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2007, Vol.31, No.6

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    Determinants of Participation in Tourism e-Marketplace

    Kim Keun Hyung | Suh Yong-Kun | 홍지환 | 2007, 31(6) | pp.31~51 | number of Cited : 1
    E-marketplace is a kind of B2B e-business system that supports business transactions between companies. If e-marketplace could be revitalized, we might expect not only the development of related industry but also the decrease of transaction costs between companies. Likewise, it is necessary to introduce and revitalize e-marketplace in tourism industry. Participants to tourism e-marketplace might be tourism-related companies like as travel agencies, lodging and shipping companies, etc. Also tourists want to search a variety of tourism products or contents. So tourism e-marketplace might have to include characteristics of B2C e-business systems as well as B2B e-business systems. Factors were found by analyzing the existing papers related with B2B e-marketplace and B2C web site. The purpose of this paper is to enumerate and assess significant factors that might influence in participating in the tourism e-marketplace through statistical survey.핵심용어(Key words):e-마켓플레이스(e-marketplace),관광e-마켓플레이스(Tourism e-marketplace),조직특성(Organization characteristics),혁신특성(Innovation characteristics),기능특성(Functionality characteristics)
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    Relationships among Training Program components, Characteristics of Organizational Situations, and Training Transfer: The case of Family Restaurant

    허윤정 | Yoon Ji-Hwan | Sukbin Cha | 2007, 31(6) | pp.53~74 | number of Cited : 24
    This paper investigates the relationships among training programs, characteristics of organizational situations, and training transfer in the family restaurant. Research findings are as follows. The relations between the quality of trainers and training transfer, between trainees’ motive for learning and training transfer, and between the contents of training and training transfer were statistically significant. The adjusting effect of the superior’s support appeared in the relation between the quality level of management education and training transfer and between service education and training transfer. In addition, according to the result of testing the adjusting effect of continuous learning culture, training transfer was found higher when the quality level of service education was high.핵심용어(Key words):교육훈련 프로그램 구성요소(Training program components), 교육훈련 전이(Training transfer), 조직 상황적 특성(Characteristics of organizational Situations)
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    An Exploratory Study on Evaluating Tourism Destination through the FCB Grid Model

    Kim,Chul-Won | Hyejin Yoon | 2007, 31(6) | pp.75~92 | number of Cited : 10
    Tourist destination is a complicated concept and source that produce sustainable competitiveness of the tourist place. This study is to evaluate how tourism destination is perceived and felt in the mind of potent or experienced visitors. It has been measured by the FCB Grid model, representing dimensions of cognition and emotion as well as dimensions of high and low involvement. Each destination is evaluated as high involvement-cognitive, high involvement-affective, low involvement-cognitive, and low involvement- affective respectively. For example, Seoul as a tourist destination is evaluated by visitors as the high involvement-cognitive destination, while Gangwon province is evaluated as the high involvement-affective destination. Authors provide a marketing implications for destination marketing to attract visitors.핵심용어(Key words):FCB 그리드 모델(FCB Grid model), 고관여 이성(High involvement-cognitive), 고관여 감성(High involvement-affective), 저관여 이성(Low involvement-cognitive), 저관여 감성(Low involvement-affective)
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    Impacts of Casino's Service Quality and Visitors' Behavioral Characteristics on Their Attitude toward: An Application of Log-likelihood Ratio Test

    곽강희 | 소국섭 | 2007, 31(6) | pp.93~113 | number of Cited : 24
    This paper is to examine the impacts of casino’s service quality and visitors’ behavior characteristics on their attitude toward domestic casino establishments such as intention to revisit and recommend and overall satisfaction. Further, authors tried to identify if there is any difference between groups classified by moderating variables such as nationality, preferring game and gender as to the impacts mentioned above. As a result, two of moderating variables, preferring game and gender was found influencing differently. An Ordered Probit Model and Log-likelihood Ratio Test were applied to accomplish an goal of this study. So, the comparison with the influence of independent variables on visitors’ post-attitude was performed by applied cause and effects model. Finally, the useful marketing implications were provided for facility suppliers.핵심용어(Key words):카지노 서비스품질(Casino service quality), 방문객태도(Visitor’ attitude toward), 서열 프로빗 모형(Ordered probit model), 우도비율검정(Log-likelihood ratio test)
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    The Influence of Cultural Environmental Configuration on Regional Environment

