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2020, Vol., No.87

  • 1.

    Izumishikibu of "Otogi Zoshisyu"

    Nam, Yi-Sug | 2020, (87) | pp.5~22 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In“Otogi Zoshi”, Izumishikibu is described as a prostitute. Domyo was abandoned by her at an early age. He grew up and became a fine monk, but he committed adultery with his mother. Shikibu noticed that they had committed incest, and she became a nun. In the story, the image of Shikibu was different from her general character. Her romance was fictionalized. This kind of fiction was already used in medieval tales. Both of them were famous poets. Shikibu was a free-spirited woman, and Domyo was a monk who was famous for reading sutras clearly. This is why they were described as a romantic couple in stories. why did the main characters commit mother-child adultery? It can be said that the Muromachi period, during which this work was written, reflected the possibility that all moral and value pursuit in the world was not normal due to the war. Such plots seem crude and simple, but they seem to contain the author’s detailed intentions. Men are the existence of desire, and it is a man who pursues it. This plot draws the most fundamental desire of maternal and child adultery into the story and leads the main character to Buddhism. This is thought to be because Buddhism is most effective in preaching the last commandment after letting readers savor and enjoy human desires. It can be said that the was good at calculating the taste of stories between the aristocrats and ordinary people who were readers of the day.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Significances of Kaoru’s Soliloquy Poems in the Volume of Kagero in The Tale of Genji –Focusing on their Relation to the Demise of the Story–

    YOON SEONGMIN | 2020, (87) | pp.23~39 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Kaoru, the protagonist of the third part of The Tale of Genji, composes 18 soliloquy poems, which describe his emotions in various scenes. In the volume of Kagero, three poems are recited in three scenes: (i) the scene where Kaoru heard about the death of Ukifune in Uji; (ii) the scene where Kaoru, who failed to be in a relationship with Onna-Ichinomiya, reflects his life; (iii) the final scene of the volume of Kagero where Kaoru melancholically reminisces Uji. There are several motives which led Kaoru to create these poems, one of which is his desire to express his vacant emotion, but what is notable here is that Kaoru narrated his emotions through these poems and sort out his feelings, which drastically shifted several scenes of the story. All of what Kaoru has sought is Kagero, or impermanence. Kaoru feels the sense of loss as if he lost everything, and he feels alone and lonely when he recites poems. These are indicative that Kaoru realized the death of Ukifune and he would never be in a relationship with her no matter how he seeks to meet her again.
  • 3.

    The Past and Present of Tennou System -Tennou’s Replacement and Contemporary Japan-

    katsurazima nobuhiro | 2020, (87) | pp.41~53 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    To show the “uniqueness” of the modern and contemporary system of Tennou, it is important to consider the merits of Tennou and the theory about Him until the Tokugawa period. Despite the fact that the dynasty changed substantially, Tennou and His Court were allowed to exist only as long as they were of use to the Samurai Sovereignty. The ideology that the Tennou system was regarded as a characteristic of Japanese history and political order comes to the fore with the operation of Japanese nationalism. However, after the Meiji Restoration, it was heavily influenced by the repeated proclamation in the systematic structure of the orthodox Japanese theory on Japan crowned with Tennou, the incarnated God with the unbroken imperial line, by being reorganized into a content of the “tradition” of the modern nation-state, the state that “the creation of tradition” was made a priority task.
  • 4.

    Study on the Origin of Kagura's Rhythmic Motif “Teketetton” (part 2) ―Nasori in Local Areas' Bugaku and Ryūten in Shushōe or Sato-kagura―

