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2018, Vol., No.78

  • 1.

    The secondary education system and Japanese language education in Korea and Taiwan during Japanese rule

    song sookjeong | 2018, (78) | pp.5~22 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we compared the secondary education systems in Korea and Taiwan to grasp the educational purpose and the essence of colonial education prescribed by the governor-general of Korea and the governor-general of Taiwan while those countries were under Japanese rule. We found that despite the fact that Korea and Taiwan were under Japanese rule at the same time, there were considerable differences in terms of education. In Taiwan, which came under Japanese rule more than fifteen years earlier than Korea, the system of secondary education was settled in 1915, more than twenty years after the beginning of Japanese rule. In Korea, entrance difficulties for secondary education were intense and refinement departments were activated, whereas in Taiwan, it was found that co-education with Japanese was carried out earlier than in Korea because of measures to control studying abroad. In the case of bilingual education, in Taiwan, after the Second Taiwanese Education Ordinance, cooperative learning with Japanese people has been permitted and textbooks have been unified since 1937. Compared with Korea, which implemented autonomous language education, it was easy to expand the colonial language policy pursued by the general government. As a result, although the Korean penetration rate of the national language remained at 17.6% in 1941, it exceeded 57% in Taiwan, finally reaching 71% in 1944. From this, it can be inferred that Japanese language education in Taiwan was a major effect of the “assimilation” policy accompanying the unification of the school system.
  • 2.

    Japanese Language Course as an Elective Unit in University - Case Study of K University in Daegu Metropolitan City -

    Cho, Eun-Young | 2018, (78) | pp.23~42 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to look into the current status of a Japanese language course at K University in Daegu and to provide suggestions for improvement. I examined the classes of the ‘-Daily Japanese Communication-’ (DCU) unit and its teaching methods, textbooks, students’ presentations, and class division per level. The results are as follows. (1) The three textbooks used in the DCU at K University showed some differences in terms of structure, goal, and vocabulary. An appropriate textbook for each class should be selected in accordance with the level of students and goals based on discussions among instructors. (2) The problem-solving-oriented practice was more effective than practice based on textbook content. The problem-solving activities were provided in Korean, but students were instructed to attempt the questions and answers in Japanese with results to be presented in front of the class. (3) For cultural items in which students showed more interest, in-depth introductions were far more effective than quick overviews. It is recommended that teachers introduce what is interesting to the students by having a preparatory research session. (4) Beginner-level students showed more interest in dividing the class by level than advanced-level ones. It is recommended that classes be divided according to students’ proficiency level based on discussions among instructors before structuring the course so as not to overwhelm beginners.
  • 3.

    BON Festival of a certain farmhouse - Moving to the city and preserving traditional culture -

    Kuraishi, Mito | 2018, (78) | pp.43~59 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Currently in Japan, there is strong encouragement from the government for people to move to the countryside, including the depopulated areas far from the city. However, there are still are many people who want to move to the cities, especially Tokyo, where diverse people gather and live. Most new cultural developments begin in “the cities,” where city culture is intermixed with various traditional cultures, urbanization, and urban folklore. City culture is changed by people living in the city and new city culture comes from people with a range of various traditional cultural backgrounds, but until now it has been unclear how much they have brought and preserved of their own cultures. This paper studies a family (the T family) from M village in Nagano and compares what and how much changed in the way they celebrated their Bon Festival after they moved to Tokyo. It also compares the role of the family during Bon. In studies of city folklore, not much research has focused on how country people moving to the city changes their traditional cultures due to a change in living environment. For this study, I focused on one event and reported each family member’s actual situation before and after moving, including the family’s change in consciousness of their roles.
  • 4.

