    CHUNG,TAESANG | 2017, (72) | pp.5~27 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In interpreting treaties, the interpretation in accordance with the ordinary meaning of the terms of the treaty in their context is a fundamental principle, which is also specified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. In this paper, each of the terms in Article 2 (a) of the San Francisco Peace Treaty is interpreted in accordance with its ordinary meaning, and made clear to which country the Dokdo's sovereignty belongs. The emphasis is on the ordinary meaning of ‘Korea’, because Japan is required to renounce all right, title and claim to Korea. Not only by SCAPIN 677 of Contracting States, the Allied Powers, but also by Ministry of Finance's Decree No. 4(1951.2.13) and Prime Minister's Decree No. 24(1951.6.6) of the other Contracting State, Japan, 'Korea' means Korea including Dokdo. These are also visually proven by the 'SCAP Administrative Areas: Japan and South Korea' of February 1946 and the 'The Japanese Domain Reference Map'(日本領域参考図) of August 1951 respectively. In addition, I argue that criticisms are common in the previous studies of Korean scholars as well as Japanese scholars in the interpretation of Article 2 (a) of the San Francisco Peace Treaty on the terms such as 'recognizing the independence' and 'including'.
  • 2.

    Ahn Yong-bok's Cross the Sea to Japan and Contributions of His Behavior -concerning the possibility of his journey to Edo-

    Hwi-Young Song | 2017, (72) | pp.29~42 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Purpose of this paper is to reveal the reality of few points of discussions on Ulleungdo-Jaenggye with Ahn Yong-bok's behavior during the two time journey to Japan which raised the event of Takeshima Ikken problem. First, this paper review Ahn Yong-bok's trait of behavior the based on Japan materials, and secondly tried to prove the reality of receiving the official letter from Edo Bafuku during his journey to Edo which described in Sukjong-silrok of Korean official record. The distance from Tottori to Edo is about 700km and takes a month to reach. However, looking at the record of his first and second journey to Japan, there is no enough month time gap of a month, which explains no possibility of Ahn Yong-bok's journey from Tottori to Edo. So he did not receive the official letter from Edo Bafuku. However, the is a possibility of his confusion on Tottori Castle to Edo Castle. If he had received the official letter, he might have received it from Tottori Han Governor. But the historical records on his deprived letter in the record about Ahn Yong-bok in Sukjong-silrok of Korean official record. the record should be proved. It should be recommended that the research and analysis on the historical records based on Japan part is necessary with Korean part as well.
  • 3.

    An Introduction to the Music Ethnography of Nikko Shugen: With a Focus on the Analysis of Rhythm in Gomaku and Ennen

    Kawasaki, Mizuho | 2017, (72) | pp.43~63 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Nikko Shugen, one of the sects of Shugen-dō, is believed to have been introduced in Nikko from Kumano, where Kumano Shugen exists, by Benkaku Hoin, the 24th chief abbot of Mt. Nikko. In this paper, I transcribe the music of an esoteric ritual Saitō Dai Gomaku from Nikko Shugen into a musical score. Analyzing the music in Gomaku, I establish that it contains the Teketetton rhythm pattern that is a part of Sato Kagura which can be found throughout East Japan. Interestingly, the same rhythm pattern can be observed in the step rhythm of the Rinnoji temple dance, Ennen no Mai, in Nikko. In an earlier article, I proposed that this rhythm pattern is derived from the Age Byōshi rhythm pattern in the Komagaku dance music of the ancient Korean peninsula. Therefore, my analysis on the music in Nikko Shugen in this paper is an introduction to “music ethnography,” which considers not only the connection between Japanese regional music, but also the connection between music from various tribes across the world.
  • 4.