    Joungkoo Park | 라도삼 | 공자원 | 2007, 31(6) | pp.115~134 | number of Cited : 1
    This is a study of how the creation of cultural environment affects a region and of how the region is changed accordingly. Six places were selected for an empirical study: Bookchon, Daehackro, Kwangjinnaru Art Center, Worldcup Stadium, Myungrundong Region and Seoul Forest. The results show that the most positive effect is cultural regeneration and development, then enhancement of the quality of life, and reinforcement of community effects. Remarkable one is that subjective factors such as satisfaction with the region, pride of the region, and attitude to culture are more effective for the regional value of cultural environment than objective factors such as establishment cost, distance from downtown, and accessibility. In the establishment of cultural environment, the most important thing is not so much cultural environment itself as the attitude to culture and as the satisfaction and pride with the region.핵심용어(Key words):문화환경(Cultural environment),지역경제 활성화(Revitalization of regional economy),정주성 강화(Reinforcement of sedentari-ness),삶의 질 제고(Enhancement of the quality of life)
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    BSC Implementation for Foodservice Restaurants : The case of Multinational Franchise Restaurant Companies

    장기룡 | Chong,Yu-kyeong | 2007, 31(6) | pp.135~156 | number of Cited : 14
    The Balanced Scorecard(BSC) has been regarded as a comprehensive performance management tool using financial measures and non-financial measures as well. In this paper, an empirical study demonstrates how BSC is applied in the foodservice restaurants by examining the cause-and-effect relationships among four different perspectives from BSC definition: financial perspective, customer perspective, internal business process perspective, and learning and growth perspective. The longitudinal data for 36months from 181 restaurants of an multinational company where BSC has been adopted for last four years was used for the analysis. The results indicate that the employee turnover rate is not playing a role of key performance indicator for learning and growth perspective while all others are doing well for each perspectives respectively.핵심용어(Key words):외식프랜차이즈(Franchise restaurant),균형성과표(Balanced scorecard),핵심성과지표(Key performance indicator),시차(Time lag), 인과관계(Cause-and-effect relationship)
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    Predicting Outbound Tourism Demands for Korean Senior Citizen: An Application of Artificial Neural Network Model

    곽대진 | Song Woon Gang | 2007, 31(6) | pp.157~178 | number of Cited : 3
    Many experts forecast that Korea will be in an aged society soon. Due to this significant shift, the objectives of the study are as follows; firstly to explain the aging progress of Korea and academic interests for the last 18years, secondly to describe the structure and theory of Artificial Neural Network model, thirdly to forecast the tourism demand in Korean seniors for China and Japan, finally to give academic explanations to Korean tourism sector. The results identified three meaningful results. First, the study describe that the market for Korean elderly people would be important in the tourism study. The study also predicted the outbound travel demands and emphasize the trend for Korean senior citizen. The results provide base to produce useful strategies for the tourism industry such as tourism marketing and policy. Finally, the study identify that ANN model would improve the accuracy for Korea’s tourism demand study.핵심용어(Key words):노년층(Senior citizen),해외여행수요(Outbound tourism demands),인공신경망 모형(Artificial neural network),시계열(Time series)
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    Relationship Between Employee Empowerment, Job Satisfaction and Customer-Oriented Behavior

