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2009, Vol.33, No.7

  • 1.

    Re-reading Veblen: Consumption Society and Leisure Identity

    Kwang-Eik Cho | Lee Don-jae | 2009, 33(7) | pp.11~30 | number of Cited : 14
    This study analyzes the meaning of leisure consumption in the consumption- oriented society by reexamining the conspicious consumption theory of Thorstein Veblen. Veblen insists that the leisure class spends a great deal of money based on ostentatious principle of prodigality to acquire social respect. In this progress, behavioral principle, preference, and tastes of the leisure class expands into those of all classes. As a consequence, the lower classes imitate behavioral patterns of the leisure class. This study emphasize the consumption function as a mean to express one’s identity by providing people behavioral principle. Even though Veblen' theory of leisure class outdated a little, it is still very useful in understanding people's leisure behavior in many respects.
  • 2.

    Travel Behaviors of the Joseon Dynasty Gentry Described in Travel Literatures of Mt. Geumgang and Mt. Jiri

    Yook, Jae-Yong | 2009, 33(7) | pp.31~55 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract PDF
    This study is aimed at researching the tourism behavior and aspect of the Joseon dynasty gentry revealed in their trip accounts of Mt. Geumgang and Mt. Jiri through analyzing documentary records materials and preceding treatises as a first step for writing Korean tourism history. The gentry took a tour of Mt. Geumgang and Mt. Jiri on an open palanquin carried by Buddhist monks. During the tour, the flute is a representative instrument to spice up the interest, and composing and reciting poems are one of their pleasures. The monks enjoyed water bobsleigh at Balyeon waterfall in Mt. Geumgang, at the same time the gentry had an enjoyment of looking at the scene. Most of the gentry recorded their names on the rocks and wood block of vacationland. However, some of the gentry were against the conduct of leaving their mark because they thought it was in vain and useless.
  • 3.

    Leisure Space and Play Culture in the Genre Paints ofLate Chosun Period Artists

    성기만 | 2009, 33(7) | pp.57~73 | number of Cited : 4
    This objective of this study is twofold: To analyze our ancestors' leisure form, space and types of play through late-Chosun genre paintings and to look for the ways to integrate such leisure space and play culture as part of our modern-day culture. I conducted an extensive research via the internet and literature and asked two scholar and professional to perform cross-analysis in order to secure credibility. The research presents us with two major findings and a conclusion: First, the form of leisure differs between nobility and commoners. Commoners spend their leisure time in a living space, whereas noblemen engage in leisure activities, dressed in formal clothing and showing proper manners. Secondly, commoners participate in leisure activities that can take place in such natural spaces as yards, alleyway and streets; whereas noblemen tend to set apart their own leisure space besides rooms, gardens and the nature. It is conclusion that we need to develop appropriate policies and programs to preserve and integrate our disappearing play culture from the past as part of our modern-day culture.
  • 4.

    An exploratory study of walking-tour motivation:The case of Je-Ju Island 'Ol-Legil'

    Young A Park | 현용호 | 2009, 33(7) | pp.75~93 | number of Cited : 59
    The purpose of this study is to explore the motivations of ‘walking tour’, which has recently become a newly introduced tourism product. To explore the motivations of walking tour, an in-depth and open-question interview were undertaken. The interviews were conducted based on ‘Ol-Legil’ in Jeju island, known as a popular attraction among tourists who want to walk. The results of this study are as follows: a total of eight dimensions were found by analysing the answers of the interviewees, named ‘natural affinity/ experience’, ‘curiosity’, ‘self-meditation’, ‘self-fulfillment’, ‘self-purification’, ‘health enhancement’, ‘family togetherness’, and ‘socialization’. Among those motivations, ‘self-meditation’, ‘self-fulfillment’, ‘self-purification’ are considered as differential motivations of walking tour since they were not recognized as important factors of the previous studies. Limitations of the research are discussed and implications for marketing practitioners and researchers are presented.
  • 5.

