In cultural tourism, the ritualization of tourism space and tourist behavior have been important issues. This study was to examine the effect of ritualization of a tourism space and tourist behavior on the ritualization performance and the intention of revisit. Data were collected from 845 tourists at three popular cultural tourism destinations in Korea. Results from structural equation modeling analysis showed that the ritualization of tourism space positively impact on the ritualization of tourist behavior. However, it was not significantly associated with ritualization performance and revisit intention. In contrast, the ritualization of tourist behavior significantly impacted on the ritualization performance and the intention of revisit directly and indirectly. Based on the finding of the study, several implications of this study were also discussed.
The place attachment has been a cental concept to understand the bonds between human and environment. The study assumed that the volunteer activity in the tourist destination could develop the place attachment because of the life significance of the activity. It also assumed that the higher the person hold the level of attachment to the place, the higher the likelihood that she/he would visit the place as a tourist. The data were collected through online survey. A total of 2,842 student-sample was collected and analysed. Based on the place attachment theory, two hypotheses were developed and tested using the t-tests and a structural equation modeling technique. The results could not verify that the place attachment was developed by the volunteer activity even if statistical test showed the significant difference between volunteers and non-volunteers. Nevertheless there was an evidence that the quality of volunteer experience might have an effect on the level of place attachment. In addition, the structural equation modeling suggested there was positive and direct relationship between place attachment and the revisit intention to the place as a tourist. Theoretical and Practical implications were also discussed.
Although there is an affirmative opinion on Lee Myung-bak admini- stration's Green Growth vision, negative views also exist. Focused on the green tourism policy, this study examines Green Growth policy from a critical perspective. A content analysis of the government documents on the Green Tourism is conducted to analyze the policy. Results of the analysis shows that the current Green Tourism policy fails to suggest a clear conceptual definition of it. Secondly, due to the first problem, the boundary and contents of Green Tourism policy are also not clear. Finally, Green Tourism may contradict with the concept of sustainable tourism. This study suggests to make a clear definition and restructuring of the green tourism policy for a success of Green Tourism with distinction.
Korea is facing rapid demographic transition and already entered aging society in the 2000s. Moreover, it is expected that the proportion of people order than 65 will exceed 14% of total population by 2020. This study was to select priority criteria of senior leisure policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP). Data were collected from 39 senior leisure professionals using the two step delphi method. Results showed that there were 20 important policy tasks of senior leisure policy. Results also indicated that out of 20 tasks, leisure program, leisure facilities, professional staff were the most important policy tasks. Based on the findings, implications and limitation of this study and future research directions were also discussed.
This study examined the critical success factors of local festivals and developed variables for measuring the critical success factors. Based on the review of previous literature on the success factors of a local festival and in-depth interviews of 40 local festival specialists, 166 measurement variables were initially derived. Then 18 festival specialists closely looked at the face validity of variables two times. After these procedures, 82 variables were factor analyzed using a sample of 350 local festival planners, academics and staffs. Finally, a confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test the reliability and validity of the measurement model. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis suggested seven critical success factors of a local festival(i.e., `field management capability, locality of content, level of interest by local residents, establishment of long term vision, satisfaction level of spectators, comfort of festivals environment, validity of festival strategies) and. 22 measurement variables.
This study was to extend the theory of planned behavior by incorporating the new concept of "gambling passion scale(GPS)" to predict visitors’ intentions to gamble. Data were collected from 460 visitors of Kangwon Land. Structural equation modeling was employed to identify the relationships between latent variables. Results indicated that GPS significantly influenced on behavioral intentions to gamble. Even though both harmonious passion (HP) and obsessive passion (OP) significantly effected on the gambling intentions, HP impacted more strongly on the intentions than OP did. In addition, while HP and OP were only influenced by attitude and subjective norm, OP was affected not only by the two factors but also by past behavior. These findings imply that casino management should promote harmonious passion to implement responsible gambling.
This study was to explore the feasibility of introducing shopping tourism accreditation program to enhance the competitiveness of Korean tourism industry. In order to do this, this study reviewed previous literature on tourism accreditation program in general and shopping tourism accreditation cases of foreign countries in specific. Then, in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 experts in the tourism industry to gather their opinions on the introduction of tourism shopping accreditation system. The analysis identified appropriate evaluative indicators and method for the accreditation system. In particular, issues such as the accreditation program introduction date, its scope, the administrative structure, the period of validity, feedback, follow-up and marketing were discussed. The study recommended to implement a pilot program during a fixed period. However, a legal and policy framework needs to be established before officially implementing the shopping tourism accreditation program.
This study identified the determinants of inbound tourism demand to Korea from Japan and Korea. Through a preliminary study on the decisive factors affecting the tourism demand, the GDP of origin countries and seven other dummy variables, including seasonality, World Cup, SARS, and so forth, were employed to measure their effects on the inbound tourism demand. Data used in this study were the numbers of visitors from the countries during the first quarter of 1999 to the last quarter of 2008. The unit root test was used to look at the long-term stability of the variables and OLS was employed to estimate the coefficients. Results showed that in case of Japan, GDP had little to do with the inbound tourism demand to South Korea, while other factors affected the country's tourism demand to Korea. In contrast, in case of China, GDP turned out to be the most significant factor that impact on the inbound tourism demand. Several implications of the study were also discussed.
