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2019, Vol., No.82

  • 1.

    A Study on the Contents of the Japanese Language Proficiency Test Using Text Mining Analysis - Focusing on JLPT N3 Vocabulary-

    Leeyouhee | 2019, (82) | pp.5~25 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The objectives of this study were to : (1) extract keywords of the previous N3 test characters and vocabulary (2010-2018), and (2) analyze exam patterns and trends by utilizing Python3.7 program, Jupiter Notebook tool, and Janome(Mecab) stemming engine, based on text mining analysis. A total of 131 words were extracted twice or more frequently in N3. The top key word was ‘すぎる’(5 times) and ‘的’(4times) and ‘疲れる’, ‘断る’, ‘怒る’, ‘出張’, ‘規則’, ‘そっくりだ’(3times) were used in most of the exam. In terms of sections, in Question 1, the most frequently appearing words were ‘得意’, ‘改札’, ‘卒業’, ‘過去’, ‘到着’, ‘努力’, ‘表す’(2times). In Question 2, seven words ‘帰宅’, ‘週刊紙’, ‘現在’, ‘楽器’, ‘成績’, ‘記録’, ‘逃げる’(2times) appeared and ‘うっかり’(3times), ‘想像’, ‘目標’, ‘期待’, ‘自動的’, ‘迷う’, ‘しっかり’, ‘そっくり’, ‘うわさ’, ‘キャンセル’, ‘リサイクル’ (2times) appeared in Question 3. In Question 4, the word ‘すぎる’ appeared intensively and the similar words ‘(すぐ)怒る=短気だ’, ‘くたびれる=疲れる’, ‘大変だ=きつい’(2times) were set. In Question 5, ‘空’, ‘活動’, ‘性格’, ‘募集’, ‘修理’, ‘断る’, ‘身につける’ (2 times) appeared as frequent words. These keywords have characteristics that are appropriate for the question type of each part and are patterned, so it is presumed that they are likely to be asked in the future. With respect to the parts of speech, the frequency ratio was counted by the order of Noun(49.7%)-Verb (26.9%)-Adjective(6.1%)-Adjective verb (5.3%)-Adverb(5.3%)-Katakana(3.9%)-Suffix(2.0%)- Prenominal adjective (0.5%)-Prefix(0.3%). As a result, it is proposed to study, in order of the importance, the following parts of speech : (1) 131 high-frequency vocabularies, (2) two Kanji nouns, (3) verbs, (4) adjectives, adjective verbs, adverbs, and (5) other Katakana, suffixes, prenominal adjectives, and prefixes.
  • 2.

    A Study of Characteristics of Japanese Culture in the Use of Japanese Convergence Technology -Focusing on Conversion for The Realization of Future Investment Strategy 2017- Society 5.0-

    Jung Geun Ha | Younghee Noh | 2019, (82) | pp.27~45 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The Japanese Government emphasized five themes for future investment strategy: the health and life extension sector, the mobility revolution realization sector, the next generation of supply chains sector, the pleasant infrastructure sector, the regional composition sector, and the FinTech sector. These sectors are all intended to minimize and/or eliminate obstacles in our daily lives caused by the low birth rate and shrinking labor force of on an aging society. The reason the Japanese government focused on such trivial and mundane issues of daily life is because of the social and cultural characteristics of Japanese people, who are naturally drawn to, sympathetic to, and tend to enjoy their ordinary daily lives more than they would something intangible, unrealistic, and grand. We can make an educated guess that if Japan manages to successfully solve the problem by focusing solely on such daily issues without pursuing self-interest, it will once again succeed in impressing the rest of the world.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Japanese-Korean Comparative Research ― Focusing on 「だろう(Darou)」, 「かも(Kamo)(しれない(shirenai))」and「はずだ(Hazuda)」―

    Kwon Seong | 2019, (82) | pp.47~64 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    When conducting a comparative study of Japanese and Korean, many studies have concluded that 'some form of Japanese corresponds to some form of Korean'. Recent comparative studies show that the corresponding forms appear in several forms, not just one. However, Korean learners studying Japanese have a strong perception that ‘Japanese and Korean are alike’ and tend to correspond one-to-one with Korean expressions similar to Japanese grammar elements. Therefore, this study examined how the Japanese speculative forms of 「だろう(Darou), かも(しれない)(Kamo(shirenai)), and はずだ(Hazuda)」 appear in Korean form of expressions and the Korean form appearing by each usage. It is concluded that Korean learners of Japanese will be able to deeply understand speculative expressions in Japanese by looking at the usage of Korean form being translated.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Polysemy Adverbial Expression Language of Japanese and Korean Verbs - Focusing on Asobu and Nolda -

