This paper estimates the World Cup tourists and their per capita expenditures, while examining economic impacts of the expenditures using an input-output model. For this end, on-site survey was conducted for the World Cup foreign tourists during the in-coming World Cup visitors at the major international airports. The study revealed that foreign tourists for the 2002 World Cup consisted of 57.7% of the total inward tourists and per capita expenditure was estimated to be 1,610 U.S dollars. The input-out analysis indicates that total foreign receipts earned by the World Cup generated about 973 million U.S dollars of output impact, 223 million dollars of income impact, 513 million dollars of value-added impact, 54 million dollars of tax impact, 26,807 equivalent full time jobs, and 85 million dollars of import impact, respectively.
Without understanding globalization process, it seems not possible to understand local or national context of experiences. The globalized of sport has impact on the embodied national identities, which again is menifested in local and national cultural processes. The game style and supporting culture seemed completely different from standardization and homogenization. What we call, Korean-styled power soccer had been created by the Korean national football squad and the sporting event had been changed into the representational space of national identities. What had been observed is that the sport as a leisure practice in globalization and national identity formation plays contradictory role, diminishing contrasts and increasing varieties.
A nation’ s image mirrored against the foreign visitor’s eye is important in that it involves economic and socio-cultural advancement of the country concerned. Authors investigate the change of image of Korea as perceived by two major foreign tourist groups to Korea, namely, Japanese and Chinese tourists. According to the study, significant differences were found on all 32 items relating to the image of Korea. It was consistent that all two national tourist groups showed a more positive impression after the World Cup than ever. This means that the 2002 World Cup contributed to upgrading national image of Korea highly.
This study tries to find and manifest various phenomena involved with hosting of 2002 FIFA World Cup. Authors adopted content analysis, analyzing contents of newspaper articles of the time. They collected major newspapers’ articles related to the World Cup published from May 30th to July 5th 2002. Authors found that the 2002 FIFA World Cup revealed the ways of Korean lives well. The World Cup event is thought upheaved Korean spirit, pride, and national image through millions of voluntary supporters’ involvement. One might say that Korean people experienced self-actualization and international relations were consolidated through this monumental occasion. The findings are hoped contributing to establish the post-world cup strategies and similar mega-event planning.
Poongryu means a noble way of life of Korean leisured class, which arguably was originated from the myth of Dangun(the progenitor of Korean ethnos). It has thrived from Silla to Koryo Dynasty. Especially in Silla, Hwarangdo(the adherents of Poongryu) had enjoyed disciplined music and dance, recreating themselves with poetry and sightseeing of all parts of the country.At first indicating the intellectual and serious activities, Poongryu later changed and became the voluptuous or routine activities. Now situations are changing; most Korean people are not only highly educated, but their income and leisure time also increased. Consequently one has no option but to popularize the Poongryu by means of tourism.
Authors analyzes social contexts of those people experiencing leisure in terms of symbolic interaction, in particular examining Samdahl’s leisure model. This thesis has dealt with empirical approaches using experience sampling method(ESM) in addition to literature review and a pilot study. The findings of the analysis are as follows: Firstly, people generally think of the experience as pure leisure if people perceive both a low level of role constraints and a high level of self-expression, resulting in satisfactory and positive affective condition. Secondly, in the professions of males and females, the study shows a significant difference in the meaning of pure leisure according to the presence of mutual role-constraints and the desire of self-expression in terms of symbolic interaction.
This article estimates the non-market value of culture and investigates the determinants of visitors’ willingness to pay(WTP) for the event. A dichotomous choice form of contingent valuation is applied to the 2000 Kwangju Biennale, a quasi-public good. The benefit estimate derived from the logit model is compared to the one obtained by a nonparametric approach. While visitors’ sociodemographic characteristics was not important determinants of the WTP for a visit, the WTP was found significantly affected by the contents of the event, visitors’ satisfaction level and expertise, and locality they live in. Total net use value of the event was estimated 5.3 billion Won averaging about 8,600 Won per person. The result indicates that valuing the event endorses the argument for local and central government funding for the culture and arts event.
Author examines the relationship between job-esteem and organizational citizenship behavior(OCB) for hotel industry. This study also observes the relationship between OCB and service quality. A total of 350 questionnaires from first-class luxurious hotels in Seoul, Taegu, and Kyoungbuk Province were processed using structural equation modeling procedures(LISREL).Research findings were that organizational citizenship behavior was significantly affected by job-esteem, organizational citizenship behavior and service quality. Also it was found that service delivery and participation was significantly affected by loyalty for the hotel.
Using content analysis method, author examines research trend of human resource management in tourism studies, suggesting directions for future research ahead. Human resource management-related articles appeared in Journal of Tourism Sciences, Korean Journal of Tourism Research, Korean Hotel Administration Review and Journal of Travel Research from 1990 to 2001 were reviewed. The results illustrates that there were some limitation on research topics, methods, and subjects in human resource management study; that research on management practices has not been sufficiently conducted, lacking in determination on the characteristics of human resource management. She suggests that research topic, methods and subjects should be diversified, while HRM studies tourism corporations are furthered.
Hotel sales department employees play an important role in in the success of hotel business because they provide the service through the direct contacts with customers. Authors conduct of empirical study of the relationship between the job satisfaction of the hotel sales department employees and the sale goal orientation.The result indicated that the satisfaction on the job and the relationship with colleagues were significantly related to the sale goal orientation but the salary and the welfare program were not. Authors suggest that the strategies for managing hotel employees in sales department is essential to improve the performance of hotel.
This study attempts to uncover major success factors for outsourcing a portion of hotel affairs. Object of the case study is four deluxe hotels in Seoul metropolitan area. Due to lack of existing knowledge on the topic, a multiple-case study was employed as a research method. Followings were found as major success factors for outsourcing. The selection of appropriate vendor, managerial skill in charge of hotel management, the enhancement of service quality, and the partnership between hotels and vendors. The shortcut of successful outsourcing might be achieved by effective application of the above-mentioned factors as well as by improving existing problems, and lessening the gap in critical success factors being considered importantly by hotels and vendors.
This study examined the relationship of the tourist motivation and the cognitive image including the affective component, the structures of the cognitive image and the affective image, and the effects of these image on the tourist’s revisit intention. The cannonical correlation and multiple regression analysis show that both cognitive and affective image are differently related with the tourist motivation, and that the relationship of cognitive image and affective image are statistically significant. Some theoretical and practical implications regarding tourism destination images in Jeju island are discussed.
This paper reveals any difference in the selection of restaurant according to various situations. Even if one may not explain characteristic of individuals in the consumers conduct, most of researchers assumed one may explain it using four different situational factors. We have investigated which factor is more important in the selection of restaurant according to each situation involved. First situation is a regular meeting. Second situation is using meeting place for the business. Third one is a home-event affair such as birthday party and wedding anniversaries etc. Forth one is having a meal with family on weekend or holiday. Testing a variety of situational factors through ANOVA and regression analysis, author confirms situational differences in each type of restaurant affect significantly the consumer choice of restaurant.
There is a notable change in Korea’s food-service industry nowadays. It may be due to the increased GNP, women’s role enhancement in the society, increased needs for nutritional food, decreased working hours and the change in cultural behavior. These changes brought the increase of dining outs in the dietary pattern. Meal is no longer regarded merely a necessity that meets one’s basic needs but a means to relax and socialize. As convenience and diversity are highly requested the food industry is westernizing fast. This study aims at providing decision-makers and marketers both the target market information and useful clues to understand customers’ motives and choice behavior in comparative restaurants between Korea and Japan.