This study explored foreign tourists' authenticity perception on a Korea traditional village and its relationship with the tourists' travel experience. Data were collected from 400 foreign tourists who visited Seoul Buckchon Korean Village on August 2010. An exploratory factor analysis on 12 items of authenticity perception suggested three dimensions of authenticly perception: 'objective authenticity, existential authenticity and constructive authenticity'. In addition, a cluster analysis yielded two groups of authenticly perception groups(i.e., a low authenticity perception group and high authenticly perception group). Results showed that there were significant statistical differences between the high authenticity-perception group and the low-authenticity perception in the four dimensions of tourism experience dimensions(i.e., escape/immersion, experience, edutainment, the sense of ties). Results also indicated a significant statistical differences between the two groups in the socio-demographic characteristics. Limitation and future research directions were discussed.
This research was to investigate the effects of tourism resource interpretation on the foreign tourists' level of satisfaction. Data were collected from 816 foreigners who visited the four royal palaces in Korea on November 2009. Results of a factor analysis suggested four dimensions of tourism resource interpretation(i.e., presentation fidelity, information, inherent value, interest inducing). Results also showed that all the four dimensions of tourism resource interpretation made significant impacts on the foreign visitors' level of satisfaction. It was also found that the three different language groups of the foreign visitors had different preference toward the important dimension of the tourism resource interpretation. Specifically, English speaking visitors tended to consider presentation fidelity and historic explanation factors as important dimensions of the resource interpretation, whereas Japanese and Chinese visitors were likely to count interest inducing factor more importantly than the others. This suggest that nationality of the foreign visitors might be an important factor for the tourism resource market segmentation.
It has been argued that tourism studies could be more complete through inter-disciplinary approach from various academic disciplines including sociology, psychology, economics, geography and so on. This paper examined geographical approach in tourism studies. Particularly, it focused on landscape research which has been one of the main subjects of new cultural geography. Review of related literature showed that the scope of landscape research has been extended to the theme of tourism, the major characteristic of modern society. This study also indicated that tourist destination was the very place where the theories such as the social construction of space and the tourist gaze were originated from. Finally, from the perspective of landscape research, this paper proposed the potential research topics in tourism studies and emphasized the significance of landscape research in the trends of Korean tourism studies.
Using the narrative inquiry method, this study explored the experiences of tourism student teachers in Korea. Data were collected from the student teaching practise journals of 11 tourism students teachers at 3 universities during the spring semester of 2009. Results showed that the student teachers had some difficulties in adapting themselves to a new environment such as the strict disciplinary procedures imposed upon them. Results also indicated that the student teachers seemed to make a lot effort to make a relationship with their guidance teachers. Furthermore, although they did experience the difficulties of teaching students for the first time, they developed confidence in teaching students as time went by. The study suggested that narrative inquiry was a useful method for understanding the experiences of tourism students teacher. Based on the findings of this study, several practical implication were also discussed.
Appling the ground theory method, this study analyzed the image formation process of Korean convention centers. Data were collected from in depth interview with 22 convention professionals including CVB board members, professors, government officials from November to December 2009. In the process of axial coding, ‘recognition of differentiation of image among convention centers’ was identified as the causal condition that leaded to the occurrence, or development of ‘qualitative experience on convention centers’. The contexts, or sets of conditions influencing the action/strategy, was ‘reflecting environmental factors’. Intervening conditions and mediating variables of action/interaction strategies were ‘recognizing the experience on convention centers’ and ‘experiencing the forming a connection’. The outcome was ‘constructing an image.’ Finally, the awareness obtained from the previous stages was utilized to build ‘rapport’ between clients and convention center staffs. Limitations and future research directions were discussed.
