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2007, Vol.31, No.3

  • 1.

    The Improvement Plan for Tourism Basic Act:e Research into the Bill of National Tourism Basic Act of Japan

    Yongseok Shin | Chang, Pyong-Kwon | 2007, 31(3) | pp.11~29 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    The aim of this article is to suggest a direction for the improvement of Korean Tourism Basic Act. The focus of this research is placed on the new direction of tourism law system and the restructuring of Tourism Basic Act.The analysis shows that the present tourism laws have not caught up with the rapid changes in tourism policy environment. Tourism Basic Act has rarely changed since it was established, so it fails to meet the demands and reflect major issues, such as values of international tourism, coordination of government tourism policies, sustainable development principle, and tourism cooperation between North and South Korea. Based on these findings, this research suggests following restructuring plans for tourism law improvement. Firstly, Tourism Basic Act should be totally changed in both form and contents. Secondly, values and spirits of international tourism-related declarations should be reflected in Tourism Basic Act. Thirdly, Tourism Basic Act should be a guideline for future tourism policy, such as rural tourism, ecotourism, sustainable tourism, and education tourism. Finally, Tourism Basic Act should be restructured for balanced development of inbound, outbound, and domestic tourism in Korea.핵심용어(Key words):관광정책, 관광정책환경, 관광기본법, 관광입국추진기본법, 관광거버넌스
  • 2.

    A Study on Birdwatching Experts’ Value Pursuit Using the Hard Laddering Method

    한학진 | Seongseop Kim | 2007, 31(3) | pp.31~54 | number of Cited : 21
    Abstract
    This study attempted to identify ultimate value of serious bird-watching tourists’, using the means-end analysis which is also called laddering. Means-end theory deals with attributes, consequences, and values as basic content of consumer product knowledge stored in memory. The interview method used in this study is ‘hard laddering.’ Fifty seven birdwatching experts throughout Korea were interviewed to find out their ultimate value in bird-watching activity. The respondents of this study consisted of those who possess a high level of specialization in bird-watching, such as nature interpreters, environment-related civil servants, and bird researchers. The results of this study indicated that the most dominant linkage is ‘interest in birds’(A)-‘preservation of bird-related ecosystem’(C)-‘enhancement of nature preservation spirits’(V). This result implies that human beings should recognize the importance of nature and its preservation through bird-watching activities.핵심용어(Key words):수단-목적 사슬, 하드래더링, 탐조여행, 내용코드, 함축매트릭스, 가치 맵
  • 3.

    Relation of Crowding Perception, Emotional Response, and Adjusting Behavior Racteristics

    Sungdo Hong | 2007, 31(3) | pp.55~76 | number of Cited : 17
    Abstract
    This study examines a structural model of fiver basic factors related to carrying capacity, perception of crowdedness, emotional response, satisfaction, tolerance, and adjusting behavior. To achieve purposes of this study, a theoretical model derived from previous studies was adopted and empirically tested by means of a systematic sampling method. The sample of this study was collected from a survey at a fishing site in Donghae city. A total of 124 usable samples were collected for the analysis. Prior to the analysis of the theoretical model proposed in this study, tests for reliability and multicolinearity were executed. For the model test, regression analyses were applied. The results showed that those independent variables, explaining little influence of the emotional responses on the dependent variable, perception of crowdedness. There were, however, significant relationship among perception of crowdedness and satisfaction, some factors of emotional responses and satisfaction and tolerance and adjusting behaviors exerted a significant influences on satisfaction.핵심용어(Key words):혼잡지각(Perception of crowdness), 감정적 반응(Emotional response), 조정행동(Adjusting behavior)
  • 4.

    A Study on the Relationships among Characteristics of Destination, Personal Meaning toward Travel and Souvenir Choice Behavior

    Cho, Yong-hyun | Park JungHwa | Min-Young Kim | 2007, 31(3) | pp.77~96 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract
    The tourism souvenir industry is important for destinations especially in terms of the development of local areas. This study thus aims to investigate how characteristics of tourism destinations and personal meaning toward the travel are related to the tourists’ souvenir choice behavior. Questionnaires were distributed to Korean tourists who visited Jeju Island and purchased a souvenir at the Jeju international Airport. As a total, 240 valid responses were used for the analyses. Frequency analyses, factor analyses and canonical correlation analyses were conducted and the findings are as follows. Tourists prefer souvenirs which show local culture when they experienced sensation in the destination. They also like portable and recollectable souvenirs for gifts. 핵심용어(Key words):문화관광, 개념정의, 개념역사, 문화관광자, 속성
  • 5.

