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2018, Vol., No.79

  • 1.

    The Asakawa Brothers’ and Yanagi Muneyoshi’s Understanding of Korean Traditional Culture in the Colonial Period ―Focusing on their early activity―

    Lee, Sang-Jin | 2018, (79) | pp.5~31 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzes the Asakawa Brothers’and Yanagi Muneyoshi’s theories of Korean traditional culture in colonial Korea, to investigate the process of their research and the content of their writings, and to examine the characteristics of their views of Korean and its traditions. The Asakawa Brothers’and Yanagi Muneyoshi traveled in Korea in 1916 and recognized “unique beauty” in Korean traditional culture, which was closely connected to the lives of the Korean people. In 1924, they established the National Folk Museum of Korea in Seoul to preserve and transmit this beauty. In this study, I argue that their strong will and conviction are manifested in the “beauty of harmony” and “beauty of intimacy” of Korean traditional culture that they sought as they established the National Folk Museum of Korea, which was the fruit of their union.
  • 2.

    The phenomenon of non-maritalization of modern Japanese women seen through the movie - Sue, Mai & Sawa: Righting the Girl Ship -

    Lee, Yoon-Ju | 2018, (79) | pp.33~52 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines situations and social factors regarding non-married women from the analysis of a Japanese movie. Based on a woman’s comic book, the movie Sue, Mai & Sawa: Righting the Girl Ship sends a strong message, drawing on a complex issue of present-day Japanese society, especially in the lives and relationships of the petit bourgeoisie. The declining populations and the increase of one-person households in modern Japan clearly show that an age of non-marriage has arrived with the a perception that marriage is a burden and a risk. Moreover, Japan’s conservative family values, which only acknowledges births stemming from legal marital relationships serves as impulses that triggers population decline. Unstable employment, the conservative tendency of family structure, and the dilemma between work and home, which have long been a part of Japanese society, consist of the a mechanism that increases the populations including “the ratio of a lifetime without marriage.” The movie addresses the structural problems of Japanese society. It mentions the problem of family care and highlights the manner in which non-married persons become responsible for elderly care. In addition, it calls into question the non-maritalization of women as a fundamental reason for the low birth rate, when considering the causes of this problems. The film conveys the message that a time has come when a new paradigm should be constructed concerning family structure, indirectly mentioning the current structural vicious circle.
  • 3.

    Reconsideration of the US’s Pressure on Japan and the Yoshida Line’s Cooperative Diplomacy with the US

    Nameun Kim | 2018, (79) | pp.53~71 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The most important issue in Japan's postwar diplomacy is whether Japan chooses to be "cooperative" or "autonomous" American pressure. Although these two tendencies do not always appear consistently, the "cooperation" route characterized Japanese diplomacy, and its spirit has been passed down as the Yoshida Line. However, Yoshida Line attaches importance to America's "cooperation" more than to anything else, trying to escape from an unequal relationship with the United States. In other words, the policy sought "independence" even though it was "formally autonomous" in the framework of "cooperation" with the United States. For Yoshida Shigeru to realize the peace treaty promptly, and Hayato Ikeda to develop relations with the United States as an equal partner, Eisaku Sato developed the Japan-US cooperative route to realize the return of Okinawa. In this way, it can be said that "cooperation" and "autonomy" are complementary and form a front-back relationship of the same act in Japan's postwar diplomacy.
  • 4.

