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2008, Vol.32, No.6

  • 1.

    Ideological characteristic of tourism development: focused on the Grand Korean Waterway

    Kwang-Eik Cho | Han Sang-Hyun | 2008, 32(6) | pp.9~34 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    This study examined the different points of view of press reports in order to analyze the ideological characteristic of tourism development. An object of study is ‘the Grand Korean Waterway' project which has recently been a hot issue in Korea. Two groups of media have been selected; One for the conservatives, the Chosun Ilbo and the Donga Ilbo, and the other for the progressives, the Hankyoreh and the Kyunghyang. Contents analysis was used to analyze the points of view of press reports regarding‘the Grand Korean Waterway' project during the presidential campaign and the National Assembly election in 2007 and 2008. For analysis, various items was examined; type of report, disposition of report, disposition of title, occupation of editorialist and columnist, distribution of report depending on newspaper and so on. As a result, the media of the progressives have been more interested in the project than those of the conservatives. However, the progressives took a deeply negative stance on the project. Consequently, the media report objective facts along with the ideological characteristic.
  • 2.

    Traveling laborers: A qualitative study on the work and life among korean tour guides in Thailand

    Lee, Jin-Hyung | 2008, 32(6) | pp.35~58 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to explore the characteristics of work and life among Korean tour guides in Thailand. Qualitative research approach was used to identify significant issues and draw out policy and managerial implications. First, a brief history and overview of Korean community and Korean travel operators in Thailand are provided. Then, the Korean tour guides career development and socialization process are explored. The strategies that the Korean travel guides use to persuade their customers for shopping and option tour under low or zero commission tour situation are also examined. Finally, issues about their family and leisure life style are explored. Based on the results, managerial and policy implications and future research directions are discussed.
  • 3.

    Leisure Culture of the Joseon Dynasty Gentry: The Case of ‘Lying-down’ Tourism

    Yook, Jae-Yong | 2008, 32(6) | pp.59~81 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    This paper pays attention to an unfamiliar concept, 'wayu tourism' (lying-down tourism) not noticed by the current Korean tourism scholars. Wayu means sightseeing a miniatured natural beauty, lying down inside home. The wayu tourism is the phenomenon of experiencing the effects of tourism through wayu deeds. The literary men and illustrious officials of Choson Dynasty were absorbed in official duties at youth and were an unhealthy condition at old age, so they could not easily get access to mountains and waters. In this situation, they like post-modern tourists nowadays tend to replace real tourism by wayu tourism. Arguably wayu tourism enjoyed by our ancestor and today's virtual tourism could be said having similarity in certain respect.
  • 4.

    Urry’s Tourist Gaze Discourse: Critics and Extension

    Kim SaHun | 2008, 32(6) | pp.85~103 | number of Cited : 21
    Abstract
    Recent decades envisage enormous growth in intra and international travel and tourism flows, which cause high socio-economic effects on the involved society while activating vigorous academic endeavors. Urry’s tourist gaze thesis is one of the such effort in which he borrows the concept form Michel Faucoult’s medical gaze. Reviewing various critics raised by related authors, writer here also advances some critics and tries to extend the knowledge horizon. He first argues that clinical gaze and touristic gaze could not be the same gaze since the former is a rigid and sovereign eye-power while the latter' a leisurely sightseeing' not accompanying any commitment. Further, he criticize the unidirectional nature of the tourist gaze, suggesting reciprocity of the ‘seeing’ activity occurring between hosts and guests.
  • 5.

    A Critical Review on Hotel Service Quality Articles in the Journal of Tourism Sciences

    Daekwon Kim | 2008, 32(6) | pp.105~123 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Despite the growing importance of hotel service quality studies, to date, still debates on the conceptualization and measurement among researchers are continuing. Focusing to methodological aspects, this study examines ten articles on hotel service quality appeared in the Journal of Tourism Sciences published by The Tourism Science Society of Korea. The aim of this article is to integrate research model into one to understand current research agenda. Author in this study examines writers' research methodologies based on data collection and, in particular, data analysis questionnaire design. Further he also suggests research implications for future study.
  • 6.

