This study was conducted to understand tourists' shopping behavior from the perspective of novelty, sensation seeking tendency, and hedonic shopping tendency. Data were collected from 299 outbound travellers at Incheon International Airport. Results indicated that high novelty and sensation seeking group had higher preference in shopping than low novelty and sensation seeking group. Also, hedonic shopping tendency had positive influence on shopping behavior. Furthermore, novelty and sensation seeking tendency had positive influence on hedonic shopping tendency. Finally, tourist shopping satisfaction appeared to be positively related to behavioral intentions(re-visit, recommendation).
Recently an interest in royal palace tourism has increased in Korea as a type of special interest tourism(SIT). This study proposed a 6 dimension conceptual model of evaluating the quality of royal palace tourism experience (i.e., interpretation, convenience, responsiveness, contents, objective authenticity, existential authenticity) and examined the impacts of the 6 factors on overall satisfaction and intention of revisit and recommendation. Data were collected from 614 domestic and foreign travellers at the five royal palaces in Seoul. Results showed that 'interpretation' was the most important factor in explaining 'general satisfaction' and 'intention of recommend', while 'existential authenticity' was the most important factor that impact on 'intention of revisit'. These suggest that interpretation and existential authenticity could be considered as the important factors in royal palace tourism quality and satisfaction.
Oriental medical tourism is emerging as an alternative tourism market in Korea. The primary purpose of this study was to forecast the demand for oriental medical tourism in Korea using both quantitative and qualitative methods. To this end, total population of Korea in 2010 was predicted using a cohort component method (www.nso.go.kr). Then, willingness to participate in oriental medical tourism was calculated from the survey on five metropolitan residents in Korea. The secondary purpose of this study was to estimate the economic impact of oriental medical tourism on the Korean economy using an input-output(I-O) model. Results indicate that demand for oriental medical tourism was predicted to be 4.4 million for 6 metropolitan cities and 10 million across the country. Also, the results of the I-O analysis show that oriental medical tourism generated 5,238 billion Won of output impact, 933 billion Won of income impact, 2,651 billion Won of value-added impact, and 69,709 jobs.
This study was to suggest tourism resource development strategies of Yoo-yang dong, Yangju city using Space Syntax. Space Syntax is a analytical tool to abjectly evaluate structural characteristics of a space. In particular, it quantitatively analyzes the relationship between spatial structure and tourists' use pattern using three elements: average depth, degree of integration, and degree of control. Results found that the degrees of integration of some historical places in Yoo-yang dong were relatively low even though it was not far away from entrance places. Based on the Space Syntax, two alternative trails were proposed. Results from this study imply that Space Syntax could provide a guideline for place marketing and installation of trails.
This study estimates tourists socio-psychological carrying capacity and the relationship between perceived crowding and level of satisfaction in a nature recreation facility. Data were collected at the "The Garden of Morning Calm" and a total of 308 samples were conveniently selected at the arboretum. Results estimated that 8.75㎡/person is the point that satisfies both socio-psychological carrying capacity and maximum capacity. Even though crowdedness made a statistically significant impact on the level of satisfaction, the R-square was too low: 1.7%. This is consistent with previous studies where R-square results were too low or statistically insignificant. Findings from this study suggest that the relationship between level of crowdedness and satisfaction could be greatly influenced by individuals' psychological factors.
This study examined ecotourists' recognition of well-being and quality of life by lifestyle types. Data were collected from 200 people who visited the World Natural Heritage sites in Jeju, Korea. A cluster analysis, which is based on the 25 LOV(list of value) variables, proposed four different types ecotourists: multiple value pursuers., sociability pursuers, achievement pursuers, ego pursuers. Results showed that the lifestyle patterns of the ecotourists were significantly related to their recognition of well -being and quality of life. In particular, the multiple value pursuers demonstrated the most high score in their pursuing well-being, while achievement pursuers presented the lowest score in their pursuing well-being. In terms of the recognition of quality of life, very similar pattern was found. Furthermore, ecotourists' recognition of well-being was closely related to their level of satisfaction on the quality of life. These suggest life style pattern could be a significant tool for market segmentation.
The study examined the causal relationship between marine tourists' push and pull motivations. Data were collected through both online and offline surveys from 345 people who have experienced marine tourism over the last two years. The second-order confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to test the hypothesized models. Results showed that marine tourists' push motivation factors consisted of three sub- dimensions such as escape from everyday life, relaxation and enjoyment, and novelty seeking. Results also revealed that pull motivation factors composed of six sub-dimensions such as participation of hands-on marine activities, marine leisure activities, enjoyment of marine landscape, food and so on. In addition, push factor as the second-order construct strongly influenced pull factor as the second-order construct. These results supported the causality between push and pull factors. Specific theoretical and managerial implications were discussed.
This study was to explore adolescents’ tourism experiences by using a qualitative research method. In order to explain adolescents' tourism experiences., this study reviewed three relevant theories: the expectation theory, contact theory and social distance theory. Data were collected from seven highschool students who have travelled to Japan in 2008. They were interviewed twice at the departure and arrival time. The analysis of the data revealed that adolescents had previous perceptions for the destination and also had expectations before travelling. During the travel, they had various kinds of contacts and these contacts narrowed or increased their social distances to the destination. In particular, when the social distances were narrowed, the attitudes for the destination was changed positively. Findings of this study suggest that tourism experiences could broaden adolescent's view of the world and produce attitude changes in cross-cultural contacts and understanding. This process could be described as A-TEM(Adolescents' Tourism Experience Model).