    WusanMureun of the annals of King Sejong -Yodo of rumors-

    Kwon,O-Yub | kwon hyuk-sung | 2018, (78) | pp.61~80 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    King sejong led it, while participating in the world sect repairing and editing late authentic records, including the "History of Goryo." King sejong also edited "Geography - the eight provinces of Korea" and confirmed that Wusando island and Mureungdo island existed in original eastern sea. For the world sect, the rumorof the existence of Yodo island, in addition to these two islands, was unusual. I worked to confirm the substance of this rumor for 16 years but was unable to do so; this was, in fact, an accurate result, since Yodo island did not exist. King Sejong ended the fruitless effort to identify Yodo island, but it was clearly confirmed that two islands called Wusando and Mureungdo existed in the original eastern sea. Therefore, the Korean dynasty is grounded on the recognized existence of two islands and should interpret the records of the original eastern sea based on both the Korean record and the “Geography of King Sejong.” I first interpret the “WusanMureung islands” as one island, not two, and then propose that the claim that early Korea did not know about the existence of Wusando island is inconsistent.
  • 5.

    The "Danchotei-Nichijou" Diary and City Traffic -focusing on Tokyo, before the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923-

    Tokoro, Yumi | 2018, (78) | pp.81~95 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines how the image of the train as it appears throughout Kafu Nagai's thirty-volume diary, Danchotei-Nichijou (1917-1959) provides an apt commentary on the appearance of Tokyo from the beginning to the Great Kant? Earthquake of 1923. First, he writes of the state of urbanization and suburbanization along with the expansion and improvement of the routes along the round trip, in contrast to the entry in "Sun Riding," which describes factories and rental houses in a disorderly, muddy, dirty landscape. Second, when he describes the appearance of a cool evening on the outer moat line, he gives us a foretaste of the later "Refrigerator Train," and similar vehicles to come, while making it clear that in the next year, maintenance and round-trip double tracking are signs of the future. Third, although "Sunflower" provides an excellent record of Tokyo at the time, the expression of the self's standard, the vertical axis, is more noticeable than the description of the occurrence of scenes and events, the horizontal axis. In "Ryuko," the horizontal axis holds meaning for the argument of the vertical axis. From the survey of this time, the above three points were confirmed.
  • 6.

    A study on sociocultural characteristics of Korean and Japanese students studying English in the Philippines

    Jung Geun Ha | 2018, (78) | pp.97~122 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study compared the experiences of Japanese and Korean students learning English in the Philippines. It found that the Japanese students tended to be overwhelmed by cultural differences that affected their focus on learning the language. They expressed discomfort with the Filipino lifestyle (e.g., locals not using toilet tissue, eating with their hands, exotic foods, etc.), inconsistency in the teaching ability of Filipino teachers, and seeming lack of hygienic awareness of Filipino cooks at the dormitory. Overall, the Japanese reported that the Filipino culture they experienced by means of Philippines tourism changed the aim of their language training from “enhancement of English proficiency” to “returning to Japan as a healthy person.” Japanese students cited their inability to control the environment and protect their health as the main reasons they could not stay in the Philippines for longer than three months. In contrast, the Korean students were more focused on improving their English proficiency and were able to set aside concerns about food or hygiene. They reported concerns about the English pronunciations and inconsistent teaching abilities of the Filipino teachers, especially since Korea considers Filipino English to be peripheral or non-standard English and not of the caliber spoken in the inner circle (United States, England, Canada, and Australia). Korean students cited their concerns about the quality of the English language training as the main reason they could not stay in the Philippines for longer than three months.
  • 7.

    China-related articles in Japanese general interest magazines after the end of the Cold War

    Zheng, Lin | 2018, (78) | pp.123~138 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study focuses on China-related articles of general interest magazines published after the end of the Cold war between 1993 and 2012. Three magazines covered China-Japan relations as a featured topic. This study investigated how the differences in political leanings and tone of magazine influenced their coverage. The study classified the magazines as left-wing(Sekai), centrist (Chūōkōron), and right-wing (Bungeishunjū). In Japan, the mass media purport to strive for objectivity and fairness in all coverage, but the contrasts found among these three magazines’ coverage of the same topic suggests that this is not always reality.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Ethnic Newspapaers of Zainichi Koreans in postwar Japan -Focusing on the Mindan Shimbun and Minshu Shimbun -