    Kawasaki, Mizuho | 2020, (87) | pp.55~76 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the Sato-kagura's music in the Kanto region, a short rhythmic motif called Teketetton is often used that is mainly played by drums (sometimes a bamboo flute is included). In March 2016, I presented a paper titled “Study on the Origin of Kagura Musical Accompaniment ‘Teketetton’: Focusing on the Relationship Between the ‘Age-byōshi’ (in ‘Komagaku’) and ‘Teketetton’” in The Journal of Next-Generation Humanities and Social Sciences. In the paper, I proposed the hypothesis that this rhythmic motif is derived from the Age-byōshi (rhythmic motif) that is used in the music Komagaku music that came to Japan from the Korean Peninsula. First, in this paper, I reconsider the possibility that Teketetton may be derived from Komagaku's repertoire Nasori, which uses Age-byōshi as an accompaniment, in comparison to Bugaku in the local areas. Next, I compare rhythmic motifs in the performance Ryūden/Ryūten in Hayachine Kagura and the Teketetton and point out similarities and differences. Finally, from noting that the Tengu's accompaniment of the repertoire Amakudari of Hayachine Kagura (Take Kagura) uses the same rhythmic motif as Ryūden/ Ryūten, I presented the hypothesis that Hayachine Kagura's Ryūden/ Ryūten retains the transitional form in which Age-byōshi of Nasori is diverted as Teketetton in the repertoire of Tengu.
  • 5.

    Trends in food culture centered on food and movement of people -Focusing on efforts to globalize Japanese "food"-

    Kim, Young-Soon | 2020, (87) | pp.77~91 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    What makes the local foods to be global foods? In this paper, we focus on the movement of "food" and "people." In particular, the paper clarified the process of globalization of Japan's "food" through the policy efforts of the Japanese government. Japan saw the crisis that the "food" market would shrink as the population declined due to the declining birthrate and aging population, as well as the sluggish growth rate of GDP. Moreover, the service industry, including the food service sector, is considered to be a domestic demand-type industry, accounting for only 70% of GDP. From this, it was judged that improving productivity in the food industry is an "urgent issue" and "entering overseas markets is indispensable." Around 2003, when "Japanese food: Japanese traditional food culture" was registered as an intangible cultural heritage of UNESCO, Japanese government responded quickly to the globalization of food culture and food industry in Japan. It was probably that the government already had a sense of crisis about the "food" industry and was already preparing for it. The number of visitors to Japan in 2019 was 31,882,049, which is 1/4 of the total population of Japan, and 60% of the visitors to Japan are repeaters. By encouraging the movement of people and developing various inbound policies that combine "sightseeing" and "food," Japanese food has also established itself in the global market. It can be said that the measures taken as part of the export strategy in an all-Japan system in collaboration with related ministries and agencies have been successful.
  • 6.

    Characteristics of Yanagi Muneyoshi’s Understanding of Korea ーFocusing His Early Writingー

    Lee, Sang-Jin | 2020, (87) | pp.93~106 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze characteristics of Yanagi Muneyoshi’s underst anding of Korea in the colonial period by investigating the content of his early writing about Korea. The articles analyzed in this study are “Sculpture of Seokbulsa”, which w as published in Geijutsu in 1919, “My Feeling Toward Fellow Koreans” in the Yomiuri Newspaper from May20-24,1919, and “ A Letter to My Korean Friends”, which was pu blished in Kaijo in 1920. Yanagi made his first trip to Korea in 1916. He visited many places including Busan, the Hayin Buddhist Temple, Seokguram Grotto, and part of the Bulguksa Temple compl ex in Gyeongju. From that time on, he became interested in Korean history, religion, ar t, and people, and he began to understand them.. Yanagi did not engage in political speech activities that actively opposed Japan’s colon ial rule in Korea. He showed that there was no prejudice or discrimination against forei gn objects, and that he could recognize himself by understanding a foreign culture. He had no prejudice or discrimination against foreign cultures; instead, he showed that we can recognize ourselves by understanding something different.
  • 7.

    Disputes between Korea and Japan in the 1950s surrounding Dokdo and the result -Focusing on the territorial tombstones in Dokdo-

    Lee, So-Ri | 2020, (87) | pp.107~124 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Japan has publicly claimed its sovereignty over Dokdo since its Shimane Prefecture adopted the “-Takeshima Day-” Ordinance in March, 2005. In response, Gyeongsangbuk-do, which has jurisdiction over the island, decided to restore and rebuild territorial tombstones in Dokdo that were destroyed in the past in commemoration of the 60th anniversary of Korea’s liberation on August 15 of the same year. Three tombstones were restored by the Provine, namely the -‘Dokdo Island Memorial Tombstone of Shipwreck Victims’-, the - ‘Memorial Stele by Corea Alpine Club-’, and the- ‘Korean Territorial Tombstone’- which were erected in the 1950s. The purpose of this study is to explore the three tombstones and stele that were rebuilt by Gyeongsangbuk-do, focusing on the year of establishment, process, and reason for erection. The study found that Japan had installed its territorial tombstones four times since June, 1953, and Korea removed them one by one and established the ‘-Korean Territorial Tombstone-’ in August, 1954. Japan’s territorial tombstones were permanently eliminated and only the Korean territorial tombstone was left on the island, which serves as a testament to the effective occupation of Dokdo by Korea.
  • 8.