    A Study on EKIBEN fair

    Kim, Young-Soon | 2018, (79) | pp.73~87 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focused on the features and history of the ‘Ekiben fair’, which is a characteristic sales method that had a great influence on the positioning of Ekiben as food culture. Ekiben has developed as a food culture based on local specialty products, railway transportation, and for traveling. ‘Ekiben fair’ has supported the development of Ekiben in the dynamic change since the 1960s, by its innovative selling methods. It also affects permanent sales at the station. Manufacturers moved away from the base station, changed sales base to department stores in urban areas, reinforced the event nature, and advanced about 50 years, mainly in the three major fairs. In the 2010s, revitalization of "station" as the station base for selling Ekiben, promotion of in-station business development is progressing. However, even though it returned to the original railway station, it shifted to a sales form that sells some famous Ekiben at major stations throughout the country. It is difficult to expect roles like the original Ekiben, which will lead to travel and regional tourism promotion. It also has changed the image of Ekiben as well as the food of "everyday" from "special" food. As the sales base tends to shift to the main station from the ‘Ekiben fair’, the identity of Ekiben and its features are questioned again. In terms of the sales method of intensively dealing with places where crowded by people, it is common with the Ekiben fair, but it is characterized by diverse event-like elements such as demonstration sale and ranking held several times a year. It may be hard to expect rarity, topicality, and enjoyment as an event of Ekiben that was held at the ‘Ekiben fair’
  • 5.

    The gaze on Korean Japanese represented in the movie “That’s the light in the port” directed by Imai Tadashi

    Park, Dong-Ho | 2018, (79) | pp.89~107 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Imai Tadashi is a great master of Japanese Neorealism known for his anti-war and post-democracy Japanese films. Ironically, at the end of the Japanese colonial era, he directed two nationally-run films with Korean director Choi, In-Gyu, which instigated Joseon people to participate in the war through the Japanese imperialistic policy. Imai Tadashi regretted this as “the biggest mistake he had committed,” and he treated Joseon and Joseon people as important motifs in various post-war films. His repentant attitude was best reflected in the movie ‘That’s the light in the port,’ which is based on the case of ‘Syngman Rhee Line.’ This movie played a leading role in revealing the identity issues of second generation Korean Japanese and is considered the most remarkable work for studying the representation of Korean Japanese in post-war Japanese films. Accordingly, I studied the viewpoints on Korean Japanese presented in this movie. I compared different images of Korean Japanese based on social conscience and educational movies of the same age as this film. Based on the issue of Syngman Rhee Line and the social discourse regarding Korean Japanese, I analyzed how this film represented the Korean Japanese who were forced to live as “border riders,” not being able to have either Korean or Japanese identities. This work helps understand the life and history of Korean Japanese who have lived through discriminative Japan society. It also sheds new light on Imai Tadashi who is known as the director of nationally-run films of the colonial era.
  • 6.

    Asai Ryoi's acceptance of moralistic culture in the Late Ming Dynasty of China —Focusing on Yan Maoyou’s Tekkitsuroku—

    Dong, Hang | 2018, (79) | pp.109~127 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Chinese Zensho, which means Chinese common moralistic books, were creatively rebuilt by intellectuals in Early Modern Japan; their arrival during this period resulted in a kind of “mainlandization” that had an impact on subsequent cultures. Asai Ryoi, born circa 1691, was a highly renowned author of Kanazōshi in the field of national literature—with a focus in modern literature—and a Buddhist monk of Jodo Shinshu Otani-ha. It has been acknowledged that Zensho Tekkitsuroku, written by the moralistic philosopher Yan Maoyou (1578-1637) in the Late Ming Dynasty of China, was accepted by Ryoi and adopted in his admonitory book Kanninki and itinerant novel Ukiyomonogatari. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss how Maoyou’s moralistic thought and Tekkitsuroku had an influence on Ryoi’s Kanazōshi, as well as provide evidence that illuminates Ryoi’s accepting attitude toward Chinese Zensho in the Late Ming Dynasty of China. The paper is organized in the following manner: first, I will outline the characteristics of Maoyou’s moralistic thought and introduce the composition of Tekkitsuroku; second, I will elucidate the reception of Tekkitsuroku in Ryoi’s books, Kanninki and Ukiyomonogatari; and third, I will compare the obtained results with existing research on Ryoi’s Buddhist evangelist considerations of Chinese moralistic culture and clarify his acceptance of Tekkitsuroku while focusing on the similarities and differences between Ryoi and Maoyou.
  • 7.

