In this study, two tests were conducted to analyze the ways that beginning and intermediate learners use Koto and No, when divided into fourgroups: Koto usage only, No usage only, prefer Koto over No, and prefer No over Koto. The results showed the highest correct answer rate to be, in the following order, Koto usage only, No usage only,prefer Koto over No,prefer No over Koto.
Therefore, most learners can beaccuratelyacquire use of Koto but have a tendency to use Koto whenNo is the proper us. This isexplained by the greater difficulty ofacquiring No than Koto. Learners should be instructed to use No in specific behaviors and situations that are limited by the locality.
In fact, the correct answer rate was high for Koto use atthe end of sentence expression in comparison with the use of No. When the learners’ level was high, the correct answer rate for theuse of Koto and No was also high, showing that when learnerstheir level, their ability to acquire Koto and No also improved.
In this study, we confirmed that acquiring No is harder than Koto, which can be explained by a hypothesis related tointernal and external conditions.
It is considered easier to obtain what is determined only by the relationship to elements in asentence, while it is difficult to learn what is defined other than sentences such as context or situation. No is a form of sentence expression one decides to use based on the relationships between sentences, so it is harder to learn than Koto.