    Eom, Ki-Kweon | Lee, Gyeong-Gyu | 2018, (78) | pp.139~152 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the state of the media activities of Zainichi Koreans in postwar Japan, focusing on Mindan Shimbun and Minshu Shimbun published by Mindan in postwar Japan. Among the many newspapers published by Zainichi Koreans in postwar Japan, the Mindan Shimbun actively criticized the newspapers of Choren in their publications and expanded their readership by establishing the identity of the newspaper. The Mindan Shimbun, published by Mindan, seems to have tried to secure a variety of writers and readers without resorting to the claims of certain states, while the newspaers of Choren strongly ruled out the “pro-Japanese and rightists”. The Mindan Shimbun dated October 25, 1947 was the last of the 20th issue. Park Jun, who was in charge of editing and publishing the Mindan Shimbun, pointed out that Mindan Shimbun, “Mindan,” offered misleading preconceptions in various ways, and that the readership was also limited to some extent. He further stated that the future should extended and the readership expanded. This allegation by Park Jun changed his name to “Minshu Shimbun”, which was followed by a reissue from November 11, 1947.
  • 9.

    Observations on Nichigo Shōkei (1895) in Korea’s Enlightenment Period

    HWANG WOON | 2018, (78) | pp.153~168 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the characteristics of the Japanese language education in the Korean Enlightenment Period with a focus on the Nichigo Shōkei(1895), one of the underexamined materials in the previous studies on the Japanese language education. Publications of the Japanese language manuals during the Enlightenment Period are generally known as business-oriented practical handbooks for self-study. The similar interest in studying the Japanese language can be seen from the Nichigo Shōkei (1895): e.g., the names of currency in Japan and Korea or trade in goods and cash. However, it is also evident from the Preface and a few examples in the manual that Kanazawa, the author, alludes Japanese as a language to ‘enlighten’ Joseon. In addition, his transcription of Korean as well as accounts of particles indicate that the author probably had a profound knowledge of the Korean language. Unfortunately, little is known about Kanazawa’s career in Korean language education. Even though Kanazawa stayed in Korea on and off over 10 years for his work, it is doubtable that a Japanese whose career was entirely in commerce could write a language manual. In this regard, it is possible to conjecture that a note ‘pyeonja-sik’ in the Preface might refer Kanazawa as an editor, rather than the author of this manual. Considering the fact that Kanazawa worked for a publisher as well as the unusual division of this book in two parts seem to increase the possibility of the role of Kanazawa in the production of this book as an editor.
  • 10.

    A brief overview of medicine culture described in Ukiyozoushi

    Koh, Young-Ran | 2018, (78) | pp.169~185 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study focused on the medicine culture described in Ukiyozoushi, the public literature of the Edo era. The works of Ihara Saikaku and his followers, in particular, describe the medicine culture of the time, indicating that the medicine culture of the late 17th century through the 18th century was understood and shared as public culture in Japan. Thus, the authors describe such medicine culture in the form of chōnin (町人) anecdotes. First, many names of medicines, medical instruments, and pharmacies are described in Ukiyozoushi works. Furthermore, some literary rhetoric of medicine on chōnin daily life and management is included, also. We can therefore understand how medicine culture in those days spread in chōnin daily life. Second, medicine culture, as described in the Ukiyozoushi was related to love affairs, long life, and money, indicating that these aspects were at the core of chōnin interests at the time and tended to affect public literature of the late Edo era.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Proper Nouns in the Kotobagaki of the Poems of the Four Seasons in Kokinwakashu: A Fragment of the Characteristics of the Kotobagaki of Kokinwakashu