This study was to investigate the difference of propensity to consume and travel products choice attributes among Korean travellers by their economic status and money attitude. Data were collected from 316 Korean outbound travellers at Gimpo and Incheon International Airports on April 2009. Results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences of the propensity to consume, money attitude, and travel products choice attributes among four different economic status groups. Results of cluster analysis, which was based on the money attitude of the travellers, also indicated significant differences of propensity to consume and travel product choice attributes among four different groups of money attitude. Based on the findings of this study, several practical implication were also discussed.
The aim of this study is finding out how the cognitive and affective images and perceived risks to Ganghwa-do affect tourists' future behavior intention. The study materials are based on the questionnaires collected by 213 tourists who visit Ganghwa-do. The verified result is summarized as follows: first, the cognitive image has the positive influence on the willingness to recommend, while perceived risks have the negative influence. Second, the cognitive image and perceived risks have the indirect affection on the revisit intention through the willingness to recommend, not direct affection. Third, the affective image doesn't have direct influence on intention of revisiting or recommendation. In conclusion, tourists' cognitive image rather than affective image affects the willingness to recommend positively. And therefore the chances are good that this willingness can be connected with revisit intention. On the other hand, perceived risks which are directive factors for decreasing willingness to recommend can lower the chances of the revisit intention.
This study was to explore why some recreationists progress while others do not in their level of specialization. Particularly, this study examined the role of leisure constraints and facilitators among Korean anglers' specialization A content analysis of five specialized anglers' interviews on F-TV showed that the specialized anglers' passed the stages of development such as 'beginning', 'progression', 'turning point', 'effort and development' and finally reached the 'specialization level'. In addition, as specialists, they experienced 'optimal experience' and 'psychological rewards. Also, sport fishing was their central life interest. Furthermore, it was found that leisure constraints and facilitators had incessantly influences on their process of recreational specialization. Some theoretical and practical implications were also proposed.
This study was to identify the determinants of inbound tourists' length of stay using the finite mixture negative binomial count model(FMM). The FMM model was also compared with zero truncated poisson(ZTP) and negative binomial model(ZTNB) Data used in this study were originally collected from 10,535 foreign tourists by Korea Tourism Organization in 2008. Results showed that the FMM was better than the others in terms of model fitness. In addition, results of the FMM model proposed two latent groups of length of stay, the 'shortstay group' and the 'longstay group'. Furthermore, the determinants of length of stay in the two groups were significantly different from each other. Finding of study suggests the importance of doing similar kind of future researches for developing an effective inbound marketing plan of Korea.
The Korea Ministry of National Defense has made a lot of effort to improve military welfare for preventing stress of soldiers during their military service. This study examined the effect of five different military leisure program component(i.e, choice of leisure activities, objects of leisure, leisure partner, leisure mentoring, and initiative in leisure activities) on the reduction of Korean soldiers' stress. Data were collected from 195 marines in Pohang Marine Corp on March of 2009. Eight hypothetical scenarios of animation pictures, which were the mixtures of the five military leisure program, were shown to the soldiers for evaluating their effects on reduction of stress and establishment of joyful environment. in military life. Result revealed that watching TV and movies. were the most effective leisure activities for the soldiers to make a joyful environment in military life. For stress reduction, the most prominent attribute was the initiative of leisure activities followed by free choice of leisure activities.
Though the ultimate goal of employees' emotional labor is to maximize profits through customer satisfaction, few research has investigated the concept from the customer's perspective and the nature of it(i.e., authentic vs inauthentic). The aim of this study was to examine the influence of employees' authentic emotional labor on customers' reactions(i.e., customer evaluation on employees, emotional state, and customer satisfaction). A structured on-site survey was conducted with a convenient sample of people who visited travel agencies in Busan(n=202). The result revealed that employees' authentic emotional labor was positively correlated with all of customers' reactions(p<.05). Discussions and implications of the result were proposed.
This paper developed and tested the relationships among corporate control, employee self-control, and divisional performance in travel agencies. Data were collected from 160 employees of 20 travel agencies in Seoul on December 2009. Results from structural equation modeling analysis showed a significant positive impact of corporate control system on employee self-control. Results also indicated a significant positive effect of employee's self-control on divisional performance. However, corporate control system did not make any direct impact on the divisional performance. It only made an mediating effect to the divisional performance via employee self-control. Based on the findings of this study, several practical implications and limitations of the study were also discussed.
This study examined the effect of Sommeliers' level of job performance on the quality and strength of their relationship with customers. Sommeliers' job performance was conceptualized and measured in terms of their professionality, social interaction skill and service orientation. The strength of the Sommeliers' relationship with customers was operationalized in terms of future intention to continuos use. Data ere collected from 166 customers of restaurants at four five star hotels in Busan Korea. Results from the structural equation modeling analysis suggested that sommelier's level of job performance had positive effects on the relationship quality between the customers and Sommeliers. In addition, the Sommeliers' level of job performance indirectly influenced the customers' perception of service quality via the relationship quality. Finally, both the relationship quality and service quality had positive influences on the relationship strength. Results of this study suggest the importance of Sommeliers' relationship development with customers.