    From sympathy for the colony to symbiosis -Focusing on Tomoyoshi Murayama's stay in Korea in 1945-‐

    Lee Jung-Wook | 2020, (87) | pp.125~138 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper considers the meaning of Tomoyoshi Murayama's activities while staying in Korea in 1945. Murayama, who lost an opportunity to play an active role in Japan, chose Korea because he had sympathy for the colony since the 1930s. Murayama, who interacted with many Koreans and supported them, would do his best for the cultural activities of the colonial Korea in 1945. He was a Japanese who was pleased with the liberated Korea. In addition, Manchuria, where Murayama made a movie, will be a new world of symbiosis that tried to pave the way for Koreans, Japanese, and Chinese to live together.
  • 9.

    Analyzing the Cultural Factors of Young Koreans’ Perception toward Japan - Beyond the “Vicious Cycle of Mutual Hate”-

    OH SEUNG HEE | 2020, (87) | pp.139~158 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study focuses on the cultural aspect of relations between Korea and Japan, recognizing that the young people's perception of Japan has changed when compared to that of previous generations. After the 1998 Kim-Obuchi Joint Declaration, Koreans were able to enjoy Japanese pop culture. Unlike previous generations, Korean younger generations have contributed to the positive recognition of Japan. As of 2020, the MZ generation, which makes up the youth generation in 2020, is good at recognizing and expressing themselves as consumers. This generation looks at the world centered on “I," consuming Japan and utilizing digital technology to communicate, and constructing hybrid identities based on values. Despite being affected by historical conflicts and political influence based on the mutually hostile identities of anti-Japan and anti-Korea sentiments, it can be said that the resilience moving from conflict to cooperation has been strengthen based on the cultural exchanges and individual experiences.
  • 10.

    A New Study on the Problems of Korean Translation of Takuboku Ishikawa’s Tanka

    Yun, Jae-Seug | 2020, (87) | pp.159~173 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    When translating Takuboku's Tanka into Korean, the number of syllables has been problematic. It is a question of whether or not the 5-7-5-7-7 syllable system of Tanka can be used in Korean. In relation to the translations of Takuboku's tanka in Korea today, it can be seen that except for me, the 5-7-5-7-7 syllable system of tanka is uniformly used by other Korean translators. This is considered to be an ingenuity to express the core system of tanka. It is thought that there are similarities in the number of syllables and the structure of vocabulary between Korean and Japanese. However, despite the similarities, the conventional translation of the Japanese 5-7-5-7-7 syllable system into Korean may result in unnatural translation in Korean. Whether or not it is desirable to make use of the 5-7-5-7-7 system in Korean tanka translation depends on the translator's position. However, considering the existing translations of Takuboku's tanka in Korea, it may be meaningful to try to translate them using natural Korean like my translation. This article poses an objection to the conventional way of translation in Korea. It is also an attempt to supplement the objectivity of translation by rethinking translation in general, which is supposed to be creative. This is why the word “new” was added to the title of this article.
  • 11.

    Necessity of literature and educational method for revitalizing Japanese language education -Focusing on “Japanese I” in the revised high school curriculum of 2015-