    Mizutani, Takashi | 2018, (78) | pp.187~208 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The kotobagaki (prefatory prose statements) for the 31-syllable Japanese poems of the four seasons in Kokinwakashu contain a lot of proper nouns, some of which seem to be unrelated to comprehending the meaning of the poems themselves. These proper nouns can be divided into two groups: utamakura (place names with allegorical resonance) and the names of the royal family members or places in the court. With utamakura, there are a lot of cases where the poets compose poems not only by directly observing scenery but also by imagining the scenery without actually going there. Utamakura were used in the kotobagaki for the poems of the four seasons to indicate whether the poet actually viewed a scene or created it from imagination, and it is supposed that readers of Kokinwakashu gained a greater appreciation for the poems knowing whether they depicted actual or imaginary scenes. However, no such enhanced appreciation comes from including the names of royal family members and places in the court it is supposed surmise that the editors of Kokinwakashu wrote kotobagaki asaway of reporting to the Throne in order to inform the emperor, the first reader of Kokinwakashu, whether a poem concerned the emperor—even if such information was not necessary to understand the poem.
  • 12.

    Composition of Harutsugedori : Focusing on sequence and advertising

    choi tae wha | 2018, (78) | pp.209~221 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Very little research has focused on the twentieth-century ninjōbon(young romance) novel Harutsugedori. The present paper reports the result of research on the configuration and ideas of Harutsugedori that have not been discussed in previous studies. As long as it was aligned for each main character pair, Harutsugedori was a novel that could have a stable composition. However, Tamenaga Shunsui had a scene placement of “ShunsuiFormulas ” that thoroughly mixed each story, as if applying a mathematical formula. Further, in Harutsugedori, a product placement (PPL) was added for the doll maker Izumi Mekichi, but it matched the content enough to affect not only the propaganda but also the composition of the novel. To sum up, the doll of Izumi Mekichi serves not just to advertise, but also to convey the true heart of Uusugumo thinking of Chogato readers. In Harutsugedori, the technique of “Shunsui Formulas” that Shunsui used to gain popularity with readers was used in the completed form. Self-esteem is a strong motif in the novel. Harutsugedori was also a manifesto to communicate widely Shunsui’s ninjōbon policies and the “Shunsui Formulas.”
  • 13.

    Miyuki Miyabe "Kasha" Theory -Healing process of 'solitude' caused by 'unfair fate'-

    Kang, Ji-Yun | 2018, (78) | pp.223~237 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Miyuki Miyabe's Feature novel "Kasha" is a masterpiece of the writer who became a topic not only in Japan but also in Korea. In this paper, we examined various aspects of "loneliness" appearing in the work. Shunsuke Honma who lives a solitary life by "unfair fate" pursues the trace of Shinzyo Kyoko trying to escape from "unfair fate" as well. In the process Honma takes the posture of "empathy" and "understanding" for Kyoko's lonely life. In addition, Honma "projects" the fundamental solitude lurking in his unconscious into the lonely life of Kyoko. This will feel the same texture as her and you will seek "communication" with her. Also, by encountering various people who meet in the process of following the traces of Kyoko, Honma's understanding spreads further. This kind of process confronts Honma's loneliness in himself, noticing the need for understanding and communication of others' loneliness, which is a catalyst for Honma. Therefore, it can be said that this work suggests the possibility of being able to cure the loneliness of people in contemporary capitalist competition society through "sympathy", "understanding" and "communication".
  • 14.

    “Sasameyuki” Theory -the culture that be destroying-

    Kang, Ji-Yoon | 2018, (78) | pp.239~253 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper studies Junichiro Tanizaki’s novel “Sasameyuki (The Makioka Sisters)”. I aimed to reread texts that were described as works depicting the elegant everyday life of the Sisters of the “Makioka family” focusing on context. In consideration of that events before the time depicted in the story of texts were described as the important points, this paper focused on the changings of the Makioka family after the death of the sister’s father. Tatsuo, an adopted son-in-law who became the new family head, transfers to another person their office in Senba “which makes a boast of the past from the Tokugawa period.” A main house in Uehonmachi was destroyed by Tatsuo transferred to Tokyo. The Makioka Family in context of texts became a different household from the Makioka family when the sister’s father was alive. “Sasameyuki” is progressing with the event of Yukiko(the third daughter)’s marriage proposal as the axis, but Tatsuo who should deal with the Yukiko’s marriage proposal as the family head of the Makioka Family, becomes the author who destroys the Makioka Family. Teinosuke who becomes a guardian instead of Tatsuo is still in a position to deny the Makioka family, so the story of the marriage proposal of Yukiko has to be read as being different from the past. By considering the "Makioka family" as a changeable subject rather than as a confirmed existence, a new reading different from the previous analysis becomes possible.
  • 15.

