Using two major tourism journals this paper is to review the trend of leisure research appeared in tourism journals in Korea. The search in the KISS resulted in the total of seventy-five leisure related research papers, which were, after careful categorization, reduced to nine basic themes. The whole article was divided to fall under three time periods for analysis. The results revealed that the volume of leisure research increased considerably over time and the subject matters have diversified from the predominantly social psychological in nature to include more various topics. The leisure research shows resemblance with that in the field of physical education in terms of the trend, both of which differ little from the North American leisure studies, signifying the influence of the latter on the former.
This paper investigates factors influencing WOM(word of mouth) effects focusing on restaurant reviews on the internet to setup the online marketing strategy for restaurant administrations. Using observed and questionnaire data, authors attempt to find out whether customer's WOM disposition is affecting evaluation of restaurant reviews and which factor of restaurant evaluations is recognized more important as WOM disposition. Based on survey data, WOM disposition was measured with three components. The results identified WOM disposition as a factor to take the effect into the reputation of restaurant reviews on the web and there are differences between components of restaurant evaluation as WOM disposition. Curiously, few have attempted to address this factor despite the rise of online WOM communication studies.
This study aims at applying gambling passion scale(GPS) to internet gamblers in order to test reliability of the GPS and to segment responsible markets. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicate that the GPS was validated by delineating two subscales of obsessive passion(OP) and harmonious passion(HP) with higher reliability. The GPS was also classified into four groups based on mean values of OP and HP: low OP/low HP, high OP/low HP, high OP/high HP, and low OP/high HP. The last group, called the harmonious passion group was found to perceive attitudes affective state toward internet gambling of sport-toto more positively than any other groups. The findings suggest that the harmonious passion group should be promoted for responsible gambling in the long run.
Authors intended to determine how perceived service quality affected trust, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in the context of college and university foodservices. A total of 317 usable questionnaires were collected from enrolled students at 4-year universities. Five dimensions for the perceived service quality of campus dining were identified from second-order factor analysis. The empirical results revealed that perceived service quality was found statistically significant positive influential factor on trust and customer satisfaction. They exerted, in turn, a statistically significant positive influence on customer loyalty, while perceived service quality didn't have any direct significant impact on customer loyalty in the study. As expected, trust was found influencing significantly on customer satisfaction.
Using LISREL for covariance structure analysis, this paper is to explore the temple stay as a leisure and tourism program and to examine the structural relations of the cognitive experience, the emotional experience and the overall satisfaction. The findings show that the emotional experience of participants in the temple stay depends on how they perceive the cognitive factors in their experience. In turn, the emotional experience was found influencing on overall satisfaction. As for emotional experiences, adaptation to nature and self-development have significant effects on relaxation and pleasure. Social interaction also has significant effects on pleasure, but no significant effect on relaxation. Finally authors found a significant relation between relaxation and pleasure , both of which influence the satisfaction of the temple stay.
This study examines the relationship between participant loyalty and service quality in a festival services context, and attempts to identify the role of willingness to participation behavior and participant satisfaction. In particular, writers focused on the moderating role of perceived behavioral control(PBC) among their relationships. Survey data were drown from a N(regional) herb festival. Authors found the service quality had a positive effect to the willingness to participation behavior, the satisfaction, and the participant loyalty. In addition, the PBC has a moderating effect to the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty. Finally, implications for tourism festival theory and practitioners were discussed with future researches ahead.
Human capital is recognized as one of important sources of business success. This paper is to examine the effects of the introduction of knowledge management as a human capital upon the perception of production perfor- mance at travel agencies. With using LISREL program authors analyzed empirically about both sharing and creation of knowledge, components of knowledge management, and financial performance at travel agencies. The data were drown from a survey and interview to 234 personnel involved in tarvel business agencies. The results reveal that the human capital hardly affects the sharing and creation of knowledge, and sharing knowledges are found to influence on the components, while creating knowledge are not affecting the components.