This research is to demonstrate tourists' motivation types as a boundary condition to moderate the influential relationship between culture and art festival image and customer loyalty. Data were collected from 224 2008 Gwangju Biennale visitors. Results from multiple-regression analysis confirm that there are positive relationships between the festival images and loyalty and these relationships are moderated by the visitors' motivation types. Particularly, the interaction variables pleasure × motivation types, utility × motive types, and facility × motive types significantly influence the visitors' loyalty. Conclusions and implications are derived from the findings and directions for future research are provided.
This study is to examine the effect of the CBBE(Customer Based Brand Equity) of a local festival participants on their image of the festival and attitude toward festival host region. It also investigates the mediating effect of the host region's image on the relationship between CBBE of the festival and attitude toward the host region. 382 samples, which were collected at the 2009 Hampyeong Butterfly Festival using a systemic sampling method, were used as data for the analysis. Results of multiple regression analysis show that the perceived quality and brand royalty had a significantly positive influence on the image of host region. In addition, the perceived quality and brand royalty had a significantly positive influence on the attitude toward host region. Furthermore, the image had a significantly positive influence on the attitude toward host region.
This study was to find out the impact of a local festival participants' satisfaction level of hands-on activities programs on their intent to revisit and recommendation. In order to explore the impact, 395 samples were selected from participants of two winter-experiencing festivals: Hwacheon Mountain Trout Festival and Mt. Taebaek Snow Festival. Factor analysis came up with the five hand-on activity program factors such as entertainment program, visual sentiment program, local indigenous product program, physical activity program, and ceremony program. Among those programs, entertainment program, local indigenous product program, and physical activity program impacted significantly on revisit intent. Also, hands-on activity programs such as visual sentiment program, local indigenous product program, and physical activity program significantly influenced the recommendation intent.
This study was to develop a customer-based festival brand equity measurement scale and to examine its validity, reliability and factorial invariance by comparing two festivals Based on previous literature, a 4 dimension (i.e., brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand image, & perceived quality) with 16 measure of customer based festival brand equity measurement scale was developed. Data were collected at 2009 Gyeongju Traditional Drinks and Rice Cake Festival. 342 participants, who have previously participated in Andong Maskdance Festival, were conveniently selected. Results of the Multiple-Group Factor Analysis .revealed a significant support for the conceptual model of the customer-based festival brand equity, verifying its reliability and validity. Theoretical implications were discussed in the conclusion.
This study developed a tourism destination brand scale using the Brand Personality Scale(BPS). Based on the previous literature, in particular from Aaker's BPS, 29 items of destination brand personality scale was developed. Data used in the analysis were gathered from two metropolitan cities in Korea: Seoul and Busan. A total of 336 samples evaluated two city brands; Hi Seoul and Dynamic Busan. The findings revealed that destination brand personality was consisted of 3 dimensions such as sincerity, excitement, attractiveness. Results also showed that the 3 dimensional destination brand personality scale was reliable and valid. Furthermore, the respondents' level of awareness on the attractiveness and sincerity of a city brand made a positive impact on their intention to revisit and recommendation.
This study was undertaken to examine service failures and recovery in the exhibition industry. Using the critical incident technique(CIT), data were collected from participants of a book exhibition at COEX in 2009, which resulted in a total of 226 usable critical incidents. Results identified four primary types of the exhibition organizer's service failures: service delivery system failures(46,9%), exhibitor-employee interaction failures(27.9%), service environment failures(15.1%), and service product failures(10.2%). Results also revealed five primary types of service recovery of the exhibition organizer: intangible responses(41.6%), no response(32.3%), action-oriented responses(16.9%), and other responses(4.9%). Based on the results, several implications and limitations of the study were discussed.
Previous researches on the economic impact of convention industry tend to overestimate the effect by double counting the demand and supply side. In order to have a better estimation of the economic impact, the study conceptualizes economic characteristics of the convention industry and examines three different ways of estimating the economic impact: Cost- Benefit Analysis, Multiplier Analysis, and Input-Output Analysis. Results show that the dimension of convention as an industry differed from related industries in terms of its structural aspect. Also, the most proper way of impact of convention industry could be inferred from using Input-Output Analysis Model. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the necessity of separating convention industry as an independent industry in the industrial interdependence table.
This study investigates the effects of distributional, procedural, and interactional justice as they were perceived by outsourcing employees of super deluxe hotels. Data were collected from twelve five star hotels in Seoul. A total of 332 surveys were received, representing a 92% response rate. The results of empirical analysis show that procedural and interactional justice have a significant effect on job satisfaction and organizational committment, even though. distributional justice does not impact on them. In addition, distributional and interactional justice have a significant influence on customer orientation and organizational citizen behavior, while procedural justice does not make a significant impact on them. Finally, Job satisfaction and organizational commitment have a significant impact on customer orientation and organizational citizen behavior.
This study examines the effect of hotel managers' leadership type on hotel employers' service orientation, psychological contract and organizational citizenship behaviors. Data were collected from 439 five star hotel employees in Seoul. Results show that servant leadership makes the most significant effect on the service orientation and psychological contract. Also, results reveal that psychological contract better predicts organizational citizenship behavior than service orientation does. These suggest that hotel managers need to provide visions to their employees, respect them and try to make a community for inducing the employees' service orientation, psychological contract, and organizational citizenship behavior.
This study attempts to explore the differences of two fight attendant groups(i.e.,. a general flight attendant group and a purser group) in terms of the relationship between organizational climate, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior and service performance. A total of 510 samples were conveniently selected from Korea Air cabin teams in 2009. Results found that for both of the groups, organizational climate have a significant impact on organizational commitment. In addition, all the five citizenship behaviors were influenced by organizational commitment among the general flight attendants, while only three citizenship behaviors were impacted by organizational commitment among the purser group. Furthermore, service performance was influenced by all the five citizenship behavior among the general flight attendant group, while only three citizenship factors impacted on the service performance among the purser group.