    Effectiveness of Public Campaigns Using Social Marketing: -Focus on Domestic, Japanese, and Overseas Corporate Culture Cases-

    Lee Jin Hee | 2018, (79) | pp.129~145 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In general, consumers are aware of that commercial marketing is used to increase sales. However, in the 21st century, where the emphasis is on corporate social responsibility, it has become necessary to think about ways to increase social value, as well as enhance consumers' personal values. This study examines corporate efforts through the lens of a conceptual understanding of social and cause-related marketing. By examining these cases, this study aims to contribute to the realization of social values and benefits by creating a variety ways to enhances the effectiveness of public campaigns. In the case of Korean, Japanese, United States, and Europe public campaigns, social and public interest marketing could be used to create good corporate culture and image and enhance consumers and social values. Therefore, social and cause-related marketing should continue.
  • 8.

    “festival of God by God”of “kojiki" -About the meaning of worshiping you-

    kwon hyuk-sung | 2018, (79) | pp.147~162 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The myth of “Kojiki,” thus far, has been considered to be a festival myth. It is thought that myths develop and redevelop alongside rituals, and as these systematized, they became “Kojiki” or “nihonshoki.” However, religious services for “the deities of heaven and earth” that have been performed are continuous events to be repeated and carried out to prevent evil. In contrast, for this ritual, a contagious disease was prevalent at the age of the Emperor Sujin, and many people died of “Kojiki.” In other words, it became a festival for “peace and people to prosper around the world” with God. In a sense, where there was a crisis, this ritual was performed, and so it is not continuous but temporary. There is some part of the ritual that has been followed continuously because Amaterasu gave an order to “always worship this mirror like me” and applied this to “Kojiki.” However, the crisis for the country, which the Emperor rules over, is not accepted there. This means that the country that the Emperor rules over has been guaranteed limitlessly by Amaterasu.
  • 9.

    Yasunari Kawabata’s Literature and the Culture of Go in Japan –Focusing on His Essay about Go–

    Kim, Chung-Gyoon | 2018, (79) | pp.163~176 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines, the literature of Yasunari Kawabata and his relations with the Go culture in Japan based on his Go-related essays such as “The Chingwian U's Stories of Go.” Yasunari Kawabata is proud of the tradition of Go in Japan. However, based on an interview with Chingwian U, he seems to have recognized that the culture of Go flourishes or declines according to the power of each country and the atmosphere of the times, such as in other fields that form the culture. The question ‘What is Go?’ is emphasized as an unavoidable question, as the subject matter of the interview was Go. Chingwian U answered, ‘Go is harmony'. According to Chingwian U, Go is a competition, but it implements the logic of adapting oneself to the order of nature. Yasunari Kawabata's essays on Go depicts such an image of a modernized Go. “The Chingwian U's Stories of Go” reflects his opinion that the timeframe for a match of Go should be limited to 6 hours. Also, “Springtime of New Strategic Move” reflects his appraisal reagarding the period when the new strategic move was created, which indicates the florescence of modern Go.
  • 10.

    A Study on Disaster in Your Name.(Kimi no Na wa.) by Makoto Shinkai

    Yun Hye Young | 2018, (79) | pp.177~192 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the novel Your Name. as a key to studying the topic of disaster. First of all, this work is about disaster literacy. Nevertheless, it does not avoid depicting the horrors of disasters. It is characterized by the fact that all the victims, displaced people, and people not related to the disaster are gathered together at the scene of the disaster. They develop a connection that causes them to contemplate disasters. In particular, the switching of Taki and Mitsuha's bodies causes Taki, who is unrelated to the disaster, to visit the disaster area. There, he reconnects with the victim, Mitsuha, and through her he manages to save the lives of many people by convincing them to evacuate the area. This can be considered to imply a reflection on and regret about the Fukushima nuclear accident, which has been criticized as a disaster caused by human error. In the process of overcoming the difficulties of the disaster and cooperating with each other, Taki and Mitsuha, despite the latter’s passivity and numerous complaints, develop a strong will to live. After all, it was a young generation represented by a 17-year-old high school student who saved people from the disaster. In this work the writer, through the characters of Taki, Mitsuha, Desshi, and Sayachin, casts a lifeline to younger generations who give up on their dreams and hopes, and become isolated.
  • 11.