    A consideration about the meaning study by Edward Sapir - With a focus on mutual relations of the "psychology", "sense", "culture"-

    Otani, Teppei | 2017, (72) | pp.65~86 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This report explores the sociolinguistic theory of Edward Sapir (1884-1939) and the analytical method. It suggests for present-day linguistics. This report reviews the characteristics of Sapir's language theory, particularly within semantics, and confirmed the invocation possibility of a daily language phenomenon. Thus "personality" is important as is "synchronicity" and "relativity" within each culture in the semantic analysis of Sapir. Recent studies by Arima (2012) and Kato (2015) support Sapir's hypothesis. Similarly, "Association" and "motivation" are the focus of a semantic study by Ikegami (1978) each are fundamentally connected to Sapir's ideas. Finally, about the methodology of a comparison-contrast in Inoue's (2016) report is connected Sapir's analysis. The writer contends that the trial of the new methods from the point of view of multiple lenses will be make possible the building a conceptual the synchronicity between media.
  • 5.

    Contrastive Study into Up-Shifts in Non-Polite Conversation in Japanese and Korean

    Kim, Ah-Ran | 2017, (72) | pp.87~112 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines when up-shifts to polite speech appear during non-polite conversations shown in Japanese and Korean film scenes and natural conversations. The results reveal that up-shifts occur when the speaker tries to express the fact that he/she considers the utterance scene with a formal attitude and to establish psychological distance from the addressee. Although up-shifts in Japanese are presumed to increase the psychological distance between the speaker and the addressee, this study presents evidence that up-shifts can occur to create and reduce psychological distance. Japanese and Korean share common ground regarding up-shifts in FTA situations, and they function as compensation for or intensification of FTA. Korean has multiple forms of polite and non-polite speech, which complicates how up-shifts manifest themselves; however, even in Japanese, treatment and politeness of utterances are adjusted using ‘desu’ and ‘su’. Furthermore, there were several differences. In Japanese, up-shifts occur during both agreements and disagreements with the addressee’s opinions; however, up-shifts did not occur in reciprocal situations in Korean. Since Korean emphasizes the importance of age-based hierarchical relationships and this aspect is reflected in the language usage, it is suggested that up-shifts when speaking with those who are younger than the speaker might appear differently than in Japanese.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Modes of the Apostasy and the Martyrdom in the Works of Endo Shusaku

    Yook, Gun-Wha | 2017, (72) | pp.113~130 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This essay focuses on the characteristics of the modes of the apostasy and the martyrdom in the major five works(“Silence”, “The Iron Fetters”, “The Gun and the Cross”, “The Warriors”, “Deep River”) of Endo Shusaku which shows the trends of author’s thoughts and their influences on the Japanese literary history. Endo’s messages of the above works are as follows: First, no one can be defined either an apostasy or a martyr only through their behaviors since the martyr may hide his potential intention of betrayal. Second, once they have known Jesus Christ, the love relationship between them keeps going. Third, God is living existence who shows His love and care for people through their daily suffering. Fourth, human lives are interconnected one another. Fifth, every religion has the ways of perfect peace, the possibilities of salvation which is the essence of every religion. Endo’s literary thoughts are shown through all these messages in which Endo suggests the right direction of religion based on his conviction of Love of God regardless of race or any religious denomination of the world.
  • 7.

    A study on ‘Mosu’ in Ujishuimonogatari - focusing on ‘Mosu’-

    Do, Ki-Jeong | 2017, (72) | pp.131~145 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The central purpose of the current paper is to show the usage of ‘Mosu’ in the Ujishuimonogatari written in the Kamakura Period. ‘Mosu’ is a typical honorific usage of language used in the Heian Period to express politeness and respect to people with a higher status. It had been inherited to the following Kamakura Period. However, the usage of ‘Mosu’ in this period changed in a couple of respects. First, it was found that ‘Mosu’ was used in dialogues, in contrast to the Heian Period, to refer to the third person. ‘Mosu’ was also used in texts with an aim at an effect of formality.
  • 8.

    The Politics of Representaion Between Korea and Japan Around World Heritage Site -Focused on “Japan’s Meiji Industrial Revolution: Iron and Steel, Shipbuilding and Coal Mining”-

    Park, Su-Kyung | 2017, (72) | pp.147~170 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Hashima, Nagasaki is an island where Koreans were forced to work during the colonial period. The island is a World Heritage Site under the name “Japan’s Meiji Industrial Revolution: Iron and Steel, Shipbuilding and Coal Mining”(1850-1910) with the truth fading into the back. This study reflects on how hashima was chosen as a World Heritage, what meaning Japan is trying to enforce on it, and how the local reaction in Nagasaki has changed before and after the declaration. Also, this paper examines the opposition to declation hashima a heritage site from Korea. As a result, I find that Abe’s 70-years discourse, the “Meiji Glory Theory” was frequently in the intent of becoming a World Heritage site and his role model, Yoshida Shoin’s Shoka Sonjyuku was chosen as part of the heritage site.
  • 9.

