This study diagnosed the academic characteristic, the development process, and problems of tourism sciences from the viewpoint of psychology and was to suggest the possible solution. On this account this study referred to Journal of Tourism Sciences, a representative tourism-related journal in Korea published by Tourism Sciences Society of Korean. As a result, this study showed some problems. Especially author suggests the remedy about the research methodology of tourism studies and the necessity of new dependent/ independent variable for tourism studies. In addition, writer emphasized possibility of psychological contribution.
As one may know, the Korean history is so long. However, academic circles of history until now do not know much about the Tourism history in Korean culture. Wrong using a word of ‘Tour’ meaning, ‘Kwankwang(觀光)’ is one of such examples. Within this context author argues the conceptual thinking of ‘Tour’ has come out after 20th century. Thus he assists one one must classify of that ‘Tour’ meaning, as long as the description of history of Korean Tourism is concerned. After the premodern society, a dynastic society, the Westen world’s tour was started after capitalism society. It’s happening in the individual activity, in free society.
Climate change resulting from global warming influences human life including tourism activities. Korea is not an exception. Tourism areas do not ready to study how to cope with climate change yet. This paper is to grope research subjects of green tourism after modelling relations between climate change and tourism in the view of the influencer and influencee on climate change. To grope the subjects, this study delved into various literature reviews. The influence-response model of climate change and tourism suggested in this study provides research clues on which points are focused on tourism area based on adaptation strategies and mitigation strategies influenced by carbon emission and international agreement such as Tokyo Protocol. This study suggested some research subjects with the guideline pointing out the degree and types of influences resulting from climate change and adaptation strategies.
The term “voluntourism” is newly coined terminology that creates the mutual benefit of volunteers as tourists and local people. Through the case of the oil spill accident in Taean in 2007, this paper attempts to analyze how the mass media form the discourse on specific social agenda such as voluntourism. In this paper, authors examine a total of 54 editorials and articles related to voluntourism in Taean in 2007 and find that the discourse formation is completed by four distinct stages such as initial stage, implementation stage, acceleration stage and discourse formation stage. They suggests that through the process of the discourse formation as a framework, one can expect to raise or develop specific social issues with tourism and create new tourism market.
Entertainment business influences all industries, giving a birth to Hallyu(Korean wave) tourism and loyal fans overseas. Such development also provides new business opportunity for entertainment management companies and travel agencies, who are sharing same target market. Object of this study is the way how to convert fans into tourists by collaboration of two business entities. Case study and literature review revealed that the present transaction stage should be moved to more constructive collaboration stage. Travel agency is not merely another agency of entertainment company but business partners who plan and operate fan meeting event together, capitalizing new relations into sustainable Hallyu.
Symbolic consumption means purchasing expensive or inimitable goods and brand for which certain knowledge is required. This kind of consumption is pursued because the individuals have their needs not only the one which makes them distinguish from others but one which enables them to be recognized as a special class. Therefore, symbolic consumption itself has a symbolic value. This research is to discuss how significant the symbolic value of the cultural space such as nation’s cultural facilities is through the results of no entrance fees for one year. It is expected to obtain clearer findings which author desired to have in this paper if more statistic data on the number of visitors in a long term and the characteristics of the visitors by facilities are used for the future study after free admission policy.
A region’s competitiveness cannot be reduced only to tourism resources or tourism infrastructure because regions must cope with political, social and cultural dimensions. Therefore, regions need to provide an environment that has the most efficient structure and policies that encourage the integrated cultural tourism competitiveness of regions. This paper is to analyze how Gyeonggi Province manages the totality of its cultural tourism-related competencies to achieve increased prosperity within the integrated framework. It provides an access to competitiveness related to the cultural tourism, ranking regions on the basis of 55 criteria, each analyzing a different facet of a cultural tourism competitiveness. Major findings show that Beijing is the most competitive region among compared regions. The weak competitiveness of Gyeonggi mainly results from poor tourism infrastructures. The results imply that the policy priority should be toward the expansion of tourism- related infrastructure and construction of U-tour city to enforce Gyeonggi’s cultural tourism competitiveness.