    “Burn burnin” cultural text-like changes and the expansion of “Burning” -From ‘WHAT’ focusing on conversion to ‘WHY’-

    Cho, Hun-Goo | 2018, (79) | pp.193~210 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This research is an analysis of the characteristics of the double narrative of the novel “Barn Burning” and based on this analysis, I compared the narrative structures represented in the movie “Burning.” In the movie, “Burning”, first, the relationship between “me” and “her” mediating between her and me, which is represented in the original work, was transformed into a love relationship between two men and women based on “HaeMi”, Second, it reflected the reality of the gap in society called “soil water” and “gold water spoon.” This demonstrates that the personal discourse of the self-loss in the novel can be converted to a periodical discourse through an open narrative structure, which was expressed in the movie. If so, the novels of Haruki can be re-evaluated in terms of universal specialty that can be altered in any era rather than being the exclusive property of a specific era.
  • 12.

    A Study on the “Restaurant” by Shimazaki Tŏson -Acceptance of Old Age-

    Chun Sunmi | 2018, (79) | pp.211~225 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Although the representative work that informed Tŏson’s late years was “Storm”(1926), this work did not show a complete acceptance of old age. Rather, it showed a strong rejection of old age for the sake of young children. On the other hand, “Restaurant”(1926), which was released a few months later, introduced an independent, grown-up child separated from its parents from the beginning. This enabled the parents could begin to realize their old age. In the end, Tŏson’s acceptance of old age was not portrayed through a realistic, outward appearance, but rather metaphorically, when his children grew and became independent. After “Restaurant”, Tŏson finally began to live a faithful, independent life separated from his children. In his youthful and middle-aged works, ‘old age’ was negative, being described as shabbiness and fear of death. However, through this study, it can be seen that the actual old age of Tŏson was a positive one in which he found another self and led his life as a social leader by bringing out the energy concentrated on his internal life with his children.
  • 13.

    A study on Matumoto-Seicho -Focusing on his Korean related works-

    KI RYOUN HAN | 2018, (79) | pp.227~242 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis deals with the historical events related to the Japanese invasion of the Chosun Dynasty, which are discussed in Matsumoto-Seicho‘s four writings dealing with Korea, except 「The Dark mist of Japan - Intrigue of the Chosun War」. This thesis also deals with Seicho’s opinions and evaluations of the historical figures related to the events. In 「Residents - General」 and 「The poet of the North」, most of the events and the characters correspond to actual historical realities.. Unlike the Japanese Government, which regarded Emperor Kojong as an incompetent ruler, Seicho evaluated Emperor Kojong positively, as seen from the historical facts and logic in the stories. . His writings on Korea reveal that Seicho worked diligently to research data before writing a story . Finally, Seicho explicitly described in his writings that the policies implemented during the Japanese colonial period were unfair and harsh toward Korean people. Furthermore, he concluded that Japan had tortured Korean independence activists cruelly. Considering this, he recognized Japan’s oppressive acts as facts.
  • 14.

