Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.75

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pISSN : 1226-4075 / eISSN : 2287-786X
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2021, Vol.33, No.3

  • 1.

    Study on the Validation of Sasang Digestive Function Inventory (SDFI) for Analyzing Pathophysiological Digestive Symptoms and Diagnosing Sasang Types

    Chae, Han , Lee, Jeong-Yun , Lee, Yongjae | 2021, 33(3) | pp.1~15 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Introduction The clinical usefulness of Sasang Digestive Function Inventory (SDFI) for analyzing Sasang type-specific pathophysiological symptom was illustrated repeatedly. It was revised to enhance its validity, reliability and clinical usefulness, however its clinical studies supporting these were not sufficient yet. Methods 193 healthy university students responded once to Nepean Dyspepsia Index-Korean (NDIK), Functional Dyspepsia-Related Quality of Life (FDQOL), and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and twice to SDFI with four weeks of interval. The Body Mass Index (BMI) and Ponderal Index (PI) were also calculated. The 4-week test-retest reliability and correlation coefficients between NDIK, FDQOL, DEBQ, and SDFI were examined using Pearson’s correlation. The significant differences between Sasang types in SDFI and its subscales were examined using ANCOVA with the age as covariate. Results The range of test-retest reliability for SDFI and its subscales was from 0.801 to 0.887. The SDFI-total correlated positively with BMI (r=0.323) and DEBQ-External Eating (r=0.433), while the SDFI-Digestion negatively with NDIK (r=-0.472) and FDQOL-total (r=-0.364). The SDFI-Habit correlated positively with BMI (r=0.310) and DEBQ-total (r=0.481), and the SDFI-Appetite with DEBQ-total (r=0.322). The SDFI-total, SDFI-Digestion, and SDFI-Habit scores of Tae-Eum type (35.6±6.25, 12.38±3.24 and 9.89±3.38, respectively) were significantly bigger than those of So-Eum type (29.84±8.31, 9.93±4.28 and 7.66±3.96). Discussion The SDFI was found to be an objective clinical measure with sufficient concurrent validity for measuring eating behavior and quality of life related to overeating and dyspepsia, and illustrated distinctive differences between Sasang types. It might be useful for the effective medical education and integrative medical practice.
  • 2.

    Study on the Validation of Sasang Urination Inventory (SUI) for Analyzing Pathophysiological Symptoms and Diagnosing Sasang Types

    Chae, Han , Seul Lee , Yu-Gyeong Park and 1 other persons | 2021, 33(3) | pp.16~28 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Introduction The Sasang Urination Defecation Inventory was developed to analyze Sasang-type specific pathophysiological clinical symptoms, and its revised Sasang Urination Inventory (SUI) illustrated its clinical usefulness in Sasang type differentiation. However, the correlation with established clinical measures for its concurrent validity were not provided yet. Methods Total of 48 healthy university students were recruited to response Urogenital Distress Inventory-6 (UDI-6) and Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) of Western medicine along with the SUI of traditional Korean medicine. The correlation coefficients between UDI-6 and OABSS and SUI were acquired with Pearson’s correlation, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Profile Analysis were used to analyze significant differences in SUI subscale profiles of each Sasang types. Results The SUI-HSS of urogenital hypersensitivity correlated positively with OABSS (r=0.442, p<0.01), and the SUI-DIS of urinary discomfort positively with UDI-6 (r=0.289, p<0.05). Interestingly, the SUI-total was correlated positively with age (r=0.326), height (r=0.318) and weight (r=0.304). The SUI-DIS for urinary discomfort of So-Yang (9.48±2.11) type was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of Tae-Eum (7.2±2.90) type. And SUI subscale profiles of each Sasang type were significantly (Wilks’ Lambda=0.792, F=2.723, p=0.034) distinctive to each other. Discussion The acceptable convergent validity of SUI was shown using established measures of urogenital symptoms. The SUI might be used as an objective traditional Korean clinical measure for Sasang type differentiation and urological patients.
  • 3.