Recently Click-and-Mortar travel agency are suffering from difficulties in both offline and online channels. Therefore, primary strategic objective of Click-and-Mortar companies is focused on how to retain customers in offline and online channels. In this sense, I investigate to find crucial factors affecting the customer retention such as customer repurchase intention and customer e-loyalty. I found through the literature survey that the crucial factors is trust transfer, switching cost. For this research issue, I performed a field survey in which 230 valid questionnaires were collected from the Click-and-Mortar travel agency users. The study found that trust transfer and switching cost are important factors in forming customer repurchase intention and customer e-loyalty. And uncertainty cost and sunk cost in switching cost had a positive impact on e-loyalty. Lastly, applications and related limitations are discussed.
This paper is to identify stress factors of CEO for wines and wine knowledge level. A factor analysis delineated four dimensions of stress factors of wine: wine making, wine manner, wine quality, wine evaluation. The regression analysis yielded all of the factors had influence on the stress of CEO for wines and the cluster analysis produced three clusters: Wine outsiders, Beverage wine consumers, Aspirational drinkers. Wine outsiders were founde more stressful for wine than other groups. Implications are discussed relative to wine education for CEO.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the procedure for improving the importance-performance analysis by applying Kano model in choosing attributes to concentrate after classifying attributes. The Kano model uses dummy variables to classify attributes so that a group of variables has similar characteristics. The groups could be excitement, performance, and basic factors. Author used knowledge data of tourist destinations to compare three results of IPA. The study results suggest to use impact range-performance and impact-asymmetry in IPA. The procedure may be an appropriate and useful tool to choose attributes to concentrate. It is hoped that other areas, besides satisfaction studies, could apply this procedure in various applications.
Except services trade, commodity trade theories have been spelt out by many scholars historically. Including Adam Smith’s theory of absolute cost, Ricardo’s theory of comparative cost, Heckscher-Ohlin’s Theorem of factor endowment, and Burnun’s product life cycle theory are among such theses. Authors’ interest here is Stephan Linder’s representative demand hypothesis that domestic demand itself could decide export demand from overseas. Arguably writers assist this hypothesis could be applied to external tourism demand, stating that well-beaten domestic demand promotes inbound tourism demand. World panel data were manipulated and run by regression models grouped into random effect models and fixed effect model. Three to four year’s time-lagged dummy were applied. Models were found quite significant, implying strong confirmation of Linder’s hypothesis.
This article aims at finding emotional variables which affect the emotional labor of the service employees and to help them to participate in the emotional labor effectively through the positive or negative results of this study. Authors examined the research questions through quantitative analytic methods; employees of 19 five-star hotels in Seoul were surveyed. The survey showed that the deep acting was affected by the frequency and variety of the emotional expressions and the display rules of them. And the surface acting was found influenced by the duration and the display rules, which were the variables that affected all the aspects of the emotional burnout. Furthermore, all variables of emotional burnout were found to reduce job satisfactions
This study is to explore the relationship between PR and organizational culture patterns. The relationship between PR and organizational culture patterns was considered as follows. First, employee orientation had significant influences on public affairs management, crisis management, reputation management, and didn’t have a significant influence on promotion and campaign management. Second, customer orientation had significant influences on public affairs management, crisis management, and didn’t have significant influences on reputation management, promotion and campaign management. Third, innovation orientation had significant influences on public affairs management, crisis management, and didn’t have significant influences on reputation management, promotion and campaign management.
Within the market environment where one should cope with difficulties in competition and differentiation, they should establish the emotional labor strategy with which they can create a strong and continuous relationship with their customers and thereby satisfy them, with a positive attitude. Therefore, this paper is to examine how the customers of western-style restaurants characterized by the employees’ frequent contact with the customers, perceive the employees’ emotional labor, and what emotional responses the customers display during the contact, and also how these emotional responses affect the customers’ satisfaction and loyalty. In order to verify a proposed model in this study, the SPSS program was used for statistical analysis, factor analysis, regression analysis.
