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2009, Vol.33, No.5

  • 1.

    Comparison of Importance of Spa Selection Attributes and Satisfaction Level perceived by Spa Users

    Sukbin Cha | 정유리 | 2009, 33(5) | pp.11~31 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract
    Surveying 309 spa users of three spa facilities located in Choongchungnam -do province, this paper examined their perception of the importance of spa selection attributes and their satisfaction level. Factor analysis of 28 selection attributes identified five dimensions such as customer service, reputation, quality of facilities, surrounding tourist attractions, and convenience such as ease of access and reservations. IPA indicated that the spa industry should make every effort to improve the convenience factor. Additional IPA for each factor also revealed specific areas for future improvement. The study concludes with the implications of the results and suggests some future research topics.
  • 2.

    Wine Marketing Strategies of 5 Star Hotel Restaurants in Seoul Using the Delphi Technique

    Ko, JaeYoun | Yoo, Byung-kyun | Yu Yang Lee | 2009, 33(5) | pp.33~54 | number of Cited : 27
    Abstract
    The objective of this study is to suggest potential marketing strategies for five-star hotel restaurants to increase wine sales. A three-step delphi method was employed using a panel of 21 five-star hotel sommeliers, 6 wine experts, and 3 wine institute educators in Seoul. The results demonstrated that five-star hotel restaurant employees must be regularly trained to be knowledgable about wine. Moreover, the chefs and sommeliers should work in concert to continually upgrade and vary the menu and wines. Management should offer a high quality selection of wines at a variety of price points. Special wine promotional events should be offered on a regular basis to attract recurring business. Additionally, management should frequently upgrade the restaurant interior to maintain a dominant position.
  • 3.

    The Relationship Between Employees' Personality, Self-control and Performance in Korean Tourist Hotels

    Yu, Hee Kyung | Kim, Won | 이병관 | 2009, 33(5) | pp.55~75 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    This study investigated the correlation between employees' personality, self-control, and performance in Korean tourist hotels. Data were collected from 217 hotel employees. This study shows that groups scoring higher on the Big Five personality characteristics performed at a higher level on both task performance and non-task performance measures than lower scoring groups. iN terms of self control method control was affected only by conscientiousness and openness. In contrast, time control was impacted by emotional stability, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness. Additionally, both method control and time control significantly influenced task performance while non-task performance was affected only by method control. However, no correlation was found between agreeability and self- control. The study concluded by emphasizing the importance of considering the personality of potential employees and one's capacity for self-control.
  • 4.

    Franchisor's Effect on Franchisee's Performance: A Multi-level Analysis

    Kim, Young-Gook | Kwon, Hyun-Soo | 2009, 33(5) | pp.77~97 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    This study is a multi-level analysis of the effect that fanshisors have on the performance of franchisees. Data were collected from 85 franchisors and 307 franchisees. Hierarchical Linear Model analysis indicated that at the franchisee level organizational commitment was positively related to performance while at the franchieor level experience, entrepreneurial orientation and relational governance were positively related to the franchisee's performance. Moreover, the franchisor attributes proved tomoderate on the relationship between the franchisee attributes and performance. The results contribute to franchise literature by applying a mult-ilevel perspective and empirically demonstrating the effects of franchisors' on franchisee's performance.
  • 5.

    The Adoption and Utilization of Local Food in the School Food Service Support System: An Exploratory Case Study

    Kim Hyeon Cheol | Jung In Kyung | Min, Sang-Ki | 2009, 33(5) | pp.99~121 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract
    The significance of local food has been emphasized in the food service industry. However, relatively little is known about how local food can be adopted and utilized in the school food service sector. This study examines the current adoption and utilization of local food in Korean schools. Three key attributes of local food systems-distance, economics, and environmental factors-were considered in this study. A total of 42 relevant news articles has been throughly selected and analyzed for this study. Results show that currently local food is mostly discussed in terms of its environmental friendliness, and only occasionally are the other two aspects mentioned. The findings of this study offer constructive policy suggestions to effectively adopt and utilize local food. The study also raised a set of future research questions.
  • 6.

