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2010, Vol.34, No.9

  • 1.

    Risk and Tourism in Comtemporary Society: The Case of Dark Tourism

    SukYoungHan | Kwang-Eik Cho | 2010, 34(9) | pp.11~31 | number of Cited : 18
    Tourists’ interest in death, disaster and atrocity places, so called dark tourism, is a growing phenomenon in contemporary risk society. This study was to explore socio-cultural background of the dark tourism in contemporary risk society and classify the types of dark tourism. Review of related literature showed that the term of ‘dark tourism’ was first coined by Foley & Lennon (1996a) in a special issue of the international Journal of Heritage Studies and, subsequently, it became the title of a book. Literature review also suggested that dark tourism posit questions or introduce anxiety and doubt about modernity and that it was affected by mass communication media. Based on Sharpley(2005), four different types of dark tourism(i.e., pale tourism, grey tourism supply, grey tourism demand, black tourism) were also presented. Finally, future research direction on dark tourism were discussed.
  • 2.

    A Tentative Observation of Social Enterprise in Tourism: Present Status, Constraints and Future Tasks

    Yongseok Shin | 2010, 34(9) | pp.33~49 | number of Cited : 19
    Social enterprise has been regarded as an alternative model of job creation and socal service for weak class in capitalist society. In Korea, there also has been growing interests in social enterprise in many different fields. This article explored the potentials of social enterprise in the context of Korean tourism, which has rarely been investigated so far. Results showed that social enterprise in Korean tourism has not been satisfactory because of the four different reasons: historical backgrounds of Korean social enterprise, lack of awareness on the potentials of tourism as a social service, low academic interests in tourism and social enterprise, and technical difficulties of verification for tourism social enterprise. Based on these findings, different solutions including diversification of types and contents of tourism social enterprise and public market formation and systematic supports from the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, were suggested.
  • 3.

    A Comparison on the National Tourism Industry Competitiveness of Korea and Japan by using Dual Double Diamond Model

    박장열 | 김현 | Ko, Dong-Wan | 2010, 34(9) | pp.51~71 | number of Cited : 20
    Using the Dual Double Diamond model, this study was to compare the tourism industry competitiveness between Korea and Japan. Data was collected from the previous study of Sim Won-Sub(2007) and yearbooks/technical reports of international institutions, such as IMD, IPS, OECD, UIA, UNWTO, WEF, and WTTC. Results showed that in terms of physical factors(i.e., the domestic infrastructure and fundamental facility size), Korea’s competitiveness was lower than those of Japan. In contrast, in terms of human factor such as the abilities of tourism industry workers, professionals, and businessmen, Korea’s competitiveness turned out to be higher than those of Japan. Results of this study suggest that in order to strengthen the competitiveness of tourism, Korea should focus on physical factor of tourism by expanding government expenditure and investment of tourism industry, strengthening fundamental facility, and increasing domestic tourism demand.
  • 4.

    A Methodological Discourse on Case Studies in Tourism Research: A Meta Analysis on The Journal of Tourism Science

    Shim Won-sup | 2010, 34(9) | pp.73~95 | number of Cited : 33
    The study analysed the methodological problems of the case studies which appeared in a major tourism academic journal in Korea. In this context, first, various types and characteristics of case study method were presented, and the function of each method was closely examined. Then, using the meta analysis approach, 18 case studies which appeared in the Journal of Tourism Sciences between 2005 and 2009 were evaluated based on the three criteria: the types and characteristics, the logical process of research design, and, validity and reliability. Results showed that most of articles examined were exploratory and descriptive level research. Results also indicated many of the cases studies had lack of reliability and validity. Findings from this study suggest that Korean tourism researchers need to design a case study after recognizing the various different types and roles of case study methods, particularly the role of discovery and confirmation of theory. Results also propose that precise diagnose of reliability and validity of a case study is needed in the process of research design.
  • 5.