Despite the sizable and rapidly increasing online population among Chinese travelers, relatively little is known about who are the Chinese tourists who use online information, how they are different from other tourists, and which type of information they look for online. Using the survey results of Chinese tourists visiting Macau, this study examined Chinese tourists who sought for online information to prepare their Macau trip, particularly their preferences for the content types and functional features on DMO websites. By using dissimilarity measures of Yule's Y index for non-hierarchical cluster analysis for categorical data, author further segmented the online tourists to four-typed seekers by their preferences for content types and functional features.
This storytelling as one of tour program sources is being made through the literature study and on-site survey with narrative structure. The purpose of this study is to show the application ways of storytelling as using the Kim Sat-got's story to make a tour program. The three staged storyline has been applied to this study. The suggestion of this study is to develop the tour program by applying the storytelling structured with the subject matters based on character narratives. Together with the development process in time based on Kim Sat-got's narrative structure into which the subject location of Yeongwol County is grafted, the degree of spatial utilization has been presented. Since studies on the narrative structure have been conducted actively in the humanities field.
This study estimates the value of agricultural landscape as a tourist attraction. Recently, the landscape of buckwheat farm in Bongpyeong, Pyeongchang county has more important role than the crop's production for the improvement of the regions's economy and image. A contingent ranking method that is known for an effective tool is used to calculate the value. The result shows that the willingness to pay(WTP) on the buckwheat farm in Bongpyeong is 2,481 won per person and the value of each one hundred thousand pyeongs is 827 won. The findings of the paper will provide useful information for tourism development and management policies of the region.
Web 2.0 environment has brought about changes to the Internet environment so much as to make tourism consumers enabled to obtain travel and tourism information they want directly, not through travel agencies. The tourism market is flowing with tourism information in a form of User-Created Contents, being created by tourism consumers who have prior travel experiences, and the increasing amount of such travel and tourism information has hit a remarkable level. Such various pieces of tourism information as the texts, images, videos created by the user are being shared on the Internet freely. However, travel agencies still demonstrate an inferior level of customer service. This fact has been empirically confirmed, and so the researcher would like to lay the meaning of this research thereon.
This study is to investigate the influences of personal characteristics and service interaction types on emotional labor. Author explores the way service providers perform the emotional labor and responses after performance according to both their personal characteristics and different service interactions. Findings show that as service employees of high extraversion tend to enjoy positive livings, they are found to perform deep acting. On the other hand, employees of high neuroticism are found to perform surface acting adequate to display rules of organizations and to suffer from emotional dissonance due to the inconsistency between inner feelings and outer behaviors. The results suggest that service enterprises establish the management plan of employees' emotional labors and carry out service training programs systematically, as well.
This article aims to identify the characteristics of upper-class air flight seats users, comparing to the economy-class seat users. Demographic information and consuming behaviors of leisure activities, premium products and attributes of airline services were hypothesized to influence on the selection of upper-class airline seats. Survey was conducted using 325 people in Korea and the data was analyzed through factor analyses and logistic regression analyses. Authors found that income, age, frequency of overseas travel, golf rounds and musical viewing are significant factors influencing the purchase of upper-class seats. The results also indicate that the customers who want chances to show-off themselves and differentiated services are more likely to buy upper-class seats.
This paper is to investigate characteristics of Japanese tourism demand for Korea using annual data from 1966 to 2007. Author builds basic model based on tourism demand theory, performs cointegration test, and estimates long-run equilibrium equation as well as error correction model in order to characterize Japanese tourism demand for Korea. Major findings are as follows. Long-run equilibrium relationships exist only in the following two cases; (1) between the number of total arrivals and income (2) between the number of total arrivals and the nominal exchange rate. This implies the possibility of spurious regression if we use a combination of income, relative price and exchange rate as a determinants of Japanese tourism demand for Korea, especially when annual data are used. Other results such as income elasticity of demand and speeds of adjustments to equilibrium are discussed.
This paper is to analyze the relationships between the motivation and
characteristics of the tourists to the natural world heritage site in Jeju Island.
Through questionnaire survey authors found that there were differences
between the characteristics and the motivation of tourists visiting the sites.
Tourists were found having different types of motivation in three Natural
Heritage Sites(Hallasan Natural Reserve, Geomunoreum Lava Tube System,
Seongsan Ilchulbong Tuff Cone) respectively. That is 'tourism resource
seekers' of tourist motivation cluster relatively related to Manjanggul in
Geomunoreum Lava Tube System, 'natural heritage seekers' to Seongsan
Ilchulbong Tuff Cone and 'escape-friendly seekers' to Hallasan Natural Reserve.
