Large property investments and huge dependence on labor are said to be two major factors in the hotel industry. Hotel management performance can be affected by these two factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of property investment and labor cost upon the management performance in the hotel industry and to suggest the possible ways to control them. The result showed that labor earning distributing rate influenced the management performance negatively and consistently, but labor costs to total expenses influenced it positively. Therefore, it seemed properly that property investment should be decided carefully and a labor force management system should be designed. Moreover, it proved to be an efficient way to increase the management in the hotel industry.
The purpose of this study was to the factors that influenced the choices of specialized tourism products through Internet intermediaries, and to suggest important factors to Internet-based companies that deal with tourism commodities. This article focused on Internet sites dealing with specialized tourism products on the Web, and explored the relationships among Wweb evaluation factors, success factors, and related valuables. The results of this are expected contribute to regional Internet businesses related to the tourism industry, and to pave the way for the formulation of methods to maximize the profits of specialized tourism products in Jeju, Korea.
The purposes of this study were threefold. First, it aimed to identify the
satisfaction factors of Chinese travelers who visit Seoul due to their
familiarity with “Korean Fever”. Second, it aimed to determine the
relationships among satisfaction factors, country images, word-of-mouth
referrals, and intentions to return. Third, it aimed to identify the
relationships of the country’s image to other variables. Five hypotheses
were examined by using the structural equation based on the analysis of
the moment structure. The results of the study provided many useful
implications in terms of academic and practical perspectives. It was
determined that “Korean Fever” influenced the country‘s image positively, as
well as word-of-mouth referrals and intentions to return.
This paper the proposed model involving the relationships among travel motivation, destination image, tourist expectation, satisfaction, and loyalty. The paper used the structural equation model (SEM) to test the proposed model. Data were collected from 270 tourists who visited Andong. Research results showed that travel motivation, especially cultural/educational travel motivation, was one of the determinants of destination image. Destination image and tourist expectation were critical factors that affected tourist satisfaction. Tourist satisfaction affected tourist loyalty significantly. upon these findings, this paper could make several recomendations to improve destination image and tourist satisfaction.
The Book of Changes was one of the scriptures that implied Eastern ideas. This article attempted to answer the question, “What is the spirit of Gwan Gwang?” Recently, Gwan Gwang has come to mean tourism. In Oriental thinking, however, it means viewing, and it is far from tourism, even as it implied its spirit. The 20th hexagram of the Book of Changes meant wind blowing across the earth. The text’s Eastern ideas included that of respect gained from sincerity and six lines meant individual action regardles of time and circumstance. In six lines meant the social clas of the person. The spirit of Gwan Gwang saw the capability of the world to achieve enlightenment, as wind blew across the earth.
With the current rising trends of power decentralization and regional balanced development, participatory collaboration became an important issue in tourism policymaking. Especially, community participation was considered a necessary element in the success of a national tourism policy. In this this study examined the concept of comunity participation in tourism policy, and attempted to develop an enlarged construct of its concept: participationin processes, participation in profit generation processes, and participation in the public education process. Case studies were implemented with this conceptual design. Moreover, based on the results of the case studies, thre policy agenda were raised and discussed: a systematic policy approach, realistic actions, and participation through processes. In conclusion, it was suggested that community participation in the national tourism policy should be perceived as an integrated action strategy toward collaboration.
This study sought to find out Kaplan and Norton’s BSC (1992, 1993, 1996), which compensated for the weakness of relying solely on finances, be used to evaluate hotel performance. Specifically, this study aimed to create a new measurement system including factors that do not figure in a strictly financial means of evaluation, such as customer satisfaction and employee morale. study found that the learning and growth evaluation factor affected financial performance directly, and was mediated by internal and customer-oriented evaluation factors.
This paper attempted to calculate the Economic Value Added (EVA), using the financial data of five non-listed, incorporated family restaurants provided by the Financial Supervisory Service (DART: Data Analysis, Retrieval, and Transfer System). Since no family restaurant company has been listed, no research the EVA of family restaurants was found. The purpose of the current research was to apply EVA, as an index of performance, onto the non-listed family restaurants to compare management performance. The results of the present research suggested that the EVA, considering the cost of equity capital, provided a better indication of the management performance of the restaurants.
The purpose of this study was to identify conceptual framework underlying the Total Quality (TQM) performance according to organizational variables, including organizational culture, organizational comitment, job satisfaction, burnout, and intention to quit. The findings revealed that organizational culture had an impact on organizational comitment leading to a TQM achievement. Finally, a relationship-oriented organizational culture was the demanding in enhancing the performance of TQM in every family restaurant.
The relationship between organizational commitment and employees’ behaviors was assessed. Employees’ behaviors in this study were categorized as in-role behavior (IB), citizenship behavior (OCB), and impression management behavior (IMB). To test the relationship, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to hotel employees through online and offline means. The result suggested that affective commitment (AC) had significant, positive effects on IB and OCB. In addition, continuance comitment (CC) had significant, negative effects on IB and OCB. The relationship among AC, CC, and IMB, however, was not supported. The implications and some limitations of this study were also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to utilize a dynamic Computable General
Equilibrium (CGE) model to estimate the economic impact of the 2002 FIFA
World Cup on the tourism industry. Toward this end, this study employed
ORANI-F as a basic framework that was calibrated to input-output (I-O)
tables, and then the base year 2000 I-O data were updated through
historical simulation for impact analysis. Then, tourism multipliers were
derived from the updated I-O tables by using CGE simulation. The results
of the CGE analysis indicated that World Cup tourists’ expenditure of
US$522 million generated US$1.57 billion in output (sales), $290 million in
income, $683 million in value added, $88 million in indirect tax, and an
equivalent of 24,543 full-time jobs as a result of direct, indirect, and
In spite of the proliferation of social exchange-related studies, few studies have investigated the psychological contract violation of hotel employees from the point of view of organizational duty. The study aimed to investigate how to minimize hotel employees’ of psychological contract violation. Psychological contract violation was regarded as the concept in which leader-member exchange (LMX) and interactional justice were antecedents. Reaction variables to a psychological contract violation were seen as organizational comitment. The results of psychological contract violation affected leader-member exchange, but positively influenced organizational commitment. Therefore, leader-member exchanges were regarded as antecedents in minimizing contract violation. Leader-member exchanges, interactional justice, and psychological contract violation were found to have a significant, indirect impact on organizational comitment.