    The War in the eyes of a boy of the Burn-mark generation ─Focusing on “Shiiku” by Kenzaburo Oe─

    HONG JINHEE | 2018, (79) | pp.243~259 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    “Shiiku”(1958) by Kenzaburo Oe(1935∼) won the Akutagawa Prize, a major literary award. The story has a valley village in the background and a setting at around the end of World War II. The main character and narrator is a boy, who was not directly influenced by the war and spent his days being bored. However, one day, an enemy fighter made a forced landing on the mountain, and its black soldier was caught as a prisoner by the adults in the village. The boy initially felt embarrassed about the attitude of his father toward the black soldier, who considered him a beast, but he gradually began to have a human relationship with him through living together. However, when escorting the black soldier to town, the relationship with him broke, and the boy’s father slaughtered black soldier with a hatchet. “Shiiku” has been recognized as having a mythical structure that is symbolics, figurative, and stylistic. However, the perceptions of the Burn-mark generations who was raised during the war have been overlooked, despite it being a War Novel. Nevertheless the change in the boy’s perspective on the black soldier, i.e., “beast ⇒ livestock ⇒ friend ⇒ family ⇒ beast ⇒ enemy”, and the smell of a corpse shows the Burn-mark generation’s confusions and intense memories of the war.
  • 15.

    The meaning and usage of synonymous "Isogashii, Sewashii, Awatadashii"

    KIM, YOUNG AH | 2018, (79) | pp.261~278 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we study attribute adjectives and analyze adjectives with synonymous relationships to understand and use meanings and usage of attribute adjectives other than representative adjectives, so that we can select the subject of conventional adjective research For the purpose of spreading and to study past adjectives, it was common to compare Japanese adjectives with the thesaurus of Korean translation, weigh the vocabulary quantities and describe their characteristics, but attributes In the adjective, we examined common points and differences of meaning and usage of synonymous adjectives based on actual examples. By doing so, we have clarified semantic aspects of individual basic semantic functions and usage of adjectives.
  • 16.

    The Motivation of Korean University Students to Learn Japanese -A Comparison of Japanese Majors and Non-Performing Majors-

    Kim, Won-Jung | 2018, (79) | pp.279~298 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study focuses on Japanese language learners at Korean universities. We considered their motivation for studying the Japanese language in recent years and compared the results to those of studies on non-Japanese majors. The results of a factor analysis on the motivation for studying the Japanese language showed that six factors were at play: language learning, Japanese literature and culture, job seeking, instrumental oriented motivation, hope for Japan, and learning the Japanese language. According to the results of the T-test conducted among major and non-major students, those who were influenced by “instrumental oriented motivation” and “hope for Japan” were significantly more than those who were influenced by non-majorities. In response to the question, “What motivated you to learn Japanese?" both groups mostly said, “Animation, comic strip, J-pop, interest in celebrities.” In response to the question, “Why do you continue to learn Japanese?” Japanese majors mostly said, “Because this is my major” while non-Japanese majors mostly answered, “Interest in the Japanese language, culture, and literature.” In response to the question, “How will you use the Japanese language in the future?” both groups mostly said, “To find jobs."
  • 17.

    Comparative Analysis of Requested Stroke Requests for Japanese and Korean Requests - Analysis of Discourse Completion Tests of University Students

    Kim, Jong-Wan | 2018, (79) | pp.299~316 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we have considered the expressions of request and request for recommendation letters to university instructors in Korea and Japan from the viewpoint of intercultural linguistics.The analysis was conducted in the 1980s The Cross-Culutal Speech Act Realization Project "(CCSARP). As a result, it was found that the Korean and Japanese dependency strategies differed from each other, and that Korean language was used frequently as a call - to - call department, such as "teacher" and " The use of ancillary parts used as expressions to reduce the FTA is a good example of how Korean expresses good expressions of appreciation On the other hand, I found that Japanese is using a lot of expressions such as apologies, etc. I use Japanese expressions more often than Japanese, and Japanese often use indirect idiomatic expressions I understood.
  • 18.