    A Study of the Sociocultural State of Japan after the Lost War -Focusing on the later works of Osamu Dazai-

    Kim, Kyung-Sook | 2018, (78) | pp.255~275 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine the sociocultural state of Japan and Japanese people’s consciousness after the lost war, using the literary works of Japanese representative writer Osamu Dazai. Dazai’s works of the time describe a chaotic society, in which the new paradigm of western democracy, liberalism, and individualism was dependently formed by General Headquarters (GHQ). Against the new power of GHQ, Dazai tried to express the identity of Japan by supporting the Emperor as the essence and symbol of Japanese history. In addition, the characters appearing in Dazai’s works tend to recognize their mistakes, have a moral sense of responsibility, and contribute to the whole of Japan without egoism, thereby obtaining “ethical freedom.” Dazai considered these characters to be cultured men who were appropriate for the new age, because he believed them to be capable of “realizing political freedom,” as pointed out by Masao Maruyama.
  • 16.

    A study on Recognization of Colonial Taiwan a dependant territory and the japanese magazine Shohu by Taihoku Higher School -focusing on Taiwan Representation by Japanese-

    Kim Wook | 2018, (78) | pp.277~293 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines how representation of Taiwan by Japanese Empire unfolded in and around Taihoku Higher School, the first higher educational institution in Taiwan. In the transitional period of Colonial Taiwan, the Japanese Government General of Taiwan made efforts to change representation of the Taiwanese as a pre-modern civilization by dividing them into two groups – the Main Island people (Han Chinese) and the Aboriginal people (natives) - in order to embrace Han Chinese Main Island people. However, as the Taiwan Assimilation Association asserted Taiwanese rights and started campaigns for improved recognition of Taiwan, which the Government General could not accept, these efforts proved to be problematic as a colonial policy. For that reason, the authorities made efforts to make Taiwan a dependent territory of Japanese Empire such as establishing higher educational institution, based on the ‘mainland extensionalism’, for more effective colonial government. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the changes in recognition of Colonial Taiwan through text analysis of the Japanese language magazine Shohu of Taihoku Higher School. As a result, despite advocacy of Liberalist educational policies of Tadasu Misawa, the Principal, there were limitations, with the existence of Taiwanese people being hidden in Taiwan’s evolving appearance, which was clearly revealed through literary works of Tadao Kano and Soichi Yoshi.
  • 17.

    Naoki Hyakuta’s The Eternal Zero and A Man Called Pirate

    Roh Yoon Seon | 2018, (78) | pp.295~315 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Since the 2000s, a number of Japanese works in different genres, such as literature, films, and animations, have presented right-leaning views that mirror the nation’s conservative swing of politics that started in the 1990s. This paper considers the historical and ethical perspectives of two literary works by Naoki Hyakuta, who gained huge popularity by creating several conservative-oriented works as part of this cultural and artistic movement. In 2006, Hyakuta published The Eternal Zero, the story of Kamikaze pilots in the Second World War; he became a best-selling author when it sold about 5.5 million copies in Japan alone. After that, he created many other works. This paper reviews Hyakuta’s literary works of the 2000s, by understanding the historical and ethical perspectives in his works, which tend to rationalize the Japanese wars and colonial rule of the past.
  • 18.