    Yun Hye Young | 2020, (87) | pp.175~191 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study proposed a method of literary education to revitalize Japanese language education and realize educational goals by examining the characteristics of cultural content and the necessity of a method of literature, focusing on the high school “Japanese Language I” of the 2015 revised curriculum. As a result of analyzing the four “Japanese I” textbooks that currently occupy a high proportion, various cultural contents are introduced according to the instructions in the second foreign language curriculum, but literature depicting society and humanity is not dealt with. Literature has an aspect that serves as a tool to convey a strong message of life to people while depicting Japanese society and Japanese people trying to overcome the times of disasters. In addition, the power of literature cannot be underestimated in the background of Japan’s growth as a cultural powerhouse. Therefore, it can be said that it is necessary to introduce literature into the cultural column of textbooks in order to achieve the educational goal of cultivating the qualities and attitudes that can “contribute to the creation of new culture” and build “global citizenship”. Therefore, in this study, as examples of introducing literature into textbooks, three specific methods were proposed, nemely connecting Japanese entertainment content with literature by combining Japanese literature with the cultural content in existing textbooks, combining Japanese entertainment contents and literature, and independently presenting literature.
  • 12.

    A study of Kim Seok-beom’s “under the sea, under the ground -Focusing on the memories of Jeju 4.3-

    LIM SUNG TAEK | 2020, (87) | pp.193~207 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aimed to examine the meaning of the 50th anniversary of the 4.3 projected in the works of under the sea, under the ground and the appearance of 4·3 in the memories of people living abroad. Although 50 years have passed, the memory of the massacre perpetuated by the ruling power and the suffering of the Jeju people is apparent, and the 50th anniversary means that an atmosphere has been created that can formally comfort the souls of the victims in an inexplicable situation. On the other hand, under the sea, under the ground has significance in that it depicts the inner agony of the perpetrator through a character named Han Il-sang, unlike previous works. While the existing works mainly show a narrative structure that describes the victim's pain, this work stands out in that it depicts the agony of a repenting perpetrator.
  • 13.

    A contrastive study on Japanese and Korean noun-concluding sentences encoding subjective meanings: Based on data of novels and newspapers

    Kim, Joung-Min | 2020, (87) | pp.209~224 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aimed to analyze the use of noun-concluding sentences that encode subjective meanings (henceforth, NCSs) in Japanese and Korean from the perspective of contrastive linguistics. Based on data from Japanese and Korean novels and newspapers, this study investigated the frequency distribution of nouns in NCSs and suggested pedagogical considerations for effective teaching NCSs that indicate intention. (I) The frequency of Korean NCSs attested in novels is slightly higher than that of Japanese NCSs, while the opposite result was observed in newspapers. (II) Nouns that show high frequency are as follows (3~4nouns in the order of frequency). Japanese novels: ki ‘thought’, kanji ‘feeling’, kimochi ‘mind’, tsumori ‘intention’ Korean novels: kipwun ‘feeling’, nukkim ‘feeling’, sayngkak ‘thought’ Japanese Newspaper: yotee ‘schedule’, mitoosi ‘expectation’, kamae ‘attitude’, hoosin ‘policy’ Korean Newspaper: yeyceong ‘schedule’, kyeyhoyk ‘plan’, cenmang ‘expectation’, pangchim ‘policy’ (III)TheNCSs indicatingintentionshouldbetaughtinconsiderationofrestrictiononpersonalpronouns, distributional difference of nouns between genres, and the corresponding relationship between two languages.
  • 14.

    A study on the honorific language of “Towazugatari” - Focus on “Mairu”-

    Do, Ki-Jeong | 2020, (87) | pp.225~239 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the “Mairu” that was used in the “Towaz ug atar i ” in the kamakura period. “Mairu” is originally used as an honorific language for “Kenjogo” of “Iku”. F i r s t , “ M a i r u ” i s w e l l u s e d a s a n i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b i n “ T o wa z u g a t a r i ” m e a n i n g “Sanjosuru”(go to the palace), or “Sanpaisuru”(go to the shrine) Second, “Mairu” is also used with “Hoshisuru”(to serve) and “Sashiageru”(to give) as a transitive verb. This shows that “Mairu” can change from an intransitive verb into a transitive verb. Lastly, “Mairu” can be used to mean “Meshiagaru”(to eat), which is an honorific language(Sonkeigo) for treating the subject directly. In summary, these examples show that “Mairu” has many meanings and usages.
  • 15.