    Teaching metaphorical expression through modern Japanese poetry

    Nam, Yi-Sug | 2018, (79) | pp.317~337 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, metaphors in Japanese modern poetry were studied. Finding that first, the expressions of similes and metaphors were alike. They were created through discoveries of similar things that are not generally alike, even though both have different features such as elucidation and implication. Second, the similes and metaphors in poetry were original with an enriched imagination which the analogies, used in proverbs and everyday life, cannot provide. Moreover, the expressions of simile and metaphor in the poetry contributed to the effective communication of message and theme. Last, the intricate metaphors tended to cause difficulty in the understanding of poetry because of their ambiguity. However, they also stimulated to the development of an infinite expansion of thinking and creative language. Teaching poetic analogies by focusing on expression techniques and promoting their application daily using language can open the possibility of education through poetry.
  • 19.

    Study on learning method for improving Japanese language proficiency - Focusing on memorization and shadowing-

    Pak, Hye-Song | Choi jinhui | 2018, (79) | pp.339~356 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study is about learning Japanese language. It includes the effectiveness of memorization and shadowing with the result of survey on learning method. A test for language improvement shows that memorization helps to improve Japanese language proficiency, but shadowing does not affect. It's obvious that memorization is a very effective way to improve Japanese language proficiency. On the other hand, survey respondents positively assess both memorization and shadowing. Memorization shows real improvement of Japanese language proficiency, the language learners who answer the survey also say that it helps speak, read and listen to Japanese. In terms of effectiveness, shadowing does not shows outstanding results for improving Japanese language proficiency. However, the language learners say that shadowing is helpful for learning as it makes them practice the language easily and interestingly. They think shadowing helps speak, read and listen to Japanese. Shadowing does not shows meaningful result now. If it is practiced for plenty of time, however, it also can be a good learning method which helps language learners improve their Japanese language proficiency in the long run. 'How long does shadowing be conducted to improve Japanese language proficiency?' will be my next subject of study.
  • 20.

    Some Considerations on Chinese-derived words composed of two Chinese characters in Korean and Japanese Languages

    Minchul Shin | 2018, (79) | pp.357~370 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I examine the characteristics of common and non-common Chinese-derived words composed of two Chinese characters in Korean and Japanese languages. I have confirmed that common Chinese-derived words are related to Chinese Classics, transliteration and liberal translation of Sanskrit, Chinese-derived words coined in Japan(mainly related to Western academic and cultural relics), etc. Regarding the Korean language, I have observed that Korean Chinese-derived words are concerned with general culture, such as the way of addressing relatives, as well as family ceremonies, customs, administrative units, food, religion, art, history, etc. Similarly, through considerations on very few Japanese Chinese-derived words, I have confirmed that some of these words are also related to Japanese culture. Therefore, it is possible to understand culture by examining the Chinese-derived words unique to each language.
  • 21.

    A Study on the Cases of Overcoming Moments of Silence after First Conversation -Focusing on the Conversation Management of Korean Advanced Japanese Learners-

    Lee, Seon-Ok | 2018, (79) | pp.371~392 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzed the topics after moments of silence after the first conversation between the pairs of a Korean woman and a Japanese man and the pairs of a Korean man and a Japanese woman. The differences in the way of continuing dialogue by Korean men and women learners were identified by analyzing which topic advanced Japanese learners suggested and how they overcame silence. It has been identified that Korean women overcame silence by suggesting topics in the form of asking questions to Japanese men and Korean men overcame silence by suggesting topics in the form of talking about themselves. The topics suggested by Korean women were about the past experiences of the opponent and the topics suggested by Korean men were about one's own opinions and experiences. In addition, when unfolding topics, Korean women unfolded topics by inducing speech from the opponent after using 'demanding clarification, demanding identification, and expressing emotions (expressing evaluations)' whereas Korean men unfolded topics in the form of talking about their own opinions and experiences. This study identified the gender differences in suggesting and unfolding topics after moments of silence by Korean learners.
  • 22.

    politeness of request expression -Focusing on The giving and receiving expression「てくれる・てもらう形」 「させてくれる・させてもらう形」-