    Analysis of Domestic Tourism Experience by Foreigners:A Grounded Theory Approach

    Kim Chulwon | Lee Tae Sook | 2009, 33(7) | pp.95~117 | number of Cited : 16
    This study was to conceptualize foreigners' perception of tourism experiences in Korea and to categorize their tourism experiences based on a grounded theory approach. Results of open and axial codlings of 32 foreigners' interviews suggested that the foreigners' considered openness of Korean tourism as the core phenomenon of all tourism activities. Results also showed that physical evidence and service quality were causal conditions that impact on the openness of Korean tourism, while traditional traits and modern traits turned out to be contextual condition. In addition, the data analysis proposed that systematic service and public service were intervening conditions of the foreigners' tourism experience in Korea, while users' convenience and institutional convenience were counted as action/interactional strategies. Findings from this study confirmed tourism experience process of foreigners which have exploration stage, cognition stage, coping stage and 'transitional stage'.
  • 6.

    Exploring Travel Route of Japanese Free Independent Travelers:An Analysis of their Travel Journals

    Jung, Sung-ae | 2009, 33(7) | pp.119~137 | number of Cited : 13
    This study was to explore travel path of Japanese FIT travelers in Korea by analyzing heir travel journals. In order to do this, this study designed a travel journal form, recruited 101 research subjects through a Japanese travel agency, and ask them fill out the form during their stay in Korea. Analysis of the forms indicated that 7 out of 10 independent travellers visited only Seoul, while the others also visited Busan and/or Jeju. Results also showed that inconvenience of public transportation and lack of travel information were the biggest problems to the Japanese independent travellers. In addition, Korean wave was still the key element of Korean tourism among the Japanese independent travellers. Based on the results, this study suggested several tourism marketing and resource development implications for the Japanese free independent market.
  • 7.

    The Analysis of Significance Structure among Stakeholders of Festival Using Greimas's Actant Model: A Case of Andong Maskdance Festival

    Oh, Jeong-Keun | Lee, Hoon | 2009, 33(7) | pp.139~159 | number of Cited : 11
    This study examined the formation of the significance structure following contents of granting significance about local festival among stakeholders of Andong maskdance festival. The significance structure was examined as semiological analytic method through an in-depth interview with a modified model of Greimas's actant model. As a result, all stakeholders of the Andong maskdance festival granted very strong positive significance to the cultural significance. The significance structure shows that the local government and festival committee play a role as the subject of the festival. The central government and local merchant play a role as helper for the local government and festival committee who granted strongly significance to the representative of Korean culture-strengthening ability of Andong culture. And also tourists and local residents as cultural receiver and local NGO as cultural sender were examined in this study.
  • 8.

    The Historical Changes of Tourism Policy in South Korea:A Path Dependency Perspective in Historical Institutionalism

    Shim Won-sup | 2009, 33(7) | pp.161~185 | number of Cited : 22
    The study is to analyze the historical change of tourism policy in South Korea using a path dependency perspective in historical institutionalism. This study differs from previous micro level oriented Korean tourism policy analyses in that it focuses on macro level institutional factors. Results of tourism policy documents analysis suggested that Korean tourism policy history could be divided into three different periods: introduction period (1961-79),confused period(1980-97), and growth period(1998-current). The characteristics of each tourism policy period were examined in the context of the characteristic of the central government and political and economic environment during each periods. Results of this study provide new understanding on the dynamic changes of Korean tourism policy from a institutional perspective.
  • 9.

    The Tourism Cluster Theory of Michael Porter and Model Development of Regional Tourism Cluster

    Chang, Pyong-Kwon | 2009, 33(7) | pp.187~205 | number of Cited : 11
    Korea's tourism industry has not developed at the aspect of quality despite of growth in quantity. Tourism policy of central and local government have not pursued the integrated approach between development of tourism resources and promotion of tourism business. Therefore, to increase the competitiveness of local tourism industry, it is necessary to adopted the cluster strategy developed by Michael Porter. Lessons from the cases of Phuket of Thailand, Napa Valley of USA, and domestic success models are that public bodies have to contribute to the development of local tourism industry. As the result of theoretical analysis and case study, this paper suggests conclusions such as; firstly, anchor tenant has to setup to construct the regional tourism cluster, secondly, core companies have to attracted for the renovation of tourism industry, and lastly, tourism cluster has to contribute the development of the tourism-related industries.
  • 10.