    Kim Do-Eun | 2019, (82) | pp.65~82 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined the positions of vocabulary systems in relation to the Japanese verb ‘asobu’ and the Korean verb ‘nolda,’ derived their polysemy relations and compared their uses, so as to examine the semantic relations of their co-occurring and adverbial expressions. The vocabulary system of the Japanese verb ‘asobu’ was categorized into three types. First, the mobile system is used for movement in a place or on a street. This study found that limited movement and action verbs of ‘asobu’ were mostly composed to be close to the composition of semantemes of Japanese words meaning ‘wander,’ ‘roam,’ ‘stroll,’ and ‘loiter.’ Second, the resting system is used when something is placed in a set place with virtually no movement. Lastly, the modal system is used with a state, an object, a person or an animal that moves and travels irrespective of places and distances. The verbs ‘asobu’ and ‘nolda’ are used as action verbs that include different co-occurring and adverbial expressions in the sentence structure consisting of an adverb and a verb. These action verbs are used in expressions meaning a temporary break or diversion in a hectic life of modern society. It was found that the verbs were used in polysemy vocabulary expressions with more various and expanded meanings.
  • 5.

    Aspects of anger expressions in Japanese men and women - A study based on scenes portraying arguments -

    Kim, Ji-Won | 2019, (82) | pp.83~101 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzes anger expression patterns of Japanese native speakers in male-female verbal disputes. Usually, anger expression patterns tend to be violent, attempt to humiliate the other party, and have various linguistic patterns. However, previous studies have shown that Japanese people generally control their emotions. Therefore, this study examines whether Japanese people conceal their anger despite being, in some cases, intimate with their counterparts. Additionally, this study investigates whether gender differences play a role in anger expressions. Based on portraying verbal disputes in Japanese movies and dramas, the anger expression patterns specific to gender characteristics and differences were analyzed. The anger expression patterns were classified into 9 language behavior categories: 1)Assertion 2) Expression of emotional language 3)Reason explanation 4)Explanatory demand 5)Rejection of counterparty’s speech 6)Sarcasm 7)Interruption 8)Warning/Intimidation 9)Contempt/blame The results show that Japanese native speakers tend to use assertive expressions. Moreover, the results highlight gender differences: women commonly used explanatory demands while males typically used sarcasm and showed contempt/blame.
  • 6.

    Reconsidering the Vocative in Japanese-Toward a New Definition-

    Higashide, Tomo | 2019, (82) | pp.103~121 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper proposes a definition of the Japanese vocative. First, we consider the position that referring to words like anata, omae, and watashi as pronouns is inappropriate morphologically, functionally, semantically and lexicologically. We then discuss the similarities of terms such as koshō ‘name’, yobikakego ‘vocative’, and taishōshi ‘address term’. Finally, we reanalyze former studies from the perspective of a part of speech, sentence structure and speech act. The expressions for addressing a person, such as otōsan and sensei, are categorized as nouns, structurally as freestanding words. Their use as a speech act is considered to initiate and maintain the discourse with the hearer. In order to explain certain interesting phenomena that occur in conversation, we analyze them at the level of discourse. Thus we propose a definition of the vocative in Japanese as an element without particles through which the speaker indicates the hearer.
  • 7.

    A study on Sonata and its surrounding language

    Min, Seung-Hee | 2019, (82) | pp.123~140 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study provides a comparative analysis of the words sonata, konata, wagoryo, and soti ; four distinct results were revealed. First, the words sonata, konata, wagoryo and soti correspond to the disrespect phrase . Second, if the speaker and the listener are of equal status, we can find examples in which sonata, konata, and wagoryo are used but soti is not. In this case, konata was used in equal dialogue among people of the upper class, and sonata was used among people of upper class, such as merchants. In addition, the use of wagoryo indicates intimacy between the speaker and the listener. Third, if the speaker is considered to be superior to the listener, we can find usage of sonata, wagoryo, and soti, but no use of konata. Fourth, if the speaker is considered to be superior to the listener and their relationship is one between different classes, we can find usage of both soti and sonata. In this case, soti is used with a higher frequency than sonata.
  • 8.