    Literature of Korean Residents in Japan: An Analysis of Haebang Shinmun from September 1952 to December 1953

    Oh, Eun-Young | 2018, (78) | pp.317~344 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Haebang Shinmun (September 1952 to December 1953), a bulletin of Chongryon[総連], serialized the works of Koreans who moved to North Korea from South Korea and who resided in Japan. Compared to the bulletins of Mindan[民団], Haebang Shinmum paid more attention to Korean language education, literature, and culture, which provided the conditions necessary for the growth of Korean novelists residing in Japan. At the time, this bulletin had a high ratio of articles on cultures, especially those of the Korean peninsula and Japan. This means that it emphasized cultural aspects more than the bulletins of Mindan did. There were social articles that encouraged the support of women’s activities under the slogan of gender equality. Such ideas appeared in literary works in the bulletin. Female main characters actively fighting for their country and organization were depicted in the novels, poems, and essays written by Koreans who moved to North Korea and Korean residents in Japan. They also depicted a divide between Minjeon[民戦] and Koreans who committed themselves to national education. The Koreans who moved to the north and Korean residents in Japan enjoying great success in the fields of poetry, essays, and novels; in the backdrop of this was North Korea’s literacy education and language policy. It seems that the movements in North Korea greatly affected Koreans in Japan. This influence led to the growth of contemporary literature of Korean residents in Japan, and Haebang Shinmun played a big role in that process.
  • 19.

    The function of code-switching in Japanese native speakers residing in Korea

    Matsuki, Ryoko | 2018, (78) | pp.345~362 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Japanese native speakers living in South Korea use both the Korean and Japanese languages in Japanese conversations. This study examined Japanese-Korean code switching, focusing mainly on its functional aspects. The survey was conducted on 20 Japanese native speakers living in South Korea and the analysis was made based on free conversations. We found that one function of code-switching is emphasis, and this study found that speakers frequently engaged in code-switching when they wanted to elaborate on or emphasize the meaning of what they were saying. We also discovered more functions of code switching: making the conversation seem like it was happening in the presence ; making it easier to distinguish objective facts from subjective opinions; and creating a sense of solidarity with other people by using a combination of Korean and Japanese words. Overall, we found that Japanese people who speak Korean as a foreign language effectively used certain Korean words or phrases in free conversation primarily when they felt it would be more accurate to express a thought in Korean than in Japanese. It also helped to enhance a bond between speakers sharing the same cultural and living conditions.
  • 20.

    Modality usage of catchphrases on shopping site -A comparative study of Korea-Japan through comparisons by product group-

    KWAK EUN SIM | 2018, (78) | pp.363~377 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we researched the catchphrases of Korean and Japanese shopping sites; and compared and analyzed the modalities expressed by product group. As a result, the following points were clarified. 1) Group A:In Korea, all modalities are used, including high, medium, and low, in the degree of demand for purchasing behavior. In Japan, advertisers appeal to consumers in a "modest" low to medium manner. 2) Group B:Group B uses a variety of modalities more than Group A. Even in Japan, where medium-level expressions are preferred, strong [commands] and weak [judgments] are also used, indicating that the advertising is attempting to convey product information and messages to consumers in a more diversified manner. 3) Group C:Only [declarations] is commonly used. Korea has a remarkably high usage rate of [hearsay]. In the case of Japan, the high percentage of products involved in the [invitations] and [wishes] are used, and therefore, the advertising strategies are the same regardless of the nature of the products. 4) Group D:In addition to [declarations] in Korea, [questions] are used. Advertising seeks a positive response from users or indirectly requests the execution of an action, while providing information to the user. In Japan, only [invitations] are shown, and by pretending to invite users as if they were friends, advertisers employ strategies to weaken the impulsive nature of their demands for purchasing behavior and to appeal to consumers in a friendly manner.
  • 21.

    A Study on the Lexical Analysis of Various Meanings in Japanese and Korean Verbs -Focusing on the Words of “Asobu” and “Nolda”-