    A Study on the Simple School System in Japan during the Japanese Colonial Period

    song sookjeong | 2020, (87) | pp.241~262 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The original purpose of the junior high school was to educate children in marginalized rural areas in a short period of time and to develop activists who could utilize them in agricultural practice. However, unlike its original purpose, it was merely an auxiliary educational institution for children suffering from admission difficulties due to the lack of public schools to accommodate children of school age. What is important here is the fact that the simple school was a two-year final education that could not be promoted to a higher education institution because the curriculum was not allowed. Nevertheless, there is a high craving for learning here, and to accommodate all of them, we see cases where private schools, private schools, improved books, etc. were initially promoted to simple schools and operated. I was able to. And competition to attract simple schools is intensifying mainly in rural areas, and for the construction of simple schools, only their children, from local volunteers to poor peasants, do not miss the opportunity to learn. I confessed everything and donated. The spread of these simple schools ended in the form of being promoted to national schools with the announcement of the implementation plan for compulsory education in 1942.
  • 16.

    The difference in perception between Japanese and non-Japanese learners regarding “Saseteitadaku”-focusing on learners in Europe-

    Lee, Hyeon-Jin | 2020, (87) | pp.263~280 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey on allowing “extended usage” focusing on European Japanese language learners. We found the following results. (i) When asked if they used “Saseteitadaku” in real life often, the percentage of respondents who responded positively was higher: “European learners” (95%), “East Asian learners” (70%) and “Japanese learners” (32%). (ii) Japanese learners understand that “Iwaseteitadaku” is an expression used when expressing their opinions. However, it was confirmed that the criteria for judging this expression differ depending on who the listener is rather than paying attention to the special characteristics of “Iwaseteitadaku” in East Asia and Europe. (iii) European learners felt uncomfortable with the sentence used in this survey as the “extended usage” compared to Japanese and East Asian learners, and they tended to recognize it as “respect” or a “routine way of speaking.” (iv) Results such as (iii) above are thought to have arisen from problems with the description in textbooks, lack of respect for the mother tongue, and the recognition that “Saseteitadaku” is easy to use.
  • 17.

    A Category of Grammar that is Hard to Acquire -Based on SPOT Research-

    Choi jinhui | 2020, (87) | pp.281~296 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we investigated a category of grammar that is hard to acquire using the SPOT(Simple Performance-Oriented Test) for Japanese learners at the beginning level. The SPOT(B.ver), showed that in eight cases, less than 50% of the answers were correct. These expressions are difficult to listen to in pronunciation, idiomatic expression, accompanied by negative expression and humility grammar item, which is hard to acquire. In particular, “dokonimo” was introduced at the beginning level but it was not learned well by beginners. Therefore, it is critical to include this part in the instruction. When we checked the result of the SPOT(A.ver), the correct answers in nine cases were below 50%. “Katoomottara” (24.6%) was the lowest case, followed by “nante,” ”youna,” “soumonai,” “huni,” and “youtositara.” Among the questions, “~ka,” which indicates uncertainty in a sentence, had the lowest rate. Many Japanese learners use “nante” instead of “toomou” due to confusion. In addition, auxiliary verb-related expressions such as “youna,” “soumonai,” and “youtositara” can be classified as items that are difficult to learn. Instruction should be given to students so that they can learn these items specifically. From now on, I hope that we can reflect on this result to improve the instruction for Japanese learners.
  • 18.

    Establishment and transformation of Wonheung School in Wonsan

    HWANG WOON | 2020, (87) | pp.297~312 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we focused on Wonsan Wonheung School, a Korean modern educational institution considered one of the Japanese-established private schools in modern Korea, based on the examination of diplomatic historical materials, which area direct record of Wonheung School. Founded by Hanji Kondo in September 1899, Wonsan Wonheung School was born out of a public elementary school whose predecessor was Wonsan School, a private school founded by Korean. At the beginning of itsestablishment, the school was sustained with the assistance of Japanese and Korean local notables in addition to the tuition fee. In February 1902, a donation of 800 yen was solicited among Japanese people, and in October of the same year, a request was made to Japan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs to subsidize the school with 30 yen every month for three years. A monthly subsidy of 30 yen would be provided from January 1903, but on April 25, 1904, an incident occurred in which Hanji Kondo was taken prisoner of the Russian army. So Wonheung School was overseen by the consul and the garrison leader, and Wonheung School, established with the aim of modern education for Koreans, transformed into a school that cultivates people who can work in Japan.