    An Estimation of Foreign Inbound Tourism Receipt and its Implication on the Tourism Policy

    RyuDeockhyun | 2010, 34(9) | pp.97~115 | number of Cited : 5
    This study investigated the relationship between exchange rate change and inbound tourism receipt of Korea and its implication on tourism policy. In order do this, time series data(2000-2010) were constructed using the Tourism Knowledge Information System of Korean government and IMF’s International Financial Statistics. By using the double composite weights of three individual countries(Japan, China, USA)’ inbound tourists and average length of stay, the individual countries’ inbound tourism receipt were estimated. Then, the elasticities of the exchange rate were evaluated. Results showed that the elasticity of tourism receipt was high, while the elasticity of the number of inbound tourist was low. This indicated inbound foreign tourists respond less sensitively to the change of exchange rate before their travel to Korea, while they might respond more sensitively to the exchange rate after their entry to Korea. Korean tourism administrators might need to consider this to develop a better inbound tourism policies.
  • 6.

    Korea Tourism Destination Image Represented on Websites: A Content Analysis of Chinese Websites

    손천용 | Soojin Choi | Choi, Mi-hea | 2010, 34(9) | pp.117~141 | number of Cited : 4
    This study examined the image of Korea tourism represented on Chinese internet websites. A content analysis on the four different type of Chinese internet websites on Korean tourism, including 90 online blogs, 3 portal websites, 8 travel media, 38 travel agencies, and the Korea Tourism Organization, was performed. Microsoft Excel and correspondence analyses were used to analyze the text and visual information content. Results showed that the image and resources of Korean tourism presented online were significantly different throughout the four distinctive types of online information sources. It could be explained in part by the differences of communication objectives among the four different types of websites. Results from study affirm the importance of understanding the variation of destination image and tourism resource representations on websites and the challenge of managing and delivering the desired image of a destination to potential tourists.
  • 7.

    The Discovery of Cultural Assets and its Globalization of Saemangeum Cultural Tourism Zone

    Chang, Pyong-Kwon | 2010, 34(9) | pp.143~162 | number of Cited : 3
    The Saemangeum project is to make a ‘North-eastern economic center’, and plays an opportunity to globalize the cultural assets in the Jeonbuk Province. This research insists on expanding the Saemangeum cultural tourism zone into from 3 to 7 cities and counties, but going on a differentiated development business from inside area of Saemangeum. That is, with the concept of ‘connection and complement’, that the development vision of the Saemangeum cultural tourism zone is set as a ‘global tourism mecca’, the aim of development is set for ‘creation of global tourism city’, and the nearby area is set for ‘globalization of Jeonbuk’ cultural value. It insists the we make the resident cultural art tourism industry cluster in the government level so that the Saemangeum area contain identity and symbol of the Jeonbuk’s culture for a model a ‘compact city of Jeonbuk’s history and culture’. And, it insists that Jeonbuk Province make a strategy to discover and bring up the ‘Project on the cultural tourism by each area’, and make an effort systematically to construct the ‘Tourism Readiness of pan-Saemangeum Tourism Zone’.
  • 8.

    Development of Adult Playfulness Scale

    Lee, Hoon | 이영진 | 조희범 | 2010, 34(9) | pp.165~188 | number of Cited : 21
    Abstract PDF
    Playfulness is an internal trait of human behavior and experience. This study was to develop a scale for measuring adult playfulness. Based on the previous researches of Barnett(1991; 2007), Glynn & Webster(1992), Staempfli (2007), three different measurement model of adult playfulness were developed. Data were collected from 708 undergraduate and graduate school students of four universities in Seoul on May 2010. Results of confirmatory factor analyses showed that a modified three dimensional measurement model(i.e., extroversion, creativity, and improvisation), fitted the data better than the other two models. Specifically, the extroversion dimension was constructed with indicators of lightness, cheerfulness, and brightness. Creativity dimension included creativeness, imagination, and originality. And the improvisation dimension was consisted of emotionality and easy excitement. The adult playfulness scale developed in the study could contribute leisure and tourism program development and market segmentation.
  • 9.