    김유경 | SUH,MUNSHIK | 김상훈 | 2007, 31(6) | pp.179~200 | number of Cited : 24
    This article is to suggest psychological empowerment as an influential factor to recognize service employees’ organizational identification and self-esteem and consider relationship between them; to examine relationship among employees’ organizational identification, self-esteem, and job satisfaction; and to consider relationship between their job satisfaction and customer-oriented behaviors. According to the results, meaning and self-determination positively affected organizational identification while competence and impact had no positive effect on organizational identification. Second, meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact affected self-esteem. Finally meaning and self-determination positively affected emotional attachment. Fourth, emotional attachment and self-esteem positively affected job satisfaction, which then had a significantly positive effect on customer-orientation.핵심용어(Key words):심리적 임파워먼트(Psychological empowerment),조직 동일시(Organizational identification),자아 존중감(Self-esteem),감정적 애착(Emotional attachment),직무만족(Job satisfaction),고객지향행동(Customer-orientation behavior)
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    A Constructing of Gyeong-ju TIS Information System for Activation of Inbound Tour

    Roh Chung-Chul | 2007, 31(6) | pp.201~219 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    With development of information technology, information technology in the tourism industry became an important component. This author evaluates Tourism Information System(TIS) on the construction of Gyeong-ju TIS for activation of inbound tour in Korea. To evaluate the discrepancy between user’s expectation and satisfaction degree in TIS, infer general solutions to compute the intersection area applying to fuzzy number, then the weak and strong attributes of TIS are clarified. This article disclosed that fuzzy number model approach is greatly useful to evaluate user’s attribute. To establish the validity of decision-making in construction of Gyeong-Ju TIS, the fuzzy set and fuzzy relation model were employeed to evaluate user’s attribute because these methodologies have been verified very effective in the previous similar studies. The results of this study identified that establishing a proper standard about evaluation and construction of TIS in Korea.핵심용어(Key words):인바운드 관광(Inbound tour),관광정보시스템(Tourism information system),퍼지수(Fuzzy number),퍼지관계모형(Fuzzy relation model),퍼지집합(Fuzzy set),
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    An Exploratory Study for the Adoption of the eDMS in the Domestic CVBs

    KilLae Kim | Choong-Nyoung Kim | 2007, 31(6) | pp.221~245 | number of Cited : 8
    As eDMS(e-business based DMS), a kind of collaborative network system, has emerged as a key destination marketing tool, the need for eDMS adoption in CVB(Convention and Visitors Bureau) has also been increased. In this context, this study proposed an exploratory research model to analyze how staffs-in-charges of CVBs perceive the general concept of eDMS, the necessity and feasibility of eDMS adoption. The finding indicated that they recognized the necessity of eDMS adoption but they doubted the feasibility of eDMS adoption. There seemed to be significant differences between the necessity and the feasibility of eDMS adoption. Major reasons are weak cooperation among participant companies, lack of innovativeness of CEO, lack of information system experts, and difficulties in system integration and data standardization. The results also showed that eDMS would positively influence on both organizational efficiency and cooperation-building among convention service providers. The analysis revealed that the core factors of the successful adoption of eDMS are system integration and positive participation of CVB members.핵심용어(Key words):켄벤션 전담기구(Convention and Visitors Bureau:CVB), 협력적 네트워크 시스템(Collaborative Network System), e비즈니스 기반의 목적지 관리 시스템(e-business-based DMS;eDMS), 컨벤션 포탈(Convention portal)
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    Relationships of Motivation, Experience, Outcomes, and Satisfaction in Career Development

    Misook Oh | Kim Jung Ha | 2007, 31(6) | pp.247~263 | number of Cited : 17
    The objective of this study is to find the relationships of motivation, experience, outcomes, and satisfaction in career development in order to manage personal and organizational career in tourism industry. 260 cases from travel agents, airline companies, hotels and PCOs were analyzed using path analysis. Results indicate that motivation and experience effect career outcomes, and career outcomes effects career satisfaction in turn. The results also shows that motivation effects career experience as well as career satisfaction. It was found that there was no significant relationship between career experience and career satisfaction, however.핵심용어(Key words):경력개발(Career development), 경력동기(Career motivation), 경력경험(Career experience), 경력성과(Career outcomes), 경력만족(Career satisfaction)
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    Status of Korean Hospitality Industry and Human Resource Development Structure