    Evaluation of Value Chain Models for Culture & Tourism

    Keetag Choi | 2008, 32(6) | pp.125~144 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Every firm has a value chain which is composed of value activities occurring in an organization. The value chain model has been one of the most popular business management models and it has been applied to many firms and industries including culture and tourism. At the beginning the value chain model was developed for manufacturing and it might not be suitable for the service sector like culture and tourism. This study aims at analysing the current value chain literature for culture and tourism and showing a direction of future research of the value chain model. These are the research findings: all culture and tourism value chains can be integrated in a value system; more research are needed in the areas of upstream supply chain, customer value chain, cultural sector and private supportive service sector. Future research should also concern m-tourism value chain, knowledge-based tourism value chain, virtual value chain and e-value system.
  • 7.

    Developmental State and Tourism Development Policy in Korea: Critics and Reflection

    kIM, Young-Rae | Yeo,Jung-Tae | 2008, 32(6) | pp.145~163 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Developmental state introduced by Johnson in 1982 is one of main practices to explain the dramatic economic performances as Korea accomplished during last decades. Core concept of the developmental state is a strong government involvement to achieve national goals for the economic growth, not violating free market system. The justification and rationality of all policies was national economic growth. Tourism development also directly had been driven by the government in investment, operation, and construction being played a effective vehicle under this justification. However, this government-driven tourism development, as a legacy of the developmental state, is being questioned and raising problems in this democratized diversified society. Authors discuss and examine these problems.
  • 8.

    Reference Style of Korean Tourism Journals: A Contents Analysis

    Yeo Ho Keun | Yoon, Tae-Hwan | 2008, 32(6) | pp.165~180 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Important is the quality and contents of the articles, external appearances involving styling and formatting also are next to them to be a qualified good journal. Authors here attempt to find the levels of the external appearances of journals. Amongst 28 tourism-related journals now registered in Korea Research Foundation, 23 journals were selected to analyse their referencing styles using contents analysis. The findings from the contents analysis revealed that no standardized and unified style was found existing and most of journals adopt different reference styles which may cause confusions and time wasting unnecessarily, thus leading to degrade the journal. This paper concludes with suggestion for laying down KSRSM(Korea Standard Reference Style Manual).
  • 9.

    Critical Review on the Servant Leadership Studies

    KIM MIN JOO | Park, Jin-Kyung | 2008, 32(6) | pp.181~199 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    According to the result of precedent studies and literature on ‘servant leadership’, this concept might be said not reached yet at scientific research phase. While still remaining in level of literary characteristic, the empirical study of servant leadership can be said just started. In order to develop into scientific research, changes in the pattern of studies are advocated necessary by the authors. Writers argue this problem is caused by lack of a discussion of the constituent dimension of servant leadership, suggesting the discussion should be started over in the form of scientific studies. However, they say the study itself will be valuable for new leadership philosophy, implying possibilities of application on leadership studies of service organization in degree of scientific research.
  • 10.

    The Keyword of Tourism Policy in the New Tourism Age,‘Tourism Technology’

    Chang, Pyong-Kwon | 2008, 32(6) | pp.201~219 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    In recent, the competitiveness of Korea tourism industry is not evaluated highly because of high price and low satisfaction, delayed advancement of tourism industry structure, etc. Therefore tourism technology concept has to introduce to increase the development of tourism industry. Tourism technology is a term coined by the Korea Tourism Organization that refers to the recent trend of incorporating technology with the tourism industry. Thus tourism technology is the broader concept the travel industry focused on ‘technology in tourism’. But tourism technology have not developed sufficiently by the public and private sector because of low interest in Korea. Specially the tourism technology has to become the keyword of tourism industry policy in the government. Lastly, Korea tourism technology has to pursuit the creation of guest utility, expansion of e-tourism market, development of new blue ocean market, establishment of business-friendly system, creation of play technology, growth of tourism brand asset.
  • 11.

    Pyramidal Hierarchical-Structure of Means-End Chains Theory and Customers' Cognitive Categorization Process

    Chong,Yu-kyeong | 2008, 32(6) | pp.221~232 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    The means-end chain theory suggests that consumers perceive and judge products as the means to achieving a desired end-state in a given product-use situation. This study presents the unique pyramid-structure of the means-end chain; a model linking perceived product attribute to values. In addition, the categorization process in a product-use situation, the concept necessary to the explication was discussed in the last. Understanding these concepts provide opportunities for managers to target market segmentation and advertising based on the customers' desired end-states.
  • 12.