    A contrastive study of Korean and Japanese dialect contact  -focusing on negative polarity items-

    Park Kanghun | 2019, (82) | pp.141~162 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study clarifies the syntactic features of the negative polarity items (NPIs) pakk-ey/ppwun-i ‘only’ in Korean and sika/hoka ‘only’ in Japanese from the viewpoint of dialect contact. These expressions have been treated as similar expressions previously in that they have a semantically restrictive meaning and function as syntactically negative polarity items. In addition, these expressions are similar in that they have an opposing relationship such as ‘standard language (pakk-ey/sika) vs. dialect (ppwun-i/hoka)’. However, this study found that these Korean and Japanese expressions are not similar, on the basis of the following six syntactic environments: whether they can (i) occur in negative constructions only, (ii) occur in multiple negative polarity item constructions, (iii) occur in adversative constructions, (iv) be attached to various items such as postpositions or adverbs, (v) occur in a negative imperatives, and (vi) be attached to nouns without the requirement of the genitive case particle ‘uy/no’. Japanese sika and hoka have mutual distribution, unlike Korean pakk-ey/ppwun-i. In fact, in modern Japanese, sika is more grammaticalized as an NPI, whereas hoka is undergoing degrammaticalization unlike Korean pakk-ey/ppwun-i. In the search for the cause of these differences between the two languages, although further research is needed, this study posits a hypothesis focusing on the differences between the Korean and Japanese language policy.
  • 9.

    Analysis of Accent of Foreign Language Pronunciation of Korean Learners of Japanese -Focused on the old JLPT vocabulary-

    Suzuki, Mie | 2019, (82) | pp.163~184 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyses the accent nucleus of loanwords included in NHK Japaness Pronunciation Accent Dictionary (1985, 1998) and Shin-Meikai Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary (2001, 2014). The loanwords were extracted from the JLPT vocabulary list in accordance with each level, surveyed their accent nucleuses with respect to the aforementioned dictionaries, and examined them in terms of mora. In this research, the accent nucleus of the loanwords were studied and handled in Suzuki (2016) by consulting NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary (2016) and present a contrastive analysis of accent-nucleus patterns found in Korean women in their twenties from the province of Chungcheongdo, an accentless area. According to Lee (2016), the factors affecting the perception rates of “katakana”-words for Korean learners of Japanese are: (i) perception of special mora, especially the pronunciation of a word-final long vowel, (ii) lack of the perception of double consonants and insertion of double consonants, (iii) unvoicing of vowels, (iv) native-language transfer, (v) length of mora, (vi) perception of segments such as /tei/, /ɸa/, and /ɸo/, and so on. The present work confirms that these factors are indeed at work.
  • 10.

    A Study on Remaining Japanese in Sea products

    MINHO YANG | 2019, (82) | pp.185~198 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the trace amounts of Japanese language that remain in the names of Korean fishing products. Data, collected through interviews with people living in a Korean fishing village, were analyzed using the National Institute of Korean Language’s Everyday Korean Language Project Group. Japanese remained diverse in the names of fish products. The implications of this paper are as follows: -Find Japanese expressions (used in fishing products) that are well known by fishermen, who form the foundation of the Korean fishing culture, but are not understood by the average Korean. -Analyze these examples to identify how these terms and expressions came to be standard within this industry, considering the regional and cultural connections between Korea and Japan. -The remaining Japanese languages used in the fishing villages have enabled a new field of study, called “sea region linguistics.” The results of the survey data reveal regional limitations; therefore, similar research is necessary in the future.
  • 11.

    A Study of the Operating System of Cultural Tourism Interpretation

    Lee Hyo Seon | 2019, (82) | pp.199~218 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The tourism industry in Korea and Japan has challenges such as individualization of tourists’ tendencies, diversification of inbound tour types, development of tourism content, and expansion of revisiting rate. As part of a new strategy to cope with the paradigm shift of the tourism industry, many efforts have exerted to strengthen cultural tourism interpretation. The cultural tourism interpretation not only improves the tourism experience but also works as the means to improve the value of tourism venues. Therefore, it is a service that must be provided for tourists from different parts of the world. The purpose of this study is to investigate features and institutional operating system of tour guide, Culture & Tourists Guide, and national government license guide-interpreter who are conducting cultural tourism interpretation in Korea and Japan. The result of this study will serve as a chance for a better career for students of Japanese language study for tourism and for their career guidance.
  • 12.