    Regulatory Compliance and its Revision Concerning Country-of-origin Meat Labeling in the Restaurant Industry

    Chong,Yu-kyeong | Song, Hyon-Ju | 어금희 | 2009, 33(5) | pp.123~146 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Out of many restaurant regulations, Food Sanitation Article 10-3 regulating the country-of-origin labeling of meat was selected for this study of regulatory compliance. The respondents were 295 restaurant owners and managers, 66 local government food and hygiene inspection officials, and 173 restaurant customers. Regulatory compliance was measured by the following criteria: awareness, recognition of importance, and observance. Results showed that awareness of the law and of its importance was high. However, compliance was moderate because the restaurant industry found the law too complex and the penalties disproportionate. The study concluded that in order to improve compliance the government needs to more effectively clarify and communicate the relevant regulations to the restaurant industry.
  • 7.

    Evaluation of Management Efficiency of Family Restaurants Using the DEA Model

    Bae, Joon-Ho | SHIN, HONG CHUL | 2009, 33(5) | pp.147~163 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    Using data envelopment analysis(DEA), this study analyzed management efficiency of 5 Korean family restaurants: VIPS. TGIF, Bennigans, Sizzler, Tony Romas. Data were collected from the 2009 Korean Food Industry Annual Report. and from the five companies. Total sales were employed as the output variable, while year-on-year rate, and number of shops were considered as the input variables. DEA results show that TGIF was the most efficient family restaurant among the five restaurants. It was followed by Bennigans, Tony Romas, Sizzler, and VIPS. Particularly, even though the total sales of TGIF was only 40% of VIPS and the number of TGIF' shops(40) was far fewer than VIPS(90), TGIF's management efficiency was .22 point higher than that of VIPS. Several suggestions were made to improve the management efficiency of family restaurants.
  • 8.

    The Effect of Apology Messages on Sincerity and Image Restoration in Food Service Enterprises

    Joungkoo Park | Lee, Na-Rae | 2009, 33(5) | pp.165~185 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study measures the effectiveness of various corporate apology strategies in mitigating public anger and restoring the corporate image after a service failure such as the selling of out-of-dat food. Data were collected through an onsite survey of 240 food court diners. The diners were presented with a fictitious newspaper article about a food service company's selling out of data food and were asked to rank 8 different apology messages in terms of their ability to restore the image and sincerity of the food company. The results indicated that the most effective apology message included economic compensation such as 10% of return of profit to a scholarship foundation and reimbursement of expenses incurred by victims. However, a through investigation and public report as well as voluntary work by the company were more effective than economic compensation in decreasing public anger.
  • 9.

    The Relationship Between Managers' Leadership Role, Part-time Employees' Followership Traits, and Job Satisfaction in a Restaurant Chain

    장기룡 | 2009, 33(5) | pp.187~207 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    This study examines how part-time employees' perception of restaurant managers' leadership affects employees followership traits and job satis- faction. It also investigates the effect of employees' followership traits on their level of job satisfaction. In order to test these effects, secondary data were obtained from 1,343 employees of a nationwide restaurant chain. Results show that restaurant managers' leadership role has a positive effect on part-time employees' followership traits such as team sprit, passion for custo- mers, communication with managers, and a positive attitude toward company. Restaurant managers' leadership role also has a positive impact on the part-time employees' level of job satisfaction. Furthermore, all the follower- ship traits of the employees' were associated with their level of job satis- faction. The results imply that relationships exists between managers' leadership role, part-time employees' followership traits, and job satisfaction.
  • 10.

    Do loyalty programs really enhance customer loyalty in tourism enterprises: Evidence from a Korean Casino?

    Kim, Tae-Hoon | 박상곤 | 2009, 33(5) | pp.209~230 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    The paper investigates the effects of tourism enterprises' loyalty programs on customer loyalty. In particular, this study focused on the endogeneity problems of loyalty programs form the econometric perspective. A secondary data of customer satisfaction from a Korean casino was obtained. The data was analyzed using econometrics models such as ETS, EBT, ordered logit model. Results revealed that loyalty programs had no or negative one on the behavioral loyalty of customers. Furthermore, loyalty programs did not influence the long term attitudinal loyalty of the casino customers. The findings suggest that only very carefully designed loyalty programs are effective. An additional suggestion was that customer databases should be scientifically analyzed in order to design better loyalty program.
  • 11.