    Conflict Analysis of Regional Tourism Development using Game Theories: The Case of Developing Process of Muju Tourist City

    Yoo, Kwang-Min | Kim, Jin-Dong | Kim, Nam Jo | 2008, 32(6) | pp.233~251 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This study adopted the power and game theories to find the primary causes and structure of the conflict among the community involved in Muju tourism & leisure city. In-depth interviews for stakeholders were conducted to collect the data. Authors find that gamer rationally decides conflict strategy in the structure of unbalanced powers between gamers. The gamer also takes conflict strategy when there is no confidential network between gamers. However, if there is confidential network(e.g. governance) between gamers, the gamer rationally takes collaboration strategy to obtain maximum benefits. This study implies that it is very difficult to virtually make a collaborated relations among stakeholders in lack of confidential situation.
  • 13.

    The Role and Significances of Themed City in Tourism

    Hong-bumm Kim | Jungwon Lee | 2008, 32(6) | pp.253~275 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Themed city could be defined as a city that can be uniquely and specially described as a tourist destination by travelers, such that it would make tourists vividly memorize the city images and traits to enable them revisit the city by enough attraction in the context of theme. This paper is to define the construct of themed city which encompasses important strategic meaning in tourism research, and to suggest possible implications of developing a city as a themed city in a global environment of tourist destinations. The study basically employes an inductive approach of exploratory case study, so that the implications would be delineated by in-depth case analysis. Writers presume that the theme of a city consists of both the identity and its attractiveness that can be felt through the emission of the identity.
  • 14.

    Characteristics and Problems of Hotel Industry in Korea and a Proposal for the Development of Quality Budget Hotels

    Cho, Yong-hyun | 2008, 32(6) | pp.277~296 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Hotel industry should be considered as a basic infrastructure for the city and country as like airport and expressway because hotel industry is related with other industries. But, hotel business requires long-term investments of a lot of money and needs to employ many workers. Thus, most of deluxe hotels in Korea are owned by the plutocrats who are able to operate hotels in a long-term plan. It evokes the shortage of quality budget hotels in Korea. Thus, Korean government needs to understand hotel is basic facilities not only for tourists but also other industries and innovate policies for hotel industry in the process of both development and operation.
  • 15.

    Methodological Trends for Scale Development Techniques:The Case of the Journal of Tourism Sciences

    김영국 | 2008, 32(6) | pp.297~315 | number of Cited : 33
    Abstract
    This study is to review methodological trend in relation to scale development and outline the development of reliable and valid scales on papers appeared in Journal of Tourism Sciences from 1998 to 2007. A suggested procedure of scale development was derived from existing theoretical and practical literature. Additionally, some parts of the studies reviewed in this research were also used as a source of the suggested process. Methodological techniques of the reviewed papers were compared to suggested processes. The findings describe that most studies have faithfully provided reliability and validity of scales, and several papers have attempted to introduce new methodological approaches in their studies.
  • 16.

    Leisure Experience of Aging

    Lee, Hoon | Hwang Hee jeong | 2008, 32(6) | pp.317~338 | number of Cited : 32
    Abstract PDF
    This study explored leisure experience for aging using qualitative research methods, indepth-interview. This study examined the theories, active theory and continuity theory, and analyzed the concepts, commitment, involvement, and Flow. Results indicated that the influential variables on aging people's leisure motivations were depression, stress, boredom, loneliness, and friends' invitations. Internal leisure meanings for them were explored with fun, self development, physical health, friendship, and mental health. And also outcomes of leisure activities gave meanings of live, fulfillment, and perceived role to them. The active theory and continuity theory were explored in this study. Finally the three concepts, commitment, involvement, and Flow were inter-correlated in their leisure experience. The conceptual model was suggested based on the results and the relationships.
  • 17.

    Tourist's Viewpoint Type for Tourist Destinations Using Q-Method

    Jang, Eun-Kyung | Heungsik Park | 2008, 32(6) | pp.339~361 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    This article attempts to understand how tourists evaluate a tourist destination using certain kind of criteria. The starting point is the viewpoints of tourists. For this purpose, authors investigated what kind of viewpoints tourists had of Jeollanamdo as a tourist destination by employing what one calls Q-method. The analysis results using the Q-method suggest that there are four viewpoint types of Jeollanamdo as a tourist destination, implying the characteristics shared by the four frameworks in terms of viewpoints. Arguably writers suggest that the results will make basic data in understanding the psychological market of potential tourist and evaluating the images of a tourist destination.
  • 18.