    Examining the Mass Media Influence and Social Influence on Potential Visitors’ Intention to Cardinal Stephen Kim Sou-Hwan’s Memorial Park: A Focus on the Mediating and Moderating Role of Involvement

    Young A Park | 현용호 | 2010, 34(9) | pp.189~209 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This study was to examine the social and mass media influence on potential visitors’ visit intention to the Cardinal Stephen Kim Sou-Hwan’s Memorial Park. Particularly, this study focused on the moderating and mediating effect of involvement on the relationship between the social/mass media influence and visit intention. Data were conveniently collected from 349 potential visitors at the DongDague and Seoul railroad stations on April and May of 2010. Results of regression analyses indicated that social influence had a greater effect on visit intention than mass media influence had. Results also showed that social influence had a greater effect on involvement than mass media influence had. In addition, it was proven that involvement had a pure mediating effect on the relationship between social influence and visit intention, while mass media influence had a direct and indirect impact on visit intention through involvement. Theoretical, managerial implications, and limitation of the study were also discussed.
  • 10.

    Identifying the Factors of Delayed Development on the Tourism-Leisure Type Enterprise City Project

    Kim, Sung-Jin | 2010, 34(9) | pp.211~226 | number of Cited : 3
    This study was to investigate the factors of delayed development on tourism- leisure type enterprise city project. Based on the review of related literature, laws and plans, 48 items of the delay factors were initially extracted. Then, these items were categorized into 4 factors(project characteristics factor, developer factor, political and economic factor, and institutional factor). 35 items were finally identified through interviews with 4 developers and 5 experts. Results of a survey of 98 developers, local government officials, and experts showed that the political and economic factor including recent financial crisis, real estate market depression, and change of government attention had a most important impact on the project delay. Results also showed that the developer factor including the difficulties of funding made an important impact on the delay. Furthermore, while developers and local government officials evaluated the project characteristics as the most important factor of the delay, experts considered the developer factor as the most factor of the delay.
  • 11.

    An investigation of Moderating Effects of Perceived Usefulness and Easiness of Use on the Relationships Between e-CRM Activities and Firm Performance in Internet Travel Agencies

    Kim, Sung Hyuk | Hwang Soo Young | 2010, 34(9) | pp.227~250 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    The study was to examine the effects of e-CRM activities on firm performance. Particularly, it focused on the moderating effects of perceived usefulness and easiness of use on the relationships between e-CRM activities and firm performance. The data were collected from 133 e-CRM experts of travel agencies in Seoul and Kyonggi-do over a three month period from May 2010 to July 2010. Results of cannonical correlation analysis indicated that e-CRM activities were significantly correlated with the firm performance. Particularly, e-CRM system maintenance and analysis factor made the most significant impact on the firm performance of customer and innovation. Result of hierarchical regression analysis also revealed that employees’ perceived program usefulness and easiness of use moderates the effects of e-CRM activities on firm performance. However, among the seven dimensions of e-CRM activities, only the “marketing”, “support” and “service” dimensions appeared to be significantly influenced by the moderating effect of perceived program usefulness and easiness of use.
  • 12.

    The Effects of Experiential Factors on Enjoyment, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention in an Event: An Application of Pine & Gilmore’s Experience Theory

    Shin Dong Ju | 2010, 34(9) | pp.251~270 | number of Cited : 92
    Based on the Pine & Gilmore’s experience theory, this study examined the effect of experiential factors on visitors’ enjoyment, experience of satisfaction and behavioral intention in a leisure sport event. Data were collected from 341 visitors of 2010 Chuncheon World Leisure Competition on September 2010. Results of a structural equation model analysis indicated that the visitors’ entertainment and esthetics experiences seemed to have positive impacts on their experience of enjoyment, while visitors’ educational and escapist experiences did not make significant impacts on their experience of enjoyment. Results also showed that visitors’ experience of enjoyment seemed to have positive impacts on their experience of satisfaction and behavioral intention. However, visitors’ experience of satisfaction did not make a significant impact on behavioral intention. Based on these findings, planning and marketing implications were also discussed.
  • 13.

    The Effects of Cognitive and Affective Trust between Franchiser and Franchisee on Relationship Orientation and Citizenship Behavior among Franchisees

    Changho Oh | 백민숙 | 김현숙 and 1other persons | 2010, 34(9) | pp.271~298 | number of Cited : 10
    This study investigated the role of cognitive and affective trust between franchiser-franchisee on relationship orientation and citizenship behavior. Data were collected from 210 franchisee’s in Busan on February 2009. Results showed that both the franchisee’s level of emotional trust and cognitive trust were positively associated with their commitment to the franchiser. Particularly, the franchisee’s emotional trust on the franchiser made more significant impact on the commitment than their cognitive trust did. Results also indicated that the franchisee’s relationship orientation significantly influenced on their relational citizen behavior. Finding from this study imply that the franchisee who longs to maintain relationship with the franchiser tends to act more decently. Based on the findings of this study, several practical implication were also discussed.
  • 14.