This study examines the influence of hotel service's physical environment on customer value and behavioral intention. Physical environment included ambient, design and social factor. Customer benefit consisted of service quality and emotional response, and customer cost was made up of monetary cost and non-monetary cost. The data were collected from 300 travelers accommodated in five-star hotels in Jeju island and structure equation modeling(SEM) was used as method of analysis. The results suggested that the relationship between physical environment and customer benefit as well as customer cost was partially significant . Moreover, customer benefit and customer cost influenced customer value, and customer value affected on behavioral intention.
The festival visitor's satisfaction factors have been mainly highlighted on the perspective of visitors in the past research. However, in this paper, perspectives of festival organizers and host communities on the importance and performance arguably were analyzed on a comparative basis to find the gaps and differences among related festival stakeholders. Six dimensions of twenty eight variables in influencing festival visitor's satisfaction were identified by literature review, and an importance-performance analysis was conducted with 381 responses of 73 festival organizers, 237 festival visitors and 71 host community residents. The result reveals that the stakeholder groups share the same perception on various dimensions. Author found that stakeholders have different perception on several variables.
Using surveying data from employees from 12 deluxe hotels in Seoul this study is to investigate the interaction effects of job characteristics and employee personalities on job satisfaction in the hotel. Factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha analysis, multi-regression analysis and hierarchical multiple regression analysis are used as the statistical method. The result of this study is that (1) job characteristics affect job satisfaction, (2) employee personalities affect job satisfaction and (3) the interactions of job characteristics and employee personalities affect job satisfaction. According to the results of this study, Author suggests the method of employee selection and employ transfer to fit employee personalities into job characteristics so that employees may work with job satisfaction.
This study is carried out to suggest practical implications to the airlines' international business by empirically analyzing the factors affecting the performance in international lines of global air carriers. The existing studies seem to be lacking in the integrated study considering the firm level and business units level as to drawing the factors affecting the performance of international airlines. Writers propose an integrated logic including discussions on the level of the firm and business units, and suggests to make a model considering the structural features of international lines. Analysis of this study shows that firms' variables have a more crucial influence on the performance of the global air carriers' international lines than business units' variables.
This study examines the influence of function as a mentor in the hotel structure on the organizational commitment and indicates that inspecting the influence of a type of organization on the organizational commitment improves the efficiency of human resources. Here, career is found distributed into 2 groups(from 1 year to 5 years and over 10 years) and the position of the mentor into 2 groups. However author could not find the influence of such individual peculiarities as gender, age, department, position, a form of employment and frequency of contact on the rate of the organizational commitment. Finally he found the influence of function as a mentor that is a psychological society function, a career management function and a role model function on the rate of the organizational commitment, especially the psychological society function was a potent influence.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of supervisor leadership on trust and organizational commitment. Three hundred questionnaires were distributed to the employees of twelve deluxe hotels in Jeju from December 29, 2008 to January 9, 2009. Of those, 271 were collected. The questionnaires consisted of transactional and transformation leadership, trust, and organizational commitment questions. These questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS 12.0, and frequency, reliability, factor, and regression analyses were conducted. The results of the empirical analyses are summarized as follows: transactional and transformation leadership had positive effects on trust and organizational commitment. Trust had also a positive effect on organizational commitment. Therefore, through various training and communication methods, hotel managers have to form a system and procedure that can be shared by all of the members of an organization.
This study applied a financial portfolio theory to estimate optimal market mixes to minimize the instability of inbound tourist market demand. An empirical analysis was applied to inbound tourists to Korean. The results shed light on diversification in tourism market and offer tourism authorities and policy-makers explicit guidelines for risk management in the destination planning process. Specifically, using optimal mixes with various return-risk options can facilitate a more stable pattern of arrivals from foreign countries. To achieve the optimal inbound tourism market mixes, the tourism authorities should take the high-return & high-risk option and shift available resources to Japan, Chines, Indonesia, USA, Taiwan etc. More policy implications are provided to guide tourism authorities and policy makers.