    Leisure Constraints Analysis of the Disabled Using Free-listing Method

    Shim, Jae-Myung | Choi, Jeong-Ja | 2008, 32(6) | pp.363~382 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    Disabled people represents one of the most marginalized groups in society, and their leisure may well be subject to marginal status too. This study addresses four questions regarding the leisure of disabled people. Forty two physically handicapped people residing in Kyungjoo participated in the freelisting survey. ANTHROPAC method was used to analyze the data. Authors produced what we call salience index, an indicator to the relative significance of each item. They revealed that the leisure of the disabled is characterized by passivity, emptiness, and comparatively instrumental nature while the respondents are considering good health and well-being feelings to be the prime rewards that leisure offers.
  • 19.

    An exploratory study of the electronic-CRM activities in tourism industry: The case of Travel agencies, Hotels, Airlines and Restaurants

    Hwang Soo Young | Kim, Sung Hyuk | 2008, 32(6) | pp.383~403 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    This study is to investigate the availability of electronic customer relationship management(e-CRM) activities on four types of tourism related organizations including travel agencies, hotels, airlines and restaurants. The survey was conducted from August 1st to August 30th, 2007. In order to examine those activities, this study used the expert survey based on the in-depth interviews chosen since the goal of this study was to evaluate the e-CRM activities by collecting opinions and information from the experts and finding the consensus among them. Authors found that the travel agencies and airlines had significantly excellent in doing the e-CRM activities. However, most of them were found poorly operated in the hotels and restaurants because of various reasons.
  • 20.

    The effect of Travel Agencies' Off Line Distribution Function & Definition Factors on Customer Commitment & Customer Loyalty

    Youngdai Kwak | 2008, 32(6) | pp.407~429 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The significance finding of the study were as follows. First, the travel agencies' sales promotion factor of off line distribution function definition factor is analyzed to have an effect on the customer loyalty and it is identified as an important variable factor to gain regular customers by establishing the distribution function with price discounts, additional benefits(travel goods) and miles(coupons, points). Second, it is verified that the factors indirectly effective to the travel agencies' off line distribution function definition factors to customer loyalty through the relationship commitment are the travel agencies' transactions, security, information, profits, giving and friendliness, that is, customers and travel agencies' are distributed geographically, internet reliability, security and user-friendliness are mostly not verified that it can be said it is urgent to concentrate on the variable factors revealed as off line distribution function definition factors to regenerate the off line distribution function.
  • 21.

    The Exploratory Study on Development of Medical Tourism Product in Korea

    Mi-Kyung Kim | YOON, SEMOK | Yun, Senam | 2008, 32(6) | pp.431~447 | number of Cited : 51
    Abstract
    Medical/health tourism is a new type of tourism reflecting consumers' desires for well-being and experience during the travel. This study was conducted to investigate the consumers' intention to visit to Korea for the purpose of medical/health tourism and their preference on medical/health activities as well as tour activities in Korea. The data for the study were collected from Japanese both in Korea and in Japan, because Japanese was considered as an major market for Korean medical/health tourism product. From the results of the study, 37.3 percent of respondents has the intention to visit Korea for medical/health tourism. The study also classified four types of medical/health activities and three types of tour activities which consumers want to participate in. And it revealed that consumers' preference on medical/health activity affects their preference on tour activity when visiting in Korea.
  • 22.

    A Study on Direct Experience Impact on Placeness Formation

    Shim Won-sup | Lee, injae | 2008, 32(6) | pp.449~467 | number of Cited : 21
    Abstract
    The purpose of the study was to identify the structure of placeness, and to determine the role of direct experience in the placeness formation. The total 519 valid samples were collected in April, 2006. Major findings of this study were as follows: First, direct experiences measured by level of contacts and level of interactions between tourists and residents had significant effects on the placeness perceived by tourists. And then, level of motivation to participate in the local traditional and cultural activities had moderated effects on the influence of the two determinants. That is, high motivation group had more strong influences on the placeness than low one. Finally, between two determinant variables, level of interaction had more significant influences than level of contacts.
  • 23.

    Tourism and Entertainment Study Trend:For Sustainable Korean Wave Tourism Study

    Yang, Soung-Hoon | 2008, 32(6) | pp.471~486 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract
    Recent Korean Wave fever witnessed affluent Korean Wave tourism studies and opened the gate to research on relationship between entertainment and tourism, new frontier of tourism area. This research is aim at two objectives. One is to review 40 related articles and to derive the meaning of it. The other is to find out further study for sustainable Korean Wave study. Result said that most of the research focus on the entertainment or Korean Wave contents' effect on tourist's psychological process and change of destination's image. But we need to extend scope such as what is entertainment tourist, how to merge e-factors into tourism product and how it is possible to recreate entertainment destination.