    OH, sunju | 2018, (79) | pp.393~409 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper did a survey for Japanese mother tongus speakers, focusing on the 「てくれる・てもらう形」「さ せてくれる・させてもらう形」 among the honorific expressions used for the request. As a result, 1The intention of speaker who respected the listener and expressed the request of direct benefit was shown on the 「てくれる形」 used for the request.2「もらう」 can be expressed such that the subject of ostensible behavior is like speaker, even though the subject of real behavior is listener, therefore it shows the intention for more indirect benefit than 「くれる」.3When using 「させてくれる形・させてもらう形」, the speaker's strategy can decrease the burden of listener for the behavior which speaker will perform, and express that speaker's behavior can be beneficial not only for speaker but also for listener. 4When adding denial, possibility, passiveness and final particles 「か」 to the request expressions and making it more indirect and polite, even though the burden of speaker on the sentence organization becomes higher, this will lead to the consideration for listener therefore the burden of lisener will become lower. As a result, the possibility of request success, which will cause the benefit of speaker, will become higher.
  • 23.

    Learner-centric classes: A practical case report on Understanding Japanese subjects -Think about alleviating the burden on the teacher-

    Joe, sunyoung | 2018, (79) | pp.411~431 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I report examples of practicing a learner-centric approach in classes, and in doing so, I discuss necessary measures to reduce the burden on teachers. First, I devised measures that would encourage learners to actively participate in classes while trying to provide the necessary educational environment during the progress of the learning-centric classes. For example, instead of promptly exchanging opinions on lecture content, after spending about five minutes in discussion within groups of three, I guided everyone to actively participate in subsequent internet search and opinion exchange. Furthermore, in order to make it possible for the learner to choose the topic for discussion, the teacher first provided the material, enabling an opportunity for the students to choose and communicate on their own. During communication activities, the teacher assisted the learners and allowed them to evaluate their activities, thus encouraging reflection from the students. Upon conducting a satisfaction survey for students regarding such learner-centric classes, positive evaluations were obtained as results. While the burden on the teacher in enabling such a learner-centric class has been indicated, the solution has not been discussed and this article focuses on this point. I showed how I managed lectures, group activities, poster presentation and evaluation. When devising learner-centric classes, it is suggested that thinking measures to reduce the burden on teachers is a condition of the highest priority for continuing classes.
  • 24.

    An Empirical Study of the Acquisition of the Japanese “Za-gyō-sounds” (za, zu, and zo) and “Ja-gyō-sounds” (ja, ju, and jo) by Korean learners.

    Fujita, Ranko | 2018, (79) | pp.433~452 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper empirically investigates and analyzes the acquisition of the Japanese “Za-gyō-sounds” (za, z u, and zo) and “Ja-gyō-sounds” (ja, ju, and jo) by Korean learners. There are four research questions addressed here: (1) Do Za-gyō-sounds and Ja-gyō-sounds differ in ho w they are heard by Korean learners depending on their Japanese proficiency level?, (2) is there is a signifi cant difference among the Za-gyō-sounds (za, zu, and zo) as heard by Korean speakers?, (3) is there is a si gnificant difference among the Ja-gyō-sounds ( ja, ju, and jo) as heard by Korean speakers?, and (4) is ther e is a difference between the Za-gyō-sounds and Ja-gyō-sounds as heard by Korean speakers? The following results were obtained: (1) There was no difference in the hearing ability between Korean learners of Japanese at the beginner and intermediate levels, (2) there was a significant difference among t he Za-gyō-sounds (za, zu, and zo), (3) there was also a significant difference among the Ja-gyō-sounds (ja, ju, and jo), and (4) there was no statistically significant difference between the Za-gyō-sounds and Ja-gyō- sounds but there were significant differences between zu and ju and between zo and jo. From these results, I have empirically demonstrated that the acquisition of Japanese Za-gyō-sounds and Ja-gyō-sounds is different to those predicted in the contrastive linguistic analysis of Korean and Japanese.