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2020, Vol., No.84

  • 1.

    Washoku culture included on UNESCO’s Intangible Cultural Heritage List

    Hyeon wook Kim | 2020, (84) | pp.5~21 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we examine the process of registering Washoku as a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. The application preparation process has been recorded in published proceedings and press releases. In Japan, traditional performing arts such as Noh and Kabuki were registered with UNESCO as intangible cultural heritage in 2008. To date, the number of traditional Japanese arts so registered totals 21, including entertainment, festivals, and traditional techniques, but not Washoku. In 2010, for the first time in the world, food culture was registered as a UNESCO cultural heritage, including the gastronomic meals of the French, traditional Mexican cuisine, and the Mediterranean diet. Following France and Mexico, Korea applied to list its “imperial cuisine” as an intangible cultural heritage, and there has been an effort in Japan to register food culture as well. At first, the NPO Japanese Culinary Academy began the process of registering Japanese food culture as a cultural heritage on its own. However, the academy later sought the government’s assistance, which cooperation they did indeed receive. Experts familiar with Japanese food culture gathered and held four meetings to finalize the application. Attendees of this meeting reported that Washoku is not a dish but a complete traditional Japanese food culture. They also described one of the characteristics of Washoku as “respect for nature.” Interestingly, the main reason why the name used by the Japanese to apply to UNESCO changed from kaiseki cuisine to Washoku is the failure of Korea to register its imperial cuisine.
  • 2.

    Study of food culture and spoons during the Muromachi period-A Focusing on Yusokukojitsusho-

    Do, Kee-Hong | 2020, (84) | pp.23~38 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper considers the use of spoons within the Yusokukojitsusho during the Muromachi period. This investigation shows that the spoon culture of the Heian period- including placing the cutlery on the table horizontally, putting the cutlery on the rice, and rolling the rice in the soup-continued into the Muromachi period. Above all, the illustrations of Daikyoki, which illustrate a spoon and chopsticks arranged on rice, have never been reported before and are an important source for thinking about the use of spoons in Japanese food culture.
  • 3.

    The anti-imperialism of Korean-Japanese solidarity of Yonetaro Joko, a Japanese settlers in colonial Joseon

    Park, Chang-Gun | 2020, (84) | pp.39~62 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to reevaluate the theory of Korean-Japanese solidarity, suggesting a how Japanese and Koreans might have coexisted in the education and labor movements and anti-imperialist struggle of Yonetaro Joko, a Japanese settlers in colonial Joseon. Joko’s life, which was very different from the average Japanese in colonial Joseon, contains lessons applicable to the strained relations between Korea and Japan. Of note is the fact that Joko chose to coexist with Koreans rather take advantage of his power as a Japanese teacher, a low official whose purpose was maintain the colonial system and Japanese colonial rule. Why did Joko transition from a propagandist of Japanese civilization to a supporter of Joseon’s independence? This study, which began with this question, could be an opportunity to relativize such binary thinking as so-called “dominance and subordination” or “repression and anti-repression” in colonial Joseon. In addition, the work of revealing the existence and meaning of Japanese settlers who resisted Korean–Japanese solidarity and the anti-imperialist struggle in colonial Korea will help us to grasp the complete picture of the relationship between Koreans and Japanese at that time.
  • 4.

    A Comparison of the Tributes in “Letters through Wooden Materials” and “Engishiki”

    Soo-Moon Oh | 2020, (84) | pp.63~84 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores what generational changes occurred in tributes by comparing the those found in Letters through Wooden Materials and Engishiki, Japanese books about law and customs. First, this paper analyzes the tributes in Engishiki. by exploring what tributes were offered in different regions of Japan. Moreover, in the case of seafood, this paper investigates whether seafood was transported to the capital in a raw or processed form. by examining Keiji Tanakas concept of uojirisen. Additionally, the concept of uojirisen helps identify to which areas of Japan it was possible to transport seafood in a raw forms. Engishiki is a book from the 900s. by comparing its tributes to those from Heijokyo and Fujiwarakyo in the Letters through Wooden Materials, this demonstrates how much these tributes transformed over a period of 200 years.
  • 5.

    Analysis of historical materials related to the territorial sovereignty of Dokdo according to the Cabinet Secretariat of Japan and the character of this sovereignty

    Choi Bo Young | 2020, (84) | pp.85~106 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The reason that Japan selected and disclosed the records collected by its Office of Policy Planning and Coordination on Territory and Sovereignty was to argue that their incorporation of Dokdo, an uninhabited island, was “lawful” based on “clear” grounds, and that their occupation of the island is “justified.” However, the documents used as proof have been intentionally manipulated and designed to support Japan’s argument. This study indicates how much of the disclosed records, in fact, disproves Japan’s right to occupy Dokdo. Just as Korean scholars are attending to research on Dokdo conducted by Japanese scholars, so Japanese scholars are interested in Korean research on the subject. This means that research by Korean scholars, as well as projects related to Dokdo conducted by the South Korean government and South Korean institutions, must be all the more rigorous. Additionally, we must conduct broad continuous and systematic research on Dokdo in order to promote correct understanding of the issue and its resolution, rather than simply responding to false claims made by Japan.
  • 6.