    Validity of Measuring Self-Image Congruity in Hotel Industry: An Application of the Indirect Measures and Polynomial Regression

    Jooa Baek | Seolmin Yoon | seo wonseok | 2010, 34(9) | pp.299~311 | number of Cited : 3
    Given the theoretical significance of self-image congruence, it is important to develop a valid measure of self-image congruence. Traditionally, indirect measure has been the most widely used method for measuring self-image congruity. However, several researchers have suggested that indirect measure has several problems. Thus, this study was to empirically compare the explanatory power of the indirect measure and the polynomial regression in measuring self-Image congruity. Data were conveniently collected from 278 people, who had brand image of five star hotels in Seoul, between December 2008 and January 2009. Results showed that the significant self-image congruity effect of indirect measure disappeared under the statistical test of polynomial regression. Findings from this study imply that the traditional indirect measure of self-image congruity might not be appropriate to measure the self-image congruity.
  • 15.

    Difference of Casino Visitor Motivation and Choice Attribute by Customers’ Characteristics

    구효진 | Ko, JaeYoun | 2010, 34(9) | pp.313~336 | number of Cited : 12
    This study was to examine the differences of casino visitor motivation and venue choice attribute among Japanese tourists who visited Korean casinos. Data were collected from 215 Japanese tourists at the Incheon and Kimpo International Airport from January 2010 to March 2010. Results showed that their was a significant difference between male and female in terms of their motivation of visiting casinos. Specifically, male had higher motivations on all the five dimensions of motivations than female had. Results also found significant differences between casino driven visitors and regular visitors in terms of their motivation and venue choice attributes. Significant difference of motivation and venue choice attributes were also found between first time visitors and repeat visitors. From casino marking point of view, several practical implications were also discussed.
  • 16.

    The Effects of Presentation Mix Factors on Relationship Marketing, Market Orientation, and Customer Satisfaction in Hotel Service:A Sample of Deluxe Hotels Guests in Changwon and Haeundae Area

    JunHyuk Lee | 김진우 | 2010, 34(9) | pp.337~358 | number of Cited : 12
    This study investigated the effects of presentation mix on relationship marketing, market orientation, and customer satisfaction in hotel service. Data were collected from 200 hotel guests at four deluxe hotels in Changwon and Busan on November 2009. The results of a exploratory factor analysis identified eight stable factors of presentation mix: physical enthronement, location, atmosphere, employee, customer, price, communication and online service. Results of a structural equation model analysis indicated that presentation mix factors had partially positive effects on relationship marketing, market orientation, and customer satisfaction. Specifically, physical environment and online service factors had higher effects on relationship marketing, market orientation, and customer satisfaction than others had. However, factors like location, atmospherics, customers did not have relationships with the intermediate and dependent variables. Finding from this study suggest that hotel companies should effectively manage internet communication and physical environment to build and maintain positive relationship with customers.
  • 17.

    An Analysis of Korean Out-Bound Tourism Demand Using the Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Regression Model

    김상혁 | 2010, 34(9) | pp.359~377 | number of Cited : 2
    Using Engle(1982)’s autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity(ARCH) regression model, this paper analyzed out-bound tourism demand of Korean tourists for seven countries(USA, Japan, China, Hongkong, Singapore, Philippine, and Thailand). Even though there have been numerous studies that analyzed in-and out-bound of Korean tourism demand, most studies did not consider the classical assumptions in the regression model. Among all the assumptions, this study focused on effects of the violation of homoskedasticity of the innovation. In this study, first, by simple Monte-Carlo simulation, the effect of conditional heteroskedasticity in the regression model was demonstrated. Then, using ARCH regression model, Korean outbound tourism demand for seven countries were estimated. Results showed that most countries’ price and income elasticities were less than one. Results also indicated that the price and income elasticities were quite country specific.