    The Changes of Vocational Competency Development Policy of Korean Tourism Employees: An Understanding from the Governance Perspective

    Misook Oh | 2009, 33(7) | pp.207~226 | number of Cited : 2
    The study investigates the changes of vocational competence development policy of Korean tourism employees from the perspective of governance. A close look at the tourism related laws, annual reports on tourism trend, and KTO documents show that the government's role in vocational competence development policy of tourism employees changed from a direct developer in 1960s-1970s, into a indirect promoter in 1980s-1990s, and into a coordinator in 2000s. The major institution for the vacational competence development also changed from KTO in 1960s-1970s, into private education institutes in 1980s-1990s, and into employer associations in 2000s. This study suggests that an appropriate government intervention and establishment of training system of employer associations are required to improve competencies of tourism employees.
  • 11.

    Developing Indicators of Tourism Resource Development Responding to Climate Change

    Kim, Sung-Jin | 2009, 33(7) | pp.227~244 | number of Cited : 14
    This study was conducted to develop and suggest the indicators responding to climate change of tourism resource development projects implemented in the public sector. The indicators have been developed through three steps. In the first step, seventy eight preliminary indicators were developed through literature review, case study and legislation investigation. These indicators were extracted through the four tourism resource development processes (location, planning, construction, and management) with two climate change response strategies(mitigation and adaptation). In the second step, the applicability of the indicators extracted in the first stage was analyzed through survey with sixty local tourism development officials. In the third step, eight experts participated in the validity examination of the indicators. Finally, sixty three indicators were developed. These indicators consisted of eight location indicators, thirty eight planning indicators, six construction indicators, and eleven management indicators.
  • 12.

    Ecotourists' Needs and Preferences of Eco-tourism Facilities and Programs in Wetlands

    Yeo Ho Keun | BONG-GYU PARK | Yoon, Tae-Hwan | 2009, 33(7) | pp.247~267 | number of Cited : 10
    This study aimed to analyze ecotourists‘ needs and preferences on eco-tourism programs and facilities. A total of 397 usable questionnaires were collected from two wetlands, which are located in the south west part of Korea. Results revealed that the ecotourists' preference toward eco-tourism facilities. had statistically significant positive relationship with their need for the eco-tourism experience programs. In particular, those who had strong preference toward convenience facilities wanted ethnic hands-on activities, while those who had strong preference toward direct facilities such as bird observatory had more needs on environmental education and hands-on activities. From the findings, this study suggests that ecotourism market segmentation strategy should be conducted based on the ecotourists characteristics and their pursuing needs.
  • 13.

    The Effects of Leisure Programs on Social Hostility and Stress Reduction of Prisoners at a Correctional Institute

    Joungkoo Park | 2009, 33(7) | pp.269~289 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study was to examine the effects of leisure programs on social hostility and stress reduction of prisoners. Data were collected from 85 prisoners in a correctional institute, Korea. The results indicated that. the most preferable leisure activities among the prisoners was the appreciation of the music, followed by watching the movie film and running in the playground. Results also showed that almost all the preferable hypothetical leisure programs made positive effects on reducing social hostility and stress of the prisoners Finally, it turned out that the prisoners preferred self chosen leisure activities with partners to allocated leisure activities without partners. This suggests that prisoners might have a similar pattern of leisure preference with ordinary citizens.
  • 14.