    Novel approach in beginner Japanese class -A practical method to accommodate different knowledge levels in a class-

    Seo, Hong | JUINWON | 2019, (82) | pp.219~237 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study is about a novel approach to instruct students with various levels in beginner Japanese class. This approach is designed to prevent loss of motivation due to a lack of previous knowledge and enhance students’ motivation in class. This new approach starts with a pretest at the beginning of lecture. The pretest consists of several questions which are related to the lecture objective of each class. The pretest provides an opportunity for the students to evaluate their knowledge. After a lecture, the students have another chance to correct their own pretest. Thus, the students would realize how much they have been improved through the lecture. This pretest-correction process helps the students realize that they can reach their goals through lecture regardless their previous knowledge levels. Simultaneously, this process potentiated students’ motivation. To further test students’ perception on this new approach, surveys were given to the students at the end of the semester. I confirmed that this new ‘pretest-correction’ approach enhanced motivation of the students and thereby potentiating students’ interests and confidence levels. Further, this approach was tested by two different instructors who taught two different sections of the same class. Both classes showed the similar results suggesting that this novel approach is effective and practical regardless of instructors.
  • 13.

    Analysis of Notes on Homework Performance ―with Shadowing Activity―

    Choi jinhui | 2019, (82) | pp.239~255 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study applied reflection activity to task implementation. Notes on shadowing activity revealed that students understood a high level of content, but had a low understanding of speed, pronunciation, rhythm, and intonation. The students’ understanding of content from introspection increased after practicing to some extent, but took more time compared to understanding in terms of speed, pronunciation, rhythm, and intonation. I analyzed notes regarding 'tasks', 'learning strategies', and 'the students themselves'. There were 11 tasks, 32 learning strategies, and 156 students. Among the students, there were 80 evaluations, 34 improvements, and 30 learning strategies. The students listened to their own shadowing activity, evaluated it, and realized that practicing developed their abilities. They were also able to discover their own learning strategies. Since the effect of shadowing was realized though the reflection activity, students can be expected to continue practicing by themselves, which may lead to autonomous learning.
  • 14.

    Changes in the depiction of prostitutes in Okinawanan literary magazines.

    Bak, Yun-Hui | 2019, (82) | pp.257~278 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study considers the changes in the representation of prostitutes in Okinawan literary magazines after the Pacific War. Specific targets include the four works published in "New Okinawa Literature," “Subtropical Regions” Kyotaro Arasaki’s "Sotetu no Mura" (1976), Sueko Yoshida’s "Kamara Shinju" (1984), Nobuko Yamanoha’s "Ad Balloon" (1988), and Yasuko Ukumura's "Uradori" (1990). First, "Sotetu no Mura" features a prostitutes named "Pan Pan" a symbol of the American occupation, became targets of anger in Okinawa. The reason is to identify the occupied territory with the body of a prostitute. In Yamanoha’s "Ad balloon," the prostitute recognizes herself as unclean and negative. In a patriarchal male-dominated society, women who dream of breaking away are emerging, producing a variety of metaphors represent the changing image of women. Later, in the 1980s, Ukumura Yasuko’s "Uradori" and "Kamara Sinju" and women's entry into society under the influence of the Japanese women’s liberation movement also affected literary works, and women began to appear as sexually self-directed women. However, there is a difference in writers’ portrayal of prostitutes. This study will not only serve as an opportunity to redefine the image of prostitutes in Okinawan literature but also serve as an opportunity to grasp the reality of Okinawan women.
  • 15.

    Behavioral types that are revealed by drinking in “The Tale of Genji”

    Son, Seo-Hyun | 2019, (82) | pp.279~300 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzed the behavioral types revealed by drinking in 『The Tale of Genji』, along with specific examples. In particular, we focused on the three behaviors that are related to art connoisseurship, tears, and events. In the drinking party, many people consider themselves art connoisseurs and use this to reveal their inner mind. There is also a drinking behavior in which they share glasses, usually in order of status. Tears shed at a drinking party tend to be a method of expressing complex emotions: it is often expressed by remembering the past or comparing the emotions of the past to the present. Events occurred due to the drinking behavior of characters create an opportunity to reorganize relationships and for the story to move to a new time and space. It induces the rapid development of the story and acts as a literary technique to shift the story from the present to the future. We examine the role of behaviors revealed during the drinking party of 『The Tale of Genji』. We found that the behavior of art connoisseurship is to represent the “present,” The behavior of shedding tears is to discuss the “past” of characters, and the event is a literary device for sending characters to the “future.”
  • 16.

    The Chinese image by the Japanese author post the Sino-Japanese war -Study of Natsume Soseki's travel notes-

    Xu, Jing | Lee, Jin-Ho | 2019, (82) | pp.301~320 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Many Japanese were dispatched to China as overseas observers after the Sino-Japanese war, and they wrote a large amount of travel notes. This research considered the Chinese image from travel notes titled “Mankan tokorodokoro,” which Natsume Soseki wrote. Consequently, there are “double Chinese images” in the travel notes, such as the “virtual image in Chinese classical books” and “the reality of real China.” In this research on such “double Chinese images,” I deciphered, introduced, and considered Edward W Said’s “Orientalism,” and it became clear that “Orientalism” gets blurred in an affirmative classical virtual image and in a negative real image. However it is said that the “double Chinese images” are only the “Japanese Orientalism”. After all, Japanese authors like Soseki did not go beyond “Orientalism” at that time, but reinforced Western orientalism, such as the Chinese image.
  • 17.