    Literature Review on Exercise Therapy by Sasang Constitutionthrough Database Search

    Soyi Shin , jun-hee lee | 2021, 33(3) | pp.29~53 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objective The purpose of this review was to investigate exercise therapy by sasang constitution and to offer information for further research. Method The literature was investigated from KMBASE, KISS, ScienceON, JSCM, DBpia, Pubmed. The searching term were sasang, sasang constituion, sasang type, taeyangin, taeeumin, soyangin, soeumin, exercise, physical therapy, physical activity, and so on. Studies were extracted and analyzed exercise by sasang constitution, in addition, were also collected physiological differences related to sasang constitution, exercise ability, exercise response and effects, and exercise contraindications. Result & Conclusion It is helpful for Taeyangin to lower the energy through exercises that train the lower body and deep breathing, and there is no need to exercise excessively. Taeeumin tend to be obese compared to other constitutions. In order to be physically healthy, it is good to sweat a lot through regular exercise. It is good to do aerobic exercise that burns a lot of calories every day. Soyangin has a weak lower body, so it is good to exercise to reinforce the lower body. Soyangin has weak stamina, and since static exercise easily loses interest, it is helpful to do exciting exercise, and it can be performed at normal intensity. Soeumin are statistically less physically active. So soeumin need to improve exercise habits, but because physical strength is on the weak side, it is more appropriate to do an exercise that activates the body parts evenly rather than a strong one.
  • 4.

    Study on the Revision and Clinical Validation of the Sasang Digestive Function Inventory

    Lee, Yongjae , Seul Lee , So-hyung Kim and 2 other persons | 2021, 33(3) | pp.54~71 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives The purpose of this study was to revise Sasang Digestive Function Inventory (SDFI) and improve its validity and reliability using clinical data. Methods The Sasang type and Cold-Heat pattern differentiation by certified clinical specialist and responses to SDFI items were acquired from 419 hospital patients. The revision of SDFI was performed using item analysis and Explorative Factor Analysis (EFA). Furthermore, the validity and reliability of the revised SDFI (rSDFI) were investigated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Internal Consistency and Item Response Theory (IRT). And, clinical significance of the rSDFI was examined for the differentiation of Sasang types and Cold-Heat patterns. Results The number of the SDFI items were modified from 21 to 15. And, the validity and reliability of the rSDFI subscale structure were found to be acceptable. The scores of rSDFI-total and rSDFI-E significantly decreased in the order of Tae-Eum (TE), So-Yang (SY), So-Eum (SE) types, and the rSDFI score of SE type was significantly lower than that of TE and SY types. The rSDFI-total score could differentiate Cold-Heat pattern in both SY and SE types. And the difference of digestive function between Cold and Heat pattern of SE type could be explained with the rSDFI-D score. The rSDFI-total score in Cold pattern significantly decreased in the order of TE, SY, and SE types, and the rSDFI-total score of TE type is significantly higher than that of SE type in Heat pattern. Conclusions Current results demonstrated the reliability, validity and clinical usefulness of the rSDFI in clinical patients. Therefore, rSDFI can be utilized as an objective clinical measure supporting the differential diagnosis of Sasang typology.
  • 5.

    Clinical Research Trends in Sasang Constitutional Medicine Using Genetics

    Junhyung Park , Jieun Park , LEE SEUL and 2 other persons | 2021, 33(3) | pp.72~86 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study was to review the current clinical Sasang constitutions studies by using genetics and to provide basic data for developing in a better direction of research. Methods Research articles on genetics of the clinical Sasang constitutions studies were extracted from six databases. The articles were classified were published year, published journals, and the types of studies. Subjects of research and experimental methods for the genetic research were summarized. Results A total of 43 selected research articles were published from 1996 to 2020 and more than half of them were published in Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Journal of Korean Oriental Medicine. There were three main types of researches. The three types of researches were for investigating a genetic indicator for classification of Sasang constitutional type, confirming a relationship between pathological gene and Sasang constitutional type, and checking a hereditary of Sasang constitutional type. But these studies did not yield clear results illustrating a relationship between Genetics and Sasang Constitutional Medicine. Discussion In this study, the necessity of the follow up studies to demonstrate a relationship between Genetics and Sasang Constitutional Medicine was confirmed.
  • 6.

    A Study on the meaning of the Soeumin’s Softness and Non-softness in the mouth

    Tae-Yeong Kim , Park Seong Sik | 2021, 33(3) | pp.87~94 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives The purpose of this study is to examine the meaning of the Soeumin’s Softness and Non-softness in the mouth(口中和, 口中不和). Methods We examined The Existing Doctors’s using of the Softness and Non-softness in the mouth, and considered Jema Lee’s using of the Softness and Non-softness in the mouth. Afterward, we considered the meaning of the Soeumin’s Softness and Non-softness in the mouth in 『Donguisusebowon(東醫壽世保元)』. Results and Conclusion 1. Junggyeong Jang used the Softness in the mouth, and he didn’t use the Non-softness in the mouth in 『Sanghanlun(傷寒論)』. 2. The Next Generation Doctors used the Softness in the mouth, and they didn’t use the Non-softness in the mouth. Especially, Dongwon Lee used the Softness in the mouth as the Knowing the taste of food, and used the Non-softness in the mouth as the Non-knowing the taste of food. 3. Jema Lee used the Softness and Non-softness in the mouth as urgent indicator of the Soeumbyeong diarrhea in 『Gabobon(甲午本)』, and used the Softness and Non-softness in the mouth as classification indicator of the Taeeumbyeong and Soeumbyeong in 『Sinchuckbon(辛丑本)』. 4. The Non-softness in the mouth is Jema Lee’s specific term. It means dry of mouth, thirsty and the Non-knowing the taste of food. 5. The change from the Non-softness to Softness in the mouth is recovery indicator of the Soeumin’s disease. It is the basis for setting the Drinking water(能飮水) as the Soeumin’s igiljeung(二吉證).
  • 7.