    Kim Do-Eun | 2018, (78) | pp.379~396 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzes the changes in the meaning of the polysemous Japanese word ‘Asobu’ and its corresponding Korean word ‘Nolda’ both of which means ‘Asobu’ in terms of the meaning relations between intransitive and transitive verb; Ga-case noun and verb; Wo-case noun and verb; and Ni-case noun and verb. ‘Asobu’ used as an intransitive verb, affects not only a movement (=action) and a non-volitional state of ‘a person’ but also a non-volitional movement and state of ‘a living thing ’, which is not a person, as well as the state of ‘a thing’, or an inanimate object, which is neither a person or a living thing. ‘Asobu’ is in the Wo-case when it is used in phases with a spatial noun as in ‘playing to somewhere’ and becomes an intransitive movement verb in the Wo-case as in ‘going to somewhere, walking, flying’. But Kitahara Yasuo (2011) expressed an opinion that was different from the existing position of Japanese dictionaries that if a word ‘Asobu’ meaning the same as the word ‘Enjoy’ is considered a transitive verb. In Korean usage, the expression ‘in a temple’ with a Ni-case noun are often used together with ‘study abroad’, ‘learn’ and ‘pray’, while in Japanese usage, the Japanese expression corresponding to ‘in a temple’ is often used together with a direct expression as in ‘worship in a shrine (temple).’
  • 22.

    A usage-based study contrasting Japanese kedo and Korean nuntey : Frequency of their co-occurring forms

    Kim, Joung-Min | 2018, (78) | pp.397~413 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the frequency of Japanese kedo and Korean nuntey paying attention to co-usage frequencies and their relation to predicate types and modalities. The results of this study are summarized as follows. (I) Distribution of kedo and nuntey in each occurrence position Kedo: Interclausal positions > utterance-final positions Nuntey: Interclausal positions < utterance-final positions (II) Preference for co-occurrence with predicates and modalities Kedo: Verbs > adjectives > modalities > nouns Nodakedo:Verbs > modalities > nouns > adjectives Nuntey (interclausal position):Verbs > nouns> modalities > adjectives> existential verbs> wh-questions Nuntey (utterance-final position):Verbs> modalities > nouns > wh-questions > adjectives≧ existential verbs (Ⅲ) Modality types as co-occurring with kedo and nuntey Kedo:Epistemic modality (e.g, -to omou ) was most frequently used. Nuntey:In addition to epistemic modality, deontic modality was frequently attested in Korean.
  • 23.

    Status of Ethnic Korean Schools as JSL Educational Institutes for Children: Literature Review about Significance and Roles

    Yeo, Dong-Ki | 2018, (78) | pp.415~428 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    With more people from other countries moving to Japan, there are an increasing number of children who need to learn Japanese as a second language (JSL). Basic competence in Japanese is a prerequisite for education in Japan, but there are problems with concentrating on Japanese language education without consideration for mother-tongue education; with regard to language instruction for JSL children, teaching in both Japanese and the mother tongue are important. However, due to practical and administrative issues, it is currently difficult to achieve this. Against this backdrop, there has been much recent attention focused on ethnic schools among the Korean schools, which enroll large numbers of JSL children and simultaneously provide instruction in both Japanese and a non-Japanese language (hereinafter referred to as Korean ethnic schools). Korean ethnic schools are a form of JSL educational institutions forchildren, which can provide guidance on some of the urgent issues in the current Japanese education system.
  • 24.

    Japanese ‘National Language’ and dictionary in modern times

    Hyung, Jin-I | 2018, (78) | pp.429~446 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    『kotoba no umi』 was started by Ministry of Education in Meiji 8th year. But, in conclusion, it was completed by Otsuki Humihiko alone. In early stage of Meiji, there was no concept of ‘National Language’, but 『kotoba no umi』 became the base of modern ‘National Language’ in editing way and organization. 『kotoba no umi』 is considered as the base of ‘National Language’ because, first, 『kotoba no umi』 is a dictionary of everyday language. it includes words general people are using daily, not professional words. It’s modern ideology of equity education. Second, it was organized by Pronunciation, Part of speech, Derivation, Definition, Reference, and Noah Webster in reference of dictionary. Webster made norms of American English through dictionary, grammar, spelling, etc. Otsuki Humihiko can be evaluated similarly. Third, the dictionary was editted based on grammar. Especially, it focuses on grammar of colloquial language. Fourth, it used ‘GOJUON sequence’, not ‘IROHA sequence’ that is traditional way of Japan, so that anybody can find lots of information easily.