    Suh, Yong-Gu | Do-Chull Shin | Soonwon Kwon | 2007, 31(6) | pp.265~287 | number of Cited : 11
    Such are the breadth and diversity of the hospitality and related industries, that the definition of this industry is needed urgently. This study proposes a three-key industry definition for analysis based on industry characteristics. In addition, we have investigated the major changes of Korean hospitality industries for the last 12 years in terms of their employment characteristics. It was found that they are very much female friendly and rapidly growing service industries. We suggest much more efforts are needed to develop the hospitality industry-a key to future growth of Korean economy.핵심용어(Key words):호스피탈리티 산업(Hospitality industry),고용 구조(Employment structure),인적자원개발(Human resource development),표준산업분류(Standard Industrial Classification)
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    Selecting Most Appropriate Time Series Forecasting Model

    Lee Choong-Ki | Song, Hak Jun | 2007, 31(6) | pp.289~311 | number of Cited : 36
    This study aims to develop four time-series models in order to select the best model among the time-series models based on MAPE(mean absolute percentage error). The time-series models include various ones including ARIMA model. The first three models have been most popularly used for forecasting tourism demand, whereas the last model of ARIMA Intervention is reported to be more logical and accurate than any other time-series models since special events such as terrorism and mega-events can be incorporated into the model. The results of model estimation indicate that all the four forecasting models were found most accurate in terms of MAPE(Lewis, 1982). Of them the ARIMA Intervention model(MAPE=4.48) appeared to perform best in terms of forecasting accuracy, followed by ARIMA(MAPE=4.96), Winters(5.67), and Stepwise Autoregressive(8.55).핵심용어(Key words):예측정확도(Forecasting accuracy), 윈터스지수평활모델(Winters Exponential Smoothing model), 단계적 자기회귀모델(Stepwise Autoregressive model), ARIMA모델(ARIMA model), ARIMA 개입모델(ARIMA Intervention model).
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    A Critical Review of Two Input-Ouput Models in Tourism Studies

    Son,Tae-Hwan | Yim, Eun-Soon | 2007, 31(6) | pp.313~330 | number of Cited : 8
    This paper reviews methodologies which assess the rank of output multiplier of tourism sector significantly higher than conventional approach. Seo and Sohn(2001) identified tourism industry within input-output table, by creating the column and row vectors which are related to tourism activities. But, it is turned out that output multiplier of tourism sector is over-estimated in the new model. Ji(2007) adopted Ritz-Spaulding multiplier analysis, and claimed that the service industries have advantages over manufacturing industries with respect to the magnitude of multipliers. RS model can be used to measure the impact of a change in gross output(instead of final demand) for a particular sector into gross outputs of the other sectors. But, it is confirmed that the RS multipliers are very sensitive to diagonal elements of Leontief inverse matrix. The latter model can only be effective for small regions with supply constraints.핵심용어(Key words):산출승수(Output Multiplier), 산업연관(Input-Output), Ritz-Spaulding 승수(Ritz-Spaulding Multilpier)
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    Industrial linkage Structure of the Convention Industry: A Comparison between Korea and Japan

    한진영 | Lee, Hee Chan | 이진면 | 2007, 31(6) | pp.331~352 | number of Cited : 14
    The purpose of this study is to analyze the convention related industry structure for the development prospect of the future Korea convention industry through a comparison of Korea and Japan. Using input-output table data, this study explored the relationship between the convention and other related industries in terms of its structural aspect which was involved final 31 categorized industries in 15 areas within the framework. Authors accessed the stature of the Korean convention industry and it was found that convention industry was growing rapidly from the year of 1990 to 2003. Also, this sector was found higher than other industrial one in terms of value added ratio and employment. 핵심용어(Key words):컨벤션산업(Convention industry),관련산업 구조(Related industry structures),산업연관표 (Input-Output table ),한일간 비교(A comparison of Korea and Japan)
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    An Empirical Study on Choice in Tourism According to the Image of Ganghwa-do