    A Study on the Controversy over the Chosun literary world in Keijo Nippo in 1933

    Eom, Ki-Kweon | 2019, (82) | pp.321~333 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is intended to compare and examine discourses on the literary world in Chosun, which were made by Jung Soon-Jung and Yoo Do-Soon in Keijo Nippo’s literary columns for two months in 1933. I also argue about what made the difference between the two theories on the literary world, and consider their purposes and relationships with Keijo Nippo, which provided spaces for the discussion on the literary world in this newspaper. In the 1930s Chosun, the literary world entered a new phase with the works by Jang Hyeok-ju, who made his debut as a writer in Japan in 1932. In the period of literary revival in Japan, the literary world in Japan paid attention to “Local” “Chosun Literature.” In Chosun, there were various reactions such as opposing or responding to the gaze of the literary world in Japan. In such a situation, the two writers in Chosun responded to the gaze and showed the goals, which the literary world in Chosun should achieve, in Keijo Nippo, which had mainly carried literary works or articles by Japanese writers.
  • 18.

    “Railroad Lines” Connecting Japanese Anime and Films: From Intertextuality to Interobjectivity

    Kawasaki, Mizuho | 2019, (82) | pp.335~355 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Using comparative analysis, this study employs the presence of railroad lines to clarify connections between recent Japanese anime and films. In the animated Fireworks, Spirited Away, as well as the live-action film Destiny: The Tale of Kamakura, fantastic railroad lines play an important role in each story’s development. If we rely on classical folklore, these railroad lines can be interpreted as linking the Konoyo (this life) and Anoyo (or Takai, afterlife). However, these can also be viewed as exemplifying “the line of flight” from traditional power structures (Deleuze & Guattari). Furthermore, since “retro” trains connect the past, present, and future, it can be said that a “world line.”exists, as shown in the anime series Steins; Gate. Finally, this study highlights the concept of “heteronomous transformation” (recently termed as an “ontological turn”) in anthropology as necessary for analyzing railroad lines between anime and films.
  • 19.

    Dosun's prophecy, Zhèng Jīng and Jeong True Man

    CHUNG, Eungsoo | 2019, (82) | pp.357~374 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    At the outbreak of Revolt of the Three Feudatories in November 1673, Zhèng Jīng in Taiwan also responded and a large area south of the Yangtze river including Sichuan Province and Shǎnxī Province was under his rule. Then, a voice calling for invasion into Qing began to come to the stage in Chosun. They claimed that Chosun should cooperate with Zhèng Jīng to attack Quing, mainly because Ming helped Chosun in Japanese invasion of Chosun in 1592. However, their strong opinion was not accepted. Then, a rumor spread that Zhèng Jīng would attack disloyal Chosun. At that time, Dosun’s prophecy was in circulation that a leader named Jeong would govern Chosun. Zhèng Jīng happened to have that name and he had enough military power to destroy Chosun. Thus, Zhèng Jīng living in Taiwan was considered as a probable candidate for Jeong True Man, though he was a foreigner. In the same line of thought, Zhōu Wénmó, a Qing priest, and Truman, a US President, were considered as a True Man.
  • 20.

    Representation of “Comfort Women” in postwar Japanese popular culture -The journey from “Korean girl’s army” to “comfort women”

    Choe, EunSu | 2019, (82) | pp.375~394 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focuses on the movie “Comfort Women” based on the nonfiction work of Kakou Senda, who shocked Japanese society in the 1970s by considering the representation of “Comfort Women” in postwar Japanese popular culture. In postwar Japanese films such as “syunpu-den,” and “Blood and Sand,” the term “Korean comfort women” emphasized the women’s sexuality without their ethnicity having much meaning. Therefore, comfort women’s ethnicities were transformed and invisible, while comfort women were eroticized and placed on a continuous line with postwar “panpan.” A movie based on Senda’s “Comfort Women” was regarded as having a new understanding of colonial rule in the related discourse. However, footage of the film no longer exists. More notable would be the emergence of the term “Japanese comfort women,” which should appear in postwar Japan’s representations. It is necessary to investigate the meaning of Japanese comfort women from the context of Japan in the 1970s, and the relationship between discourse and representation.