    The Impacts of Consumer Attitude toward Internet Media Advertising on the Hotel Brand Image

    Yoon, Young-ll | Ick-Keun Oh | 2009, 33(5) | pp.231~248 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    This study analyzed the relationship between hotel consumers' attitude toward internet media advertising and their brand awareness. Data were collected from twenty first-class hotels located in Seoul, Gyeongju, Busan, and Jeju island. A total of 420 samples were selected from guests who reserved hotel rooms online. Findings suggest that both emotional and behavioral attitude toward internet media advertising significantly affected hotel brand awareness. In particular, emotional attitude were more effective than behavior attitude. The results suggest that campaign with both emotional and behavioral appeal would effectively enhance a hotel's brand image. Also useful in brand enhancement was internet advertising that featured the hotels' logo or emblem.
  • 12.

    Gourmandism as serious leisure

    YongSeok Seo | Lee, Hoon | 2009, 33(5) | pp.249~269 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to examine Gourmandism from the perspective of serious leisure theory. Through in-depth interviews with six gourmets, general characteristics of gourmets as serious leisure participants were identified and integrated into a questionnaire. The questionnaire then was used to collect data from 400 gourmets. Based on EFA and CFA, it was found that Gourmandism is composed of three sub-dimensions: (1) specialization, (2) self-realization, and (3) overcome-constraints. Cluster analysis results demonstrate that (1)satisfaction-seeking and achievement- seeking clusters are composed of white-color workers between 20-30 years old and (2) relationship-seeking clusters are composed of self-employed individuals olders than 50 years old. Overall, Gourmandism. was well-explained by the serious leisure theory. Possible interpretations and managerial implications are also suggested.
  • 13.

    Search Engine Optimization Model Development and Comparison of Hotel Web Sites

    KilLae Kim | Jeong, So-yeon | 2009, 33(5) | pp.271~295 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    To maximize the web visibility, hotels need strategies to boost their ranking on search engine results. To address this need our study developed the search engine optimization(SEO) evaluation model and compared the level of search engine optimization of hotels' web sites. First, based on the previous literature, eight factors such as title tag, meta tag, header tag, URL, alt tag, flash, robots. txt, site map were incorporated into the SEO evaluation model. Then, 4 local and 54 international web sites were compared in terms of the eight factors. Results showed that local hotel scores were higher than those of international hotels in terms of header tag, URL, and site map. In contrast, international hotels were far ahead in terms of all the other important factors. This implies that local hotels need to upgrade their web sites from the SEO perspective.
  • 14.

    Cafe Customers' Desired Value: An Application of ZMET Technique

    Bae, Ju-Won | Seoyoung Shin | 남궁영 | 2009, 33(5) | pp.297~316 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    This study aimed to reveal the values hidden in the unconscious of cafe customers' by utilizing the ZMET technique. Following the ZMET technique procedure, a 10 step conversation was executed to extrapolate the hidden desired values of 15 frequent cafe users. The most important values derived from the ZMET technique were ‘comfort’, ‘being one with nature’, ‘ostenta- tiousness’, ‘leisureliness’, and ‘just for myself’. In particular, a hidden value of ‘ostentatiousness’, appeared through the ZMET technique. It was also found that many respondents pursued the feeling of being together with nature in a cafe. The results of this study provide a deeper understanding of how cafe customers view different attributes of a cafe. These findings could enable cafe operators to develop marketing strategies to attract more customers.
  • 15.

    The Effects of Job Training on Service Recovery, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention among Food Service Industry Employees in Daegu and Daejeon

    Younghwa Kim | Choi Hyun Jung | 2009, 33(5) | pp.317~342 | number of Cited : 43
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of job training on service recovery, job satisfaction and turnover intention among employees in the food service industry. 300 questionnaires were organized and distributed widely to food service employees in Daegu and Daejeon from on May 2009. 213 usable samples(71%) were tested using AMOS program through covariance structure analysis. The study found that training is significantly and positively related to service recovery and job satisfaction. However, the relationship between job training and turnover intention is statistically insignificant. In addition, service recovery is a significant predictor of job satisfaction but not of turnover intention. This study shows that job training might be helpful for improving service recovery and increasing employees' satisfaction and thus decreasing turnover intention.
  • 16.

    The study on service switching behavior and costs: CIT of restaurant customers

    Junghak Lee | 2009, 33(5) | pp.343~361 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to analyze service switching behavior and its consequent costs among restaurant customers. The critical incidents technique(CIT) was used to illustrate and classify 437 restaurant customers' switching behavior and costs. Results reveal that core service failure was the most critical reason in the restaurant customers' service switching behavior. Confidence benefits were the most significant cost in service switching behavior. Confidence benefits and social benefits were shown to result in recurring business, although special treatment benefits were not related to customer loyalty. These results suggest that restaurant managers need to improve core service and retain customers by providing confidence and social benefits.
  • 17.