    A Study on the Development of Diagnostic Tools for Sasang Constitutional Patterns

    Hye-Ri Lee , jun-hee lee | 2021, 33(3) | pp.95~126 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop diagnostic tools for Sasang Constitutional patterns based on the middle classification of the Sasang Constitutional patterns. Methods Diagnosis and assessment indicators of Soeumin, Soyangin, Taeeumin, and Taeyangin patterns were extracted based on the 『Clinical Practice Guideline for Sasang Constitutional Medicine Symptomatology』 and 『Donguisusebowon』. An online survey was conducted on the ‘importance of diagnosis and assessment indicators’ by the Sasang Constitutional Medicine expert group. Results Based on the expert consultation results, the importance weight for each diagnosis and assessment indicators symptom was calculated, and the importance was ranked to develop diagnostic tools for Soeumin, Soyangin, Taeeumin, and Taeyangin patterns. Diagnostic tool consisted of 58 questions for Soeumin patterns, 68 questions for Soyangin patterns, 81 questions for Taeeumin patterns, and 42 questions for Taeyangin patterns. The final total score was calculated by reflecting each response score and the weight of each question. Conclusions The developed ‘Diagnostic Tools for Sasang Constitutional patterns’ can be used to make an effective and objective diagnosis in the clinical site. In the future, if the reliability and validity of these diagnostic tools are tested through clinical study, it will be possible to improve clinical applicability and contribute to standardization of diagnosis.
  • 8.

    Effects of Personality by Each Sasang Constitution on Sleep

    Kim Sang-Hyuk , Kihyun Park , Kyung Sik Jeong | 2021, 33(3) | pp.127~137 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of personality by each Sasang constitution on sleep using Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule(PANAS) and NEO-personality inventory(NEO-PI). Methods The subjects of this study were 2,078 people who had information on Sasang constitutional type and personality(PANAS, NEO-PI) among the data established at the Korean Medicine Data Center. Sleep time and sleep quality were investigated through self-written questionnaires. Sleep time was collected by hand-writing, and sleep quality was checked on a 4 point Likert scale. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to see the correlation between personality and sleep in each constitutional type. Logistic regression was performed using personality as independent variables to find out how much personality affects sleep time. In order to find out how much personality affects sleep quality, regression analysis was performed using personality as independent variables. Results & Conclusions Sleep time was hardly affected by personality. As a result of Pearson correlation analysis, sleep time in all subjects did not show a significant correlation with personality. In logistic regression on sleep time as the dependent variable, no statistically significant results were obtained except for the Negative Affect(NA) in Taeeumin. Sleep quality showed a statistically significant correlation with the negative affect(NA), neuroticism(N), extraversion(E), Physical Component Summary(PCS) and Mental Component Summary(MCS). As a result of regression analysis on sleep quality as the dependent variable, neuroticism(N), negative affect(NA), positive affect(PA), and extraversion(E) were found in the factors affecting sleep quality. Besides, how much personality affected sleep quality might differ in each constitution. In all constitutions, sleep quality was affected by N, but the rank of N was different in each constitution. The sleep quality of Soyangin was not affected by E, and the sleep quality of Taeeumin was specifically affected by O.
  • 9.

    A Case Study of Taeeumin Patient with Edema Treated with Gunyuljejo-tang

    Su-zy Han , Yoo Jun Sang | 2021, 33(3) | pp.138~145 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives Edema occurs in various disorders, such as heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, renal failure, liver cirrhosis, and cancer. The excessive accumulation of interstitial fluid in limb tissue will often manifest with ankle and knee swelling and lowers patient’s quality of life. But the conventional treatment includes restricting dietary sodium and using diuretics. The purpose of this study is about significant improvement of a patient with edema who had suffered from dependent gait accompanied by mild pain, after treatment by herbal medicine based on SCM(Sasang constitutional medicine). Methods The pattern identification of the patient was diagnosed with a superficial disease of Taeeumin. So after the admission, Gunyuljejo-tang was used, almost two times per day during 2 weeks. Also, we applied acupuncture routinely every day and western medicine as needed. We measured the circumferences of Lt. thigh and followed up the bioelectrical impedance analysis and checked the appearance of lower limb. Results and Conclusions The therapy was effective, and the circumferences, which was 59.69cm at onset time, decreased to 52.07cm almost same to the healthy side of her thigh. There was no more edematous sign on the body, either. This case showed that management of Taeeumin’s healthy energy(呼散之氣, the energy of exhalation) could be effective in treating edema.
  • 10.