    The Relationships between Tourism Cluster Characteristics, Regional Tourism Policy Process, Inter-organization Knowledge Sharing, and Regional Tourism Competitiveness

    Jongwoo Kim | Youn Taek Lee | 2009, 33(7) | pp.291~315 | number of Cited : 11
    This study investigates the relationships between tourism cluster characteristics, regional tourism policy process, inter-organization knowledge sharing, and regional tourism competitiveness. In order to analyze the fitness of a serious of structural models of the relationships, data are collected from 662 cluster members in the confucianism cultural area of Gyeongbuk through the administration of structured questionnaires. The results reveal that (1) context for firm strategy and rivalry, demand conditions, and supporting industries have positive effects on inter-organization knowledge sharing, (2) inter-organization knowledge sharing has significantly positive effect on regional tourism competitiveness, and (3) the relationships between tourism cluster characteristics and inter-organization knowledge sharing differ with respect to regional tourism policy process. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed and future research directions are outlined.
  • 15.

    The Relationship of Tourist's Affective Response,Satisfaction and Revisit intention:Focusing on the Moderation Effect of Cognitive Dissonance

    Hyeyoung Moon | Yoon Yooshik | 2009, 33(7) | pp.317~333 | number of Cited : 8
    This study was to examine the relationships of tourists' affective response, satisfaction, and revisit intention focusing on the moderation effect of cognitive dissonance. A total of 262 useful sample was collected from on-site survey in the tourism destination. EFA and CFA were conducted to produce validated variables to examine any relationships among the proposed constructs in this study. It can be concluded that three dimensions from EFA (positive affective responses, aggressive affective responses, and regretful affective responses) have relationships with tourist satisfaction and these responses positively or negatively affected tourists satisfaction level. The theoretical and practical implications were discussed in the conclusion.
  • 16.

    Perceived Differences of Destination Familiarity:Perspectives of Australians toward Korea, China, and Japan

    김하니 | Yim, Eun-Soon | Kim, Hyounggon | 2009, 33(7) | pp.335~354 | number of Cited : 14
    This study examined the perceptions of Australians as to how they differ in terms of their perceived level of familiarity toward Korea, Japan, and China as a tourism destination. This study further investigated the influence of various information sources on their perceived familiarity toward each country. Data were collected from 374 Australians at Adelaide, Australia in 2007. The results of study showed that Australians tend to have a lower degree of familiarity toward Korea compared to Japan and China. For each country, there also existed a discriminating influence of information sources on the level of perceived familiarity. The impact of word of mouth and books on constructing the perceived familiarity was found to be the most significant for all three countries although the influence of DM was found to be more significant for Korea than the other two countries.
  • 17.

    Reciprocal Relationships between Destination Image and Festival Image

    Moon Youn Hee | 채영석 | Cho, Yong-Sang and 1other persons | 2009, 33(7) | pp.355~378 | number of Cited : 22
    This study examined the reciprocal relationship between destination image and festival image. In order to do this, four different structural equation models, which specify different relationships between destination image, festival image and destination loyalty, has been developed. Data were collected from 131 visitors from the 2008 Gwangju Biennale. The results support partial mediation models of destination image and festival image. This suggests that even though destination loyalty might be directly influenced by both destination image and festival image, it also could be mediated by both variables. Particularly, the mediating effect of destination image was more significant than that of festival image in explaining destination loyalty. A discussion of the key findings and directions for future research were provided.
  • 18.

    The Service Charge System of Five Star Hotels in Seoul

    백승우 | Park, Seul-Gi | Lee,Hyung-Ryong | 2009, 33(7) | pp.379~393 | number of Cited : 2
    The study identify the imposed condition of service charge in hotel industry and the influence of it on employees' wage. 11 years data(sales, rate of labor cost, labor cost per an employee and average wage) of 8 five star hotels in Seoul was used to examine the effect. The results show significant difference on sales, labor cost per an employee and average wage between hotels that pay fixed rate of service charge to employee and hotels that pay unfixed rate. Results also reveal that after paying the service charge, the average wage to employee has significant correlations with sales, rate of labor cost and labor cost per an employee. These results can provide practical implications on the effective operation of service charge system to hotel operators and investors.
  • 19.