    Determining the Principle of Chosun People Reformation during the Pacific War -Focusing on <Geography> the text book published by the Japanese Government-General of Korea -

    Yoo, Chul | Kim,Soon-Jeon | 2017, (72) | pp.171~190 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to find concrete facts about how the Pacific War exerted an influence on education and how these effects changed the structure of the textbook by studying the text book <Geography> before and after the outbreak of the Pacific War. Before the outbreak of the Pacific War, the <Geography> education for Chosun people was aimed at elements of civilization geography to awaken them to the world civilization and the relationship between foreign geography and Japanese geography focusing on the excellence of the powerful nations and the economic power. Most of the education aimed to acquire practical knowledge to cultivate the national spirit. However, as Japan entered the Pacific War, they made a great deal of change in content of the existing Geography textbook, and the <Geography> became the subject to educate people to become aware of the mission of the empire in East Asia and the world. Wartime Geography Textbook published in the war was not used for an education to simply teach Japanese geography as before. However, the Geography course became a wartime required course in the purpose of defense of the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere that Japan built from hostile countries and the security education to recognize Chosun people hostility toward the US. Therefore, the War promoted participation of the war and generated a hostility to enemy countries. As the national system that is faithful to the militarism and the chauvinism policy appropriate to a war footing is reflected in the wartime educational policy, at the time, it had a great impact on the compilation of geography textbooks.
  • 10.

    Chinese and Japanese cultures in the view of creativity and acceptance -Focusing on central culture transfer before China's reform from the 1978-

    Li, Hong-Liang | 2017, (72) | pp.191~211 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Cultural creation is philosophically a human activity to create a cultural value. The perspective of cultural creation provides the exact lens through which a nation’s cultural creativity tendency or acceptance inclination can be judged. This article discusses traditional cultural characteristics in the context of confucianism-centered cultural development both in China and Japan from the view of cultural creation. I find that: (i) at least before modern times, Chinese culture (traditional Chinese culture) is characterized by a strong cultural creativity tendency but Japanese culture by a strong acceptance inclination; (ii) consistent with such a historical background of central culture migration in the cultural circle of East Asia, I mean that traditional Chinese culture and western culture should be integrated to further adapt to the trend of globalization in the creation of new culture in line with the development of China.
  • 11.

    Japan's negative interest rate policy and its influence on markets

    Choi, Sung-Baig | 2017, (72) | pp.213~232 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Prof. Joseph Eugene Stiglitz shows worry that quantitative easing providing the money on the market or negative interest rate policy to escape recession might bring about widening of inequality and weakening of the banking system so that it might have a negative impact on small businesses and small traders. Negative interest policy has a positive respect of the activation of the domestic economy, while it cannot exclude the possibility of bubble such as capital inflow into real estate. Practically shortly after negative interest was executed, Tokyo Stock Exchange's real estate investment trust index continued to rise. Secondly, due to deposit interest rate cut of Post Bank with Japan's largest deposits, it is likely that it affects other banks. It is a matter of alarming situation of bankruptcy because of bad profitability of commercial banks. Thirdly, it seems a weak yen would have limited effect. Immediately following the introduction of negative interest, there occurred long-term interest rate fall, stock price ascent and the drop in the exchange rate in the domestic market of Japan. Especially, it was difficult to expect yen's real interest rate decrease supposed to be a driving force for a weak yen. At present Japan's long-term interest rates dropped by 0.1 percent and the capacity of nominal interest rate decrease is limited. It is a different situation from 1.4% of German’s interest rates when introduced negative interest. Fourthly, it seems there will be a huge impact on domestic financial institutions.