    The Development of Performance Evaluation Model Using BSC: Focused on Green Rural Tourist Villages

    Kim, Nam Jo | 문성민 | 2007, 31(3) | pp.97~116 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    As a new rural tourism policy, the project of Green Rural Tourist Village for promoting rural economy and increasing rural quality of life has been implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry since 2001. The need for evaluating the project in terms of its efficiency and effectiveness called for a useful tool to monitor and evaluate the project. The primary purpose of this study is to develop a model that can monitor and evaluate the condition and output of Green Rural Tourist Village using the balanced scorecard (BSC). By means of an in-depth interview, an on-site survey using questionnaires, and consultation with experts, the constructs that can reflect BSC concept and evaluate performance of Green Rural Tourist Village were determined. The model suggested in this study is consisted of three perspectives, after merging the “financial perspective” in the original BSC concept into the “internal business process perspective” as one: the residents of a host community, the visitors, and the internal business process. The performance evaluation model of this study was designed to depict both output and outcome indicators hierarchically (i.e., a Critical Success Factor [CSF], a Critical Success Indicator[CSI], and finally a Key Performance Indicator[KPI]). 핵심용어(Key words):성과평가, 개념모형, 균형성과표, 녹색농촌체험마을
  • 6.

    Evaluation of the Suitability to Develop Key Management Performance Indicators in Korean Resort Industry

    김학준 | Dae Kwan Kim | 2007, 31(3) | pp.117~134 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to develop suitable indicators for resort business management evaluation, and identify the impact relationship of each evaluative perspective. Based on Kaplan and Norton’s Balance Scorecards model, 3-round Delphi surveys were conducted to derive key performance indicators, compatible with Korean resort industry. Indicators, which reflect 4 different points of view were selected based on preceding studies of KPI. A total of twenty-five professionals in the resort industry responded to the Delphi survey.Four indicators were identified as a result of the survey: 1) financial KPIs, operating profit achievement rate, sales growth rate, guest room operating rate, economic value added, and unit client price increasing rate were developed; 2) the client KPIs, personal service satisfaction, enhancement of corporate recognition, reservation success rate, revisiting rate, and customer satisfaction index (CSI); 3) the internal process KPIs, brand image, staff satisfaction, communication extent, labor cost efficiency, and service system establishment; and 4) the learning and growth KPIs, ESI adequate compensation system, vision sharing, granting self-development opportunity, and welfare level. In addition, some suggestions for practical application of the identified indicators to Korean resort business were included.핵심용어(Key words):균형성과지표, 핵심성과지표, 리조트, BSC(Balanced Scorecard), KPI(Key Performance Indicator)
  • 7.

    The Business Motivation and Background Characteristics of Small and Medium-sized Tourism Entrepreneur in Jeju

    Sungil Kang | Oh Sang-Hoon | Byungwoong Chung | 2007, 31(3) | pp.135~152 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Small and medium-sized businesses have dominated the tourist supply sector in many geographical areas, spanning attractions, accommodations, transport, recreation, souvenirs, and food/drink suppliers. This study explored and examined the business motivation and personal/social background characteristics of small and medium-sized tourism entrepreneurs who play an important role in Jeju tourism industry by making use of survey data from local entrepreneurs. The results of this study indicated four types of distinctive business motivation: family, leisure, business, and achievement orientation. More importantly, the results showed that these four types of entrepreneur’s business motivation were significantly related to his/her age, income, years of residence, business type, previous occupation, years of previous occupation, and parent’s role model.핵심용어(Key words):기업가(Entrepreneur), 사업동기(Business motivation), 배경특성(Background characteristics), 중소관광기업(Small and medium-sized tourism enterprises)
  • 8.

    Market Segmentation for Rural Tourism Determinants of Rural Tourism Demand

    Mi-Kyung Kim | Lee, Hee Chan | 2007, 31(3) | pp.153~170 | number of Cited : 25
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to segment rural tourism market based on tourists’ motivation to participate in rural tourism and to investigate the determinants of rural tourism demand by each segment.Three different market segments of rural tourism were identified: Rural-centric Tourist, Passive Rural Tourist, and Visiting Family and Relatives (VFR) Rural Tourist Segment. There were significant differences across motivation-based segments for rural tourism market in terms of the ourists’ demographic characteristics, trip characteristics, and perception on rural resources. This study also revealed that the three market segments differ with respect to the factors affecting the frequency of participation in rural tourism.핵심용어(Key words):농촌관광, 시장세분화, 참여결정요인
  • 9.