    Public and Private Concepts and the Position of Women in Japan -Focusing on the Agnes debate in the 1980s-

    Yongwoo Choi | 2020, (84) | pp.107~126 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Since the 1980s, varying concepts of public and private have been introduced by cultural anthropologists into the theoretical work of feminism, emphasizing the ambiguity of public and private arenas, and focusing on the differences between women. However, the concepts of public and private are so relative that Western notions of these concepts are not readily accepted in Asia, even for cultures that share a Confucian heritage, the meanings of these terms are unique for each country. The words “public” and “private” use the same Chinese characters in Korea, China, and Japan, but are understood slightly differently. In Japan, ‘私’(private) has been subordinated to ‘公’(public), and the word ‘私’ has three multi-layered and contradictory meanings. In this article, we explain Japan’s social structure by clarifying its unique concepts of private and public, and we examine the social position and problems of Japanese women in this context. In Japan, women have engaged in six major woman’s debates since the 1950s, but the Agnes debate(1987) brought public attention to the double burden of women in public and private sectors. Therefore, in this article, we focus on the Agnes debate and examine the private aspects of Japanese women in the official arena of the workplace.
  • 7.

    A Study of “The Bridegroom Was a Dog” by Yoko Tawada -Focusing on Liberation from Gender Norms-

    MATSUZAKI MIEKO | 2020, (84) | pp.127~144 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper discusses the heterogeneity illustrated in “The Bridegroom Was a Dog (Inumukoiri)”(1992)by Yoko Tawada, by connecting with her viewpoint on cotemporary Japanese society. It is pointed out that the central characters, Mitsuko and Taro are described as being liberated from gender norms and it is also confirmed that such liberation will break down the marriage and family system. Moreover, the social taboo of sexual minorities like Mitsuko and Taro is rezealed. Focusing on the fact that the people living in Tama area which developed during the high economic growth period of Japan, were considered to be typical examples or norms, the author of this novel expresses her discomfort with such a society by describing people who are not bound by such norms. The heterogeneity in this novel discussed in preceding studies may be considered to have been established by the non-conscious norms of its readers.
  • 8.

    Acceptance of Buddhism in Otogibouko: One aspect of the story of the old enemy of the Houjo family

    PIAO AIHUA | 2020, (84) | pp.145~169 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined the characters and authors’ intentions in literary adaptations, based on four stories: “Revived after seeing hell (地獄を見て蘇)” ; “The upright civil servant who received a government position after death (廉直頭人死司官職)” ; “Form connection with a ghost upon making a wish (祈て幽霊に契る)” ; and “Unable to achieve prestige due to the sin of adultery (邪婬の罪立身せず).” These stories concern the Miura family, an old enemy of the Houjo family, as well as the Uesugi family. The research confirmed that these four tales of hell and retribution have a strong Buddhist color. The image of the main character as an upright Confucian scholar in “Revived after seeing hell” can be interpreted as a projection of the character of Miura Dosun and his family, who wish to leave their name behind by choosing an honorable death as samurai. The commonality of the three stories “The upright civil servant who received a government position after death,” dealing with a government official; “Form connection with a ghost upon making a wish” ; and “Unable to achieve prestige due to the sin of adultery,” dealing with male desire is the appearance of Uesugi Norimasa’s retainers. They appear only as negative figures who exploit the people by playing sly, obscene games the whole time. This seems to be related to family customs and the personality of the foolish master, Uesugi Norimasa, when he was a Kanto-Kanrei.
  • 9.

    Representing Emotion in Cultural Studies: Focusing on the textual approach of Huton and Mujong

    Cho, Hun-Goo | 2020, (84) | pp.171~186 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes and compares expressions of "love" included in the Korean novel, Mujong, with those of the Japanese novel, Huton. Mujong and Huton have a contextual connection, in that a particular method, the “I Novel,” was used to represent the author’s own emotions in both texts. We looked at how the concept of "I," or emotion and reason, defined the new sense of love in early novels of Korea and Japan. This notion of “love” developed in modern era discourse led to discussion of how it became integrated into a new cultural space that differed from the previous one.
  • 10.