    Herbal Medicine Treatment for Persistent Night Sweats in Soyangin Patients: A Retrospective Case Series

    Min-jung Lee , Jiyeon Lee , HWANG MINWOO | 2021, 33(3) | pp.146~160 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Introduction This study is the first to report a significant improvement of Soyangin patients with persistent night sweats through herbal medicine treatment. Methods We reviewed the total of 6 Soyangin patients with moderate to severe persistent night sweats who visited the outpatient clinic. The patients received herbal medicine treatment alone for 4 to 9 weeks. We evaluated the treatment outcome using Night Sweats Degree criteria, developed by Lea and Aber(1985), every other 2 to 4 weeks. In addition, we recorded the treatment period from the first visit to symptom alleviation. Results Persistent night sweats improved significantly in all 6 Soyangin patients, and 4 out of 6 patients had better sleep quality after the treatment. It took 1 to 3 weeks until the symptom alleviated from moderate or severe to mild, and 3 to 7 weeks until the patients have no sign of night sweating. The progression of persistent night sweats and treatment period until no sign of symptom varied according to the Soyangin External and Internal disease diagnosis. Discussion The Soyangin patients having persistent night sweats treated with herbal medicines showed a significant improvement in their symptoms. This result proposes the possibility of using herbal medicine in primary care patients experiencing persistent night sweats.
  • 11.

    A Clinical Case Report of Soeumin Patient with Chronic Hand Eczema

    Jiyeon Lee , Min-jung Lee , HWANG MINWOO | 2021, 33(3) | pp.161~170 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Introduction Hand eczema is dermatitis that occurs on the hand and fingers. In this case, the patient had chronic hand eczema that had relapsed for 3 years, worsened for 6 months, and did not improve even with standard dermatological treatment. We report significant improvement of the patient with chronic hand eczema, diagnosed with Soeunmin Greater Yin Symptomatology based on Sasang Constitutional Medicine. Methods We prescribed herbal medicine, Sibimigwanjung-tang(十二味寬中湯), and the western medications were continued throughout the treatment period. To evaluate the treatment progression, we observed objective and subjective symptoms and took pictures of the patient’s hands. Results At the first time of the outpatient visit, the patient complained of pain, oozing, scaling and severe itching even though she had taken dermatological medication for over 6 months. After 8 weeks of Korean medicine treatment, most symptoms showed improvement, and after about 47 weeks of treatment, the symptoms maintained 90% improvement even after stopping western medications and herbal medications. Conclusion The patient in this case showed a significant improvement of chronic hand eczema and the improvements have been maintained even stopping western medications and herbal medications during follow-up for 15 weeks. In addition, the patient showed improvement and maintenance of general conditions as well as skin-related symptoms. In this case, we can concern the effect of the Sasang Constitutional Medicine focused on treating the patient's general pathology as well as the patient's chief complaint at chronic hand eczema not responding to standard dermatological treatment.
  • 12.

    A Case-Report of a Taeyangin Patient with Acute Motor Axonal Neuropathy Using Ogapijangchuk-tang

    Ji-Yeon Oh , Won-Young Kim , Eun-Chul Lim | 2021, 33(3) | pp.171~180 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Objectives This case report is about a Taeyangin patient with Acute Motor Axonal Neuropathy identified as Hae-Yeok pattern using Ogapijangchuk-tang. In this study, we report the significant improvement of lower extremity weakness and pain of this patient after Sasang Constitutional medicine treatment. Methods The patient was identified as Taeyangin Hae-Yeok pattern and treated with Ogapijangchuk-tang. Guillain-Barre Syndrome disability scale was used to assess the overall function of the patient. The Numeral Rating Scale was used to assess the change of lower extremity pain. Also the change of lower extremity weakness was measured by patient’s expression and graded by Manual Muscle Test. Result and Conclusion After treatment with Ogapijangchuk-tang, patient’s symptoms were improved. And there was not any side effect. In conclusion, this study shows that Sasang Constitutional medicine can be effective treatment for Taeyangin patient with Acute Motor Axonal Neuropathy.