    An Application of the Individual Travel Cost MethodConsidering Data Characteristics

    Song Woon Gang | Haejin Lee | 2007, 31(3) | pp.171~188 | number of Cited : 17
    Abstract
    This study discusses the travel cost method(ITCM) related to data characteristics such as count and on-site survey data. In this paper, several econometric models were estimated and compared using on-site survey data from Hyo-Seok Cultural Festival in Pyeongchang county. In order to identify any bias stemming from the characteristics of the data, the paper uses Poisson model, truncated Poisson model which accounts for the truncated nature of the data, and endogenously stratified Poisson model which solves the endogenous stratification problem resulting from the over-sampling of avid users. The empirical application shows that the truncated Poisson and endogenously stratified Poisson models yield better goodness-of-fit and parameter estimations compared with the standard Poisson model. Particularly, the endogenously stratified Poisson model performs relatively better than the truncated Poisson.핵심용어(Key words):개인여행비용법(individual travel cost method), 현장조사(on-site survey), 가산자료모형(count data models), 절단(truncation), 내생적 층화(endogenous stratification)
  • 10.

    Can We Predict the Demand for Outbound Tourism in Korea?

    soowon mo | 2007, 31(3) | pp.189~208 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    The aim of this paper is to compare the forecasting performance of the structural model of outbound tourists with that of the random walk model. The RMSE indicates that the random walk model outperforms the short-run structural model in all forecasting steps for all countries concerned. The mean errors for short-run structural models are large in magnitude relative to the MAE’s. This fact indicates a systematic bias in short-run forecasting. We found a long-run relationship for the tourism model. This finding of the cointegrating vector indicates that the structural model can be interpreted as having long-run validity. We, hence, proceeded by estimating the error-correction model and compared the forecasting performance of the model. The results of the long-run forecasts were markedly different from those of the short-run model. The error-correction models outperformed the random walk at all steps for the three criteria and seven countries. The results of the study suggest that while the structural tourism models provide poorer performance than the random walk for short-run forecasting, they outperform the random walk model in the long-run forecasting.핵심용어(Key words):예측, 관광수요, 예측오류
  • 11.

    Concepts of Heritage and Heritage Tourism: ature Review

    SukYoungHan | Kim SaHun | 2007, 31(3) | pp.209~223 | number of Cited : 36
    Abstract
    While heritage and heritage tourism had received considerable attention since late 1980s in Europe, some attention has been paid to this kind of tourism in more recent years in Korea. It is not infrequent to find the concept and definition of heritage and heritage tourism misused and abused in Korea due to a lack of theoretical contribution in this field. In cope with this situation, this study aims to probe into the concept and definition of heritage and heritage tourism. Heritage is a contemporary commodity not only related to history or past but also purposefully created to satisfy contemporary consumption. There are two main approaches to address the question of what heritage tourism is. The first approach emphasizes the presence of the individual in space exhibiting historic artifacts or at location classified as heritage sites. The second approach stresses the link between the individual and the heritage presented; that is the perception of the site in relation to the individual’s own heritage. 핵심용어(Key words):유산(heritage), 유산관광(heritage tourism), 문화관광(cultural tourism), 개인적 경험(personal experiences)
  • 12.

    An Exploratory Study on the Role of the March aux puces, Foire as a New Cultural and Leisure Space: The Case of France

    LEE IL-YUL | 2007, 31(3) | pp.225~243 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract
    This article examined the space of March aux puces and Foire in France. This study was to explore the reality and meaning of Foire and March aux puces as a new cultural and leisure space since they are no longer places only for specific people such as seller and consumer, but places providing function and meaning of leisure and cultural space for both tourists and the local residents alike. Field work, one of the most often used qualitative research methods, was conducted for spatial analyses of March aux puces and Foire. Various techniques were employed to collect the qualitative data, including videotaping, personal interviews, observation, and other ethnographic approaches. The results suggested four major functions of the space as follows: 1) as a space for recycling 2) as a tourism place, 3) the function of new weekend leisure place 4) as a new community. This study may shed light on the future development of cultural spaces in the cities of Korea. 핵심용어(Key words):벼룩시장(March aux puces), 특산물 견본시(Foire), 신문화, 레저공간(new cultural & leisure space), 지역축제(Ftes)
  • 13.

    The Typology of Consume-behavior of Lived Festival Experience on A Performing Art Festival: the Chuncheon International Mime Festival

    Youngjin Lee | Lee, Hoon | 2007, 31(3) | pp.245~267 | number of Cited : 37
    Abstract
    This study was to analyze the pattern of consumption behavior in a performance art festival setting, using participant observation and tele-interview methods at the Chuncheon International Mime Festival. This research were based on the four dimensions of consumption suggested by Holt(1995) and the attributes of festival experience identified by Lee(2006). After analyzing, the pattern of the consumption behavior at a performing art festival was classified into seven types as experience, integration, social play, classification, experience and social play, experienced and integrated, classification following integration. In the pattern of consumption behavior as experience, the escape and playfulness were representative, and in the pattern of social play, sense of community was dominant. The results of the analysis indicated that the visitors of Chuncheon International Mime Festival seemed to enjoy the festival consumption through reciprocal relationship between the performers and themselves. The results also suggested that the planners of a festival need to consider these patterns of consumption behavior of the festival goers.핵심용어(Key words):공연예술축제 체험 소비행위 유형, 경험으로서 소비행위, 통합으로서 소비행위, 사회적 유희로서 소비행위, 분류로서 소비행위, 축제체험속성
  • 14.