    Boundaries of Poetic License in the Works of Sakutaro Hagiwara -Focusing on “Howling to the Moon”-

    Chae Jihye | 2020, (84) | pp.187~203 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study addresses the boundaries of poetic license in the works of Sakutaro Hagiwara. The works of the concepts of Morrel and discusses the boundaries of how far readers should be allowed to go in literature and art. In Sakutaro's works, in particular, one can find sharply opposing expressionsim divided accordingly by the poetic subject and poetic object. In general, poetic subjects are mainly represented by expressions of diseased bodies, while poetic objects represent glamorous women’s bodies. Through careful examination and analysis of these two aspects, I intend to re-examine how these two aspectsare represented in Sakutaro's work. Sakutaro stands on Morrel’s border. His painted aesthetics and art present states of harsh, brutal amputations of the bodies of beautiful women, which prompt reevaluation of modern literature. How will he accommodate Sakutaro's literary experimentation and the ambiguous ethical boundaries of the artist’s experience of being the subject of woman's body, or in his free imagination, without limitation? How will the reader evaluate his work on the general social scale? I think we need another review of his poet's Moral.
  • 11.

    Regional Differences in the Usage of the Discourse Marker “Hora”: Comparison between the Younger Generations in Tokyo and Osaka

    Jongae Keum | 2020, (84) | pp.205~219 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    “Hora” is a discourse marker that is used in communication to emphasize information that has already been shared, or can be shared in the future, to direct conversations on the basis of the information. In this paper, differences in the usage pattern of “hora” between the younger generations in Tokyo and Osaka were analyzed. It was observed that the discourse marker “hora” appeared more often in Tokyo than in Osaka. This suggests that the younger generation in Tokyo has a communicational tendency of reminding listeners of their shared information, and leading the conversation accordingly. This tendency was comparatively weaker in Osaka. Therefore, we can infer that differences in the usage pattern of discourse markers can lead to miscommunication among various regional people despite the fact that a common language might be used in those regions.
  • 12.

    An analysis of Korean sentence-final nuntey and its Japanese counterparts :Using data from a Korean original drama and its dubbing in Japanese

    kim Joungmin | 2020, (84) | pp.221~236 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to analyze Korean sentence-final nuntey and its Japanese counterparts, using data extracted from a Korean original drama and its Japanese dubbed version. In particular, the focus is on the frequency of nuntey and its Japanese counterparts and the relationships between the context in which nuntey occurs and the high ranking Japanese counterparts. The results of this study are summarized as follows. (i) Distribution of nuntey in each position of occurrence: Sentence-medial position (365 tokens, 43.45%) > Sentence-final position(475 tokens, 56.55%) (ii) The three high ranking Japanese counterparts of sentence-final nuntey : Sentence-final verb form> noda > kedo (204 tokens, 42.95%) (61 tokens, 12.84%) (47 tokens, 9.89%) (iii) The corresponding relationships between contexts where sentence-final nuntey occurs and the three high ranking Japanese counterparts: To express a speaker's subjective attitude: sentence-final verb form> kedo > noda To indicate information toward an addressee: sentence-final verb form> kedo > noda To request information from an addressee: sentence-final verb form> noda> kedo
  • 13.

    Case ‘ni’ from the viewpoint of Japanese syntax

    Park Kanghun | 2020, (84) | pp.237~251 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the nature of Case ‘ni’ in modern Japanese from a syntactic point of view. In particular, I propose that issues left unresolved in previous studies can be resolved using a new syntactic test. In the previous studies, the study of Case ‘ni’ has been spotlighted by approaches such as syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic methods, drawing on the various uses of ‘ni’. Determining the nature of Case ‘ni’ in syntactic studies, especially which usage is grammatical or adverbial, is a very important issue in terms of case assignment. However, such a syntactic test has not been done. Therefore, it has been left as a future subject in previous studies. This paper is based on two observations.: (i) There is a strong syntactic constraint that NPIs in multiple NPI constructions in Japanese must always appear in the adjunct position and (ii) NPI ‘sika’ can be attached to various case particles. In other words, if ‘ni + sika’ can co-occur with other NPIs in the same clause, then the Case ‘ni’ is categorized as an adverbial Case, and if it cannot co-occur, it is classified as a grammatical Case.
  • 14.