This article is to evaluate the influencing power of selective attributes, which is attached great importance to selection of family restaurant centering on university students in Seoul and Kyungin area, on customer satisfaction. First, in selective attributes of family restaurant, it was valued the attributes derived from consideration for customer, kind service, price factor and the price as well as the factor derived from essential food including taste and amount of food. Second, the degree of achievement after use of family restaurant was rather high in taste of food, service and brand. Third, in satisfaction evaluation, customers were rather valued low compared to the degree of importance of selective attitudes and that the difference in score of satisfaction was not so much. Forth, employee factor contributed most largely to the satisfaction of family restaurant. Finally, food factor and employee factor contributed to the intention of revisit was important factor in that aspect.
The purpose of this study is to examine the structural relationships among perceptions of healthy menu, concerns about festival food, overall satisfaction, and intention of revisiting. A total of 331 festival visitors participated in this study. A structural equation model was developed to empirically test a total of five research hypotheses derived from extensive literature review in the areas of food tourism, food safety, and foodservice management. The results of these empirical tests indicated that perceptions of healthy menu had strong negative impacts on the two dimensions of concerns about festival food. As expected, there was also negative relationships between the concerns and overall festival satisfaction, while showing the strong positive relationship between the satisfaction and the revisiting intention. Finally, the author suggested theoretical and practical implications of this research in order to build a series of marketing strategies related to managing and planning foodservice systems for successful festivals.
This research was initiated to review strategic orientation of introducing Medical Tourism Special Zone through fixed conclusion of impacting factors by introduction of the special zone and of strategic priority issue. AHP research method was used by surveying officers nationwide in charge of Medical Tourism Special Zone. The survey results for comparison among major evaluation criteria reads 40.3% among interviewees said that infrastructure is the most important issues; among detailed evaluation criteria reads that 51.9% of repliers said medical cooperation is the most important in local connection; among marketability criteria reads that suitable medical price for medical service is the most important issues by gaining 71.4% answers from surveys. According to the survey results, introduction of medical tourism special zone was found highly desirable.
Family characteristic is an important factor deciding the demand for rural tourism. Family life cycle affects motivation and destination choice factors and preference of experiencing programs rural tourism provides. Existence or not of one’s kids and age level have an important effect over rural tourism destination selection. Result of this study indicates that relaxation with family in the rural destination is more important factor than that of communication with other people. Authors found that rural destination was considered as a place in which natural attractiveness and its quality of service scape do important roles in promoting rural tourism. Authors arguer rural tourism needs market segmentation strategy according to family life cycle.
The purpose of this study is to estimate the determinants of visitor expenditure demand for golf event and examine the propensity to consume for its visitors. On site survey was conducted in Jeju Island and Gapyeing in Kyunggi Do where Golf Tournaments hosted by KPGA were held. For this study, it was required that proper model to analyse the collected data should be built. Tobit model which is useful for analysing centralized data measured by ratio scale was introduced. As a key result, marketing should be exercised for residents of non-hosting region who visit the events for tourism and leisure activities, and it can be concluded that this will contribute to revitalizing local economy. Futhermore author identified that its visitors were inclined to expense mostly by accident, not by design when they visit golf event.
This study was to explore the psychological effects of educational tourism experience with the leisure therapeutic perspective. Data collection method was into a quasi-experimental design including experimental group of 62 woman high school to be compared to control group of 46 students. Three kinds of psychological variables with 8 dimensions were adopted as criteria of travelling effects; affects(positive mood, depression, and anxiety), cognitive competency(involvement to travel, courage to travel, and traveller’s identity), and social ability(social skill and social identity). The differences of the 8 psychological dimensions between pre and post educational tourism were applied as ultimate dependents. It was identified that educational tourism group(i.e., experimental group) showed significantly more and higher improvement effects on the four psychological states or competencies compared to the control group as results. These results imply that the educational tourism has psychological therapeutic effects
The purpose of this study was to explore flight attendants’ entering, training process, cabin service and their relationships with emotional labor. We did in-depth interviews of 10 flight attendants about their application procedure for the job, training process after entering the airline and actual emotional labor during a flight. We also did additional in-depth interviews of two flight attendant trainers to understand emotional labor management from a managerial perspective. Results revealed that flight attendants recruitment procedure was on the line of emotional training process. From a managerial point of view, results also showed that the flight attendants emotional labor was practiced not only with passengers but also with co-workers. Based on these results, we suggested human resource management policies for the airline industry.