    A Study on the impact of Organizational Culture on Role Stressors and Job Satisfaction

    lim jae moon | Bongheon Kwon | 2009, 33(5) | pp.363~385 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    This study was designed to identify the corporate cultures most effective at increasing hotel employees' job satisfaction. The influence of job related stress and role conflict was studied as mediating variables in the relationship between corporate culture and employee job satisfaction. Data were collected from 10 five star hotels in Seoul. A total of 365 questionnaires were used for data analyses. Results of SEM analysis showed that role orientation culture might mitigate the employees' role ambiguity. However, power orientation culture has a statistically significant positive effect on the role conflict as well as the role ambiguity, and consequently has a negative effect on job satisfaction This study concluded with several recommendations for enhancing hotel employees' job satisfaction from the corporate culture perspective.
  • 18.

    Market Segmentation of Chinese Tourist to Jeju by their Evaluation of the Quality of Korean Food

    양성수 | 정철 | Lun Yun and 1other persons | 2009, 33(5) | pp.387~408 | number of Cited : 24
    Abstract
    This study aimed to segment the Chinese tourist market based on differences of perceived food quality among tourists visiting Jeju Island. The data was collected from 311 respondents at Jeju international airport on August, 2009. Results of cluster analysis identified three different segments of the Chinese tourist market: low evaluated food quality, medium evaluated food quality, and high evaluated food quality. In addition, Chi-square test results showed that socio-demographic factors differed significantly among the three groups. Based on these results, specific profiles of Chinese tourist were created and guidelines were established for marketing to Chinese tourists. Future research is needed to collect data not only from Jeju but also nationwide.
  • 19.

    A Model of Sustainable Rural Tourism Development for Building Social Capital

    Ko, Dong-Wan | 2009, 33(5) | pp.411~431 | number of Cited : 34
    Abstract
    Agricultural areas are developing rural tourism in an effort to boost the local economy. Though effective at spurring economic growth, the development of tourism has often altered traditional value such as cooperation and trust. The purpose of this study was to propose a model of sustainable rural tourism development for building the social capital of cooperation and trust among stakeholders. Based on the review of previous literature, this study proposed a 1 axis 3 wheels conceptual model in which all three elements of sustainable rural tourism-social, economic and environmental-are integrated. It also suggests that local government and the governance for rural tourism need to paly a proactive role in tourism planning and regulation. This study concludes by suggesting that successful rural tourism development is possible if a sufficient understanding of the tourism business is combined with the recovery of cultural homogeneity and a sense of community among the rural residents.
  • 20.

    The Effects of Soap Opera Attachment Relationships on Destination Product Placement

    Jung, Sung-ae | 2009, 33(5) | pp.433~451 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of television soap opera attachment relationship on destination product placement. Based on a review of the literature, this study established and tested a SEM model explaining the relationship among television soap opera characteristics, soap opera involvement, soap opera attachment relationship (parasocial relationship, soap opera attachment) and the effects on product placement(e.g.,destination image).To test the research hypotheses, a survey was conducted on 470 college students who watched the selected soap opera. Results identified not only the constructs of the television soap opera attachment relationships, but also the effects soap opera attachment relationships had on destination image. Several practical recommendations were made to enhance the PPL effects in a tourism destination.
  • 21.

    The development of ‘ e-CRM activities scale in tourism industry ’ using a Delphi Method

    Hwang Soo Young | 2009, 33(5) | pp.453~475 | number of Cited : 19
    Abstract PDF
    Although the number of studies on e-CRM is gradually increasing, no measure to assess and evaluate e-CRM activities with reliable degrees of accuracy has been developed yet. Therefore, this study was conducted in order to develop a set of tools that can measure the performance of e-CRM activities in the tourism industry based on a comprehensive approach to the concepts and structural elements of e-CRM activities performed by tourism-related companies. In doing so, this study applied the categories of the e-CRM activities made in the existing literature, which are: e-Marketing, e-Sales, e-Service, e-Support, e-System. In order to develop the measures for e-CRM activities, this study used the expert survey based on the Delphi method. The experts interviewed included: fourteen employees with three or more years of experience in e-CRM in tourism-related businesses; three academic CRM experts and e-CRM consultants; and three engineers of e-CRM solution programs. This study finally conducted 'Tourism e-CRM activities scale' consisted of 57 items in total.
  • 22.