    Yebyeong Chae | 2007, 31(6) | pp.353~369 | number of Cited : 28
    This study involves extracting the variable factors of the image of tourist areas and the empirical analysis through which what effect the image prior to and after the visit has on the regional image formation of Ganghwa-do and on the tourists’ return visit. The conclusion is: First, the items related to the image of Ganghwa-do include convenience facilities at the tour area, sightseeing attraction of Ganghwa-do, positive, negative, and stimulating image. while the positive image had been a vital effective variable before the visit, This study result, to affect the choosing of Ganghwa-do as a favorite tourist spot by enhancing the image, The following measures: First, making positive change in the image of Ganghwa-do. The cognitive image should be improved rather than the affective image. Second, to enhance the image of Ganghwa-do and attract more return visit.핵심용어(Key words):정서적 이미지(Affective image), 인지적 이미지(Cognitive image), 관광지 선택(Choice in Tourism), 자극적 이미지(Stimulating image)
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    Korea Tourism Industry : Half a Century Analysis

    dehyun Sohn | 2007, 31(6) | pp.371~388 | number of Cited : 10
    For sustainable tourism, it is time to cope actively with environment change with ecological-mechanism. Leadership, contents and system should be harmonized and dynamic equilibrium and Chaos & Fractal theory should be systemized to generate substantial competitive energy in tourism contents. Essence of tourism is creativity(novelty). With all rapid growth, we are in the age of creativity. Dubai’s success are example of creativity and flexibility. Jim Dato’s GNC(Gross National Cool) concept, Mohammed Bin Al Maktoum and Tomas Krens’s leadership are also good role model of creativity and imagination. Contents is function of fun, storytelling and aesthetic concept. Finally, system is organism in which two factors, networks of tourism-subsystem and appealing killer contents with convergence and creativity, are interwoven each other.핵심용어(Key words):관광정책(Tourism policy), 관광산업(Tourism industry), 관광위상(Status of tourism), 관광표적시장(Tourism target market),역동적 균형(Dynamic equilibrium)
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    Evaluation of a Travel Destination's Slogan and Its Expected Effects As a Tourism Promotion Tool: The Case of Colorful DAEGU

    Ick-Keun Oh | Mikyung Lee | 2007, 31(6) | pp.389~407 | number of Cited : 23
    This paper is to evaluate Colorful DAEGU, one of travel destination’s slogans, and to examine its expected effects as a tourism promotion tool. Focus Group Interview(FGI) was used to collect data. Main questions regarding awareness, image, and symbolic meaning of the slogan, and its expected effects on tourism promotion were raised. Answers of three focus groups were audio-taped and recorded and eventually they were contrasted and compared. The results indicate that the current slogan seems not to fit with already established Daegu image. However, the slogan itself was found favorable to the respondents. Depending on the development of infrastructure and unique travel resources, the slogan’s impact on travel promotion would be positive. Noteworthy implications were suggested by authors. 핵심용어(Key words):지자체 슬로건(Slogan), 관광홍보(Tourism promotion), 포커스그룹인터뷰(FGI)
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    Analyzing Menus Provided by Contract-Managed Foodservice Outlets Applying Menu Engineering Technique: The Case of H Sales Branch of D Home Food

    Haesook Lee | Seok Youn Oh | 이경연 | 2007, 31(6) | pp.409~431 | number of Cited : 6
    This article is to analyze and evaluate the menu of H sales branch, one of the contract-managed foodservice outlet through applying various menu engineering techniques to present a way to manage menus and to increase its management efficiency and sales profit. A survey was conducted to collect data on lunch menus provided in H branch, and the results showed that by Merrick & Jones’ and Pavesic’s techniques, evenly grouped among all items; by Uman’s technique, grouped into Signature, which majority of the items belonged to Lead Items, Hard to Sell, and Losers. If applied and utilized to business operation after comprehensive evaluation on the basis of exact understanding of customer needs and menus by conducting the survey for menu-selection behavior and menu preference degree, this study would be helpful for customer satisfaction and also profit-seeking.핵심용어(Key words):메뉴분석(Menu analysis),단체급식(Contract-managed foodservice outlet)