    Mother Language Influence on the Learning Process of the Passive Form -Based on a study of Korean Japanese learners-

    Shin, Eun-Jeong | 2020, (84) | pp.253~267 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The passive form in Japanese is typically one of the most difficult items for individuals with Korean as their mother language to learn, and even advanced Japanese learners sometimes have limited understanding of passive sentences. With this background, this study aimed to investigate perceptions of the Japanese language passive form by individuals with Korean as their mother language; determine how such perceptions influence acquisition of the Japanese language passive form; and devise a proper teaching-learning scheme for the Japanese language passive form. The analysis showed that the prototype image of the Japanese language passive form possessed by Japanese learners with Korean as their mother language was “to be moved by something other than a subject,” which is very similar to Korean passive sentence structure. Such influence of the mother language interrupts passive sentence formation with intransitive verbs, so a student who has no difficulty interpreting a Japanese sentence with an intransitive verb could have difficulty writing a passive sentence in Japanese with the same intransitive verb. Furthermore, since the concept of a relation between doer and subject influenced by the action of the doer is not fully understood by Japanese learners, they also have a very limited understanding of intransitive verbs and indirect passive sentences. Therefore, it would be necessary to devise an education plan to teach verbal functions of these passive sentences using various sample sentences from the perspective of comparison/contrast, rather than solely focusing on the linguistic structure of Japanese, a major concern of Japanese textbooks.
  • 15.

    Korean, Chinese, and Japanese four-letter syntactical comparison

    Li, Yu-Quan·Lee | Lee, Hyang-Ran | 2020, (84) | pp.269~289 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The reason for the appearance of these variants is that there is a difference in the recognition of language culture and Buddhist culture in each country. This study compared and analyzed morphologically the Japanese and Chinese lexicons, focusing on Japanese lexicons. Of the 7,818 words, the most common (2,236, i.e., 28.6%) were Korean, Chinese, and Japanese. The number of Japanese/Chinese isomorphic variants was 1,885 (24.1%), and the number of Japanese/Chinese isomorphous variants was 1,578 (20.2%). In addition, 2,119 words (27.1%) appeared as the only four-letter words in Japanese. As a result of the comparison, the Korean, Chinese, and Japanese isomorphs were most frequently investigated, which is similar to the research result of Zhang (2018). Japanese and Chinese isomorphs were more common than Japanese and Korean isomorphs. This is similar the result of Hayashi’s (2013) study, but opposite to the result of a study by Zhang (2018). Japanese-only four-letter words have a relatively low ratio compared to Hayashi’s (2013) results. There were variant patterns in the Korean, Chinese, and Japanese characters. For example, “a part of a four-letter word that differs in part,” “a four-letter word that has a different word order,” and “a case where there is no four-letter word corresponding to each country.” The reason for the appearance of these variants was the difference in the recognition of language culture and Buddhist culture in each country, or the result of the reduction and recombination of Chinese words.
  • 16.

    Commercial Function of Vocabulary Used in Blurbs -Focusing on the use of uwasano (rumored X) in the titles of magazine articles-

    Otani, Teppei | 2020, (84) | pp.291~311 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Some commonly used Japanese expressions exhibit what the author calls “commercial functions,” in other words, advertisement-like nuances. These expressions often leave an impression of exaggeration because they are used in such a way that they are expected to convey something more than their lexical meanings. In this paper, the author attempts to describe the characteristics of these advertisement-like expressions through the analysis of the expression uwasano- (or rumored X), as they appear in the titles of magazine articles. For this purpose, the magazine article database, Web-OYA, and the analysis tool KH Corder were used. The result will be important in guiding a qualitative investigation based on a method of critical discourse analysis. The results of the analysis suggest the variations of particles and related words next to the expression uwasano-, as well as the tendency of context composition.
  • 17.

    The Acquisition of Koto/No -Focus on beginning intermediate levels-

    Choi jinhui | 2020, (84) | pp.313~331 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, two tests were conducted to analyze the ways that beginning and intermediate learners use Koto and No, when divided into fourgroups: Koto usage only, No usage only, prefer Koto over No, and prefer No over Koto. The results showed the highest correct answer rate to be, in the following order, Koto usage only, No usage only,prefer Koto over No,prefer No over Koto. Therefore, most learners can beaccuratelyacquire use of Koto but have a tendency to use Koto whenNo is the proper us. This isexplained by the greater difficulty ofacquiring No than Koto. Learners should be instructed to use No in specific behaviors and situations that are limited by the locality. In fact, the correct answer rate was high for Koto use atthe end of sentence expression in comparison with the use of No. When the learners’ level was high, the correct answer rate for theuse of Koto and No was also high, showing that when learnerstheir level, their ability to acquire Koto and No also improved. In this study, we confirmed that acquiring No is harder than Koto, which can be explained by a hypothesis related tointernal and external conditions. It is considered easier to obtain what is determined only by the relationship to elements in asentence, while it is difficult to learn what is defined other than sentences such as context or situation. No is a form of sentence expression one decides to use based on the relationships between sentences, so it is harder to learn than Koto.