    Development of the Perceived Praise Scale for Employees in the Tourism Industry

    문상정 | Ko, Dong Woo | 2009, 33(7) | pp.395~414 | number of Cited : 11
    This study was to examine the elements of praise that tourism employees perceive, to develop a reliable and valid scale of perceived praise, and to investigate the positive effects of the perceived praises on the work attitudes of employees in tourism industries. 15 tourism specialists tested the face validity of the initial scale. Then, data were collected from 255 employees in the tourism industry to test the validity and reliability of the final scale. Results of empirical analysis suggested four sub-dimensions of perceived praises scale(i.e., verbal praise, physical praise, gesture/expression praise, and materialistic praise) with 19 detailed items. The concepts and the scale of perceived praise that was developed in this study could be utilized usefully in many study fields such as management, pedagogy, industrial psychology, administration and sociology.
  • 20.

    The Relationship between Career Commitment andTurnover Intention of the Employees in Travel Agencies:Focusing on the Moderating Effect of Job Insecurity

    CHI MYONG WON | 유정림 | Kim, Young-Gook | 2009, 33(7) | pp.415~436 | number of Cited : 5
    This study was to investigate the moderating effect of job insecurity on the relationship between career commitment and turnover intention of the employees in travel agencies. Analysis of the survey data from 184 employees in 19 Korean travel agencies indicated that locus of control, job characteristics at individual levels, transformational leadership and perceived organizational support at group levels had all positive effects on career commitment. Results also showed that career commitment was marginally related to turnover intention. Furthermore, job insecurity moderated the relationship between career commitment and turnover intention. Interestingly, job insecurity changed the moderate positive relationship between career commitment and turnover intention into a negative relationship. Implications and suggestions for future studies were discussed.
  • 21.

    Segmenting Customer Service Employees in the Airline Industry by the Occupational Role Stress Factors

    조주은 | 최환석 | 2009, 33(7) | pp.437~457 | number of Cited : 3
    The causal relationships between occupational stress factors and other job related factors such as satisfaction and turnover intention have been extensively researched in tourism and hospitality field. However, no known study has examined how occupational role stress factors can be used to segment customer service employees in the airline industry. A cluster analysis of 3 occupational role stress factors, including overload, conflict, and ambiguity indicated that 318 employees could be classified into four lucrative segments: lack of communication group, high stress group, stress coping group, and lack of role understanding group. The following variables were statistically significant different among the four segments: age, gender, income, education, occupation, marital status, job tenure, job status, supervisor support, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. This study also discusses managerial implications.
  • 22.

    Analysis of the Customers's Perception towards the Airlines' SST and Intent of its Use by the customers through Extended Technology Acceptance Model and Self-Determination Theory

    Minho Cho | 윤덕화 | 2009, 33(7) | pp.459~485 | number of Cited : 21
    The growing use of Information and Communication Technology in services has revolutionized the interaction between the Airline companies and customers. Customers can perform self-booking, ticketing, and checking-in through the Internet and kiosks without the assistance from airline agents. This also allows the Airlines to reduce labor and operating costs. Therefore, it has become important for the Airline companies to understand how customers perceive and accept SST as the Airlines struggle in persuading their customers to use SST. This study analyzed the customers' perception and their intention to use SST through the Extended Technologies Acceptance Model(ETAM) and the Self-Determination Theory(SDT). The research was conducted among Korean customers who have experience in using SST.
  • 23.

    A study of the reliability and validity of e-CRM activity scale in Food & Beverage Industry

    Hwang Soo Young | 2009, 33(7) | pp.487~510 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The essence of e-CRM in restaurants is to build a business environment in which a variety of the company's activities, including dealing with customers, marketing, sales, communication, and services, can be conducted through e-channels based on electronic technology. This study was conducted in order to develop a set of tools that can measure the performance of e-CRM activities in the food & beverage industry and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the measures. To determine inherent consistency as part of analyzing reliability, Cronbach's Alpha and Spilt-half were used. The validity of the content of the survey was naturally ensured since the field data were first collected from the e-CRM experts based on a theoretical framework A factor analysis was conducted in order to assess validity of the measures. This study finally conducted ‘e-CRM activities scale in Food & Beverage industry’ consisted of 53 items in total. and also the result of these processes was the development of measures to evaluate the e-CRM activities in the food & beverage industry.