    A Study on the Repeat Visitors’ Features in Jeju Tourism

    Choi Byoung-Kil | Kim,Kyung-Ho | 2007, 31(3) | pp.269~288 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract
    This study analyzes the behavioral differences between the first-time and repeat visitors in order to identify the characteristics of repeat-visitors for Jeju tourism. Recently the importance of repeat visitors in Jeju tourism has been brought up as its market share increases with steady pace since 1990s. The research results revealed that the number of visits was related to the average length of stay and the time period taken revisit. Furthermore, the purpose of travel, the types of accommodation, the total number of visiting attractions are significantly different between the first-timers and the repeat visitors. This study also provided the transition ratio as well as the long-term market equilibrium of visiting purposes and lodging facilities by using the Markov analysis.핵심용어(Key words):재방문객(Repeat Visitor), 마르코브 분석(Markov Analysis), 전환매트릭스(Transit Matrix), 시장점유율(Rate of Market Share)
  • 15.

    An Application of the Limits of Acceptable Change for Sustainable Regional Tourism Development based upon Residents’ Attitudes by Recreation Opportunity Spectrum

    정종의 | Ko, Dong-Wan | 여정태 | 2007, 31(3) | pp.289~310 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    Sustainable tourism development has been considered as a useful concept but not without proven difficulty to operationalize. This paper examines the suitability and the differences of residents’ attitudes toward the existing conditions and the perceived change tourism might bring about. This paper is an application of LAC(limits of acceptable change) framework as a sustainable regional tourism development based upon environmental and social characteristics.The important findings of this study are that the existing resources in a region and the social atmosphere index for sustainable development demonstrate a more affirmative capacity in a Semi-primitive and a Urban location than in Natural and Agricultural regions. And, for the sustainable tourism development, each ROS rate location should improve and preserve with peculiar interest because of the index that the benefits and the harm have a new known capacity on this account development of tourism. 핵심용어(Key words):허용변화한계(LAC: Limits of acceptable change), 휴양기회분포(ROS: Recreation opportunity spectrum), 지속가능한 관광개발(Sustainable tourism development)
  • 16.

    A Study on the Cultural Tourism Exchange for Reconstruction of Eastern States in the Unified Germany

    Sukjin Park | 2007, 31(3) | pp.311~328 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study aims at finding implications and developing cultural tourism concept for Korea by reviewing the case of unified Germany with respect to the role of tourism played, as a catalyst for cultural reunification, in the process of reconstruction of East Germany after reunification. The case analysis of the German case provided several implications as follows: First, co-hosting mega events together, North and South Korea can maximize the profitability of tourism business with a high level of efficiency in distributing the gains. Second, as a gradual distribution of the cost of unification, constructing academic exchange programs between South and North Korean universities are highly recommendable. Third, as unification of culture tourism, in unique cultural settings of North korea, important cultural remains and unique monuments built for keeping North Korea’s regime should be reserved and redesigned as thematic cultural routes.핵심용어(Key words):문화관광(cultural tourism), 통일독일(unified Germany), 동서독 관광교류(tourist exchange in the Unified Germany), 동독지역 재건 (reconstruction of eastern Germany)
  • 17.

    The influence of Internet Travel Agency Selective Attribute on the e-loyalty

    Yoon Ji-Hwan | Yeonwoo Lim | 2007, 31(3) | pp.329~347 | number of Cited : 35
    Abstract
    Recently internet based e-business is becoming the core of tourism industry. And the total sale of e-business of travel agency in Korea was over two billion won in 2006. This article examines the influence of internet travel agency selective attribute to the e-loyalty in small and medium enterprise. The result of the analysis showed that the influence of internet travel selective attributes was affected on the e-loyalty such as customization focused internet travel products, internet systems, additional services, intangible values of the internet travel agencies, customization focused personal exchanges. After all, e-loyalty has some similarities between internet shopping malls and internet travel agencies, however, details have small differences.핵심용어(Key words):인터넷여행사(Internet Travel Agency), e-비즈니스(e-business),선택속성(Selective Attribute), e-충성도(e-loyalty)