This study examined the factors that affect continued intention to use convention website. Based on the review of related literature, user characteristics, system characteristics and social influence were employed as independent variables of this study. In addition, users' perceived value and perceived playfulness were used as intervening variables. Data were collected from 384 participants of the 6th Web Award Conference 2010 on February 2010. Results of a structural equation model analysis showed that all the three independent variables made significant effects on the users' perceived value, while only user characteristics and social influence made signifiant impacts on the users' perceived playfulness. Results also indicated that the users' perceived value was significantly associated with continued intention to use, while user's perceived playfulness was not significantly related to continued intention to use. Several practical implications were also discussed.
This study was to identify the segments of Korean domestic tourism market based on the domestic tourists perceived value. It also analyzed the socio-demographic characteristics, level of satisfaction and royalty to domestic tourism of each segment. Data were collected from 229 residents of Seoul metropolitan city from November to December 2009. Results of a cluster analysis, which was based on perceive values of Korean domestic tourism(i.e., monetary, emotional, functional value), suggested three segments of domestic tourism markets: emotional monetary value segment, emotional functional value segment, low domestic tourism value segment. Results af MANOVA analysis identified statistical significant differences between the segments with regard to the level of satisfaction and loyalty, the socio-demographic variables(age, age, income level), and the visitors' behavioral variables(tourism expenditure, tourism information source). Theoretical and managerial implications were discussed in the conclusion.
This study was to suggest a reinvigoration plan for local festivals of Daejeon metropolitan city. In order to do this, current local festivals of Daejeon metropolitan city were critically scrutinized. Then, a reinvigoration plan was suggested from the community based festival perspective. Specifically, five basic directions of community based local festivals were proposed. Also, development of a community based local festival manual and its spread to the probationers were suggested as the internal reinvigoration plan. The manual included five steps of local festival planning and management: decision making, basic planning, specific designing, performing, and evaluation stage. Furthermore, from the perspective of making a better village for living, five dimensions of reinvigoration plan for outside were also proposed. In sum, reinvigoration of community-based festivals could be considered not only as a means of creating community culture in a small aspect but also a key means of making a village live in a large aspect.
This study analyzed the relationship between rural-tourism and farm-to- consumer direct transaction using the survey data of 36,989 responses obtained from the 2009 Social Statistics Survey. Previous literature examined the determinants of farm-to-consumer direct transaction, and pointed out that the rural- tourism might suffer from the endogeneity problem. If there is endogeneity in rural-tourism as explanatory variables, the effects of rural- tourism on farm-to-consumer direct transaction may be insignificant or the estimates may be wrong-signed. To solve this problem, this study employed the endogenous switch probit model. With this model, this study tested whether the rural-tourism was endogenous. Results of this study showed consistent estimates for the effects of rural-tourism on farm-to-consumer direct transaction. Results also indicated that on average, the rural-tourism increased the farm-to-consumer direct transaction by 17.4%. This suggests that rural-tourism does not suffer from the endogeneity problem.
The use of bicycle has become a popular transportation mode for leisure, recreation, and tourism. In particular, bicycle usage for travel activity has been regarded as a suitable strategy for developing sustainable tourism in rural/regional areas. However, current literature on bicycle tourism has not been widely discussed and underestimated in the field of tourism industry. This study, therefore, firstly defined existing definitions of bicycle tourism and conceptualized it by establishing a theoretical framework. Then, based on a close look at the previous literature, the study reviewed the travel behavior of bicycle tourists and estimated the market size of bicycle tourism. It also reviewed current research/practical activities on bicycle tourism. Based on these reviews and examination, this study discussed several implications for boosting bicycle tourism in Korea.
This study explored the effect of U-tourism service on visitor's perceived service quality and satisfaction at a cultural heritage site. Particularly, by adapting HISTOQUA, a new model of perceived quality and satisfaction formation process was proposed in this study. In order to test the new model, data were collected from 275 visitors at Hwa-Seong Haeng-gung on May of 2009. The questionnaire was given to family tourists with children who experienced U-tourism service. The findings of this study were as follows: 1) Parents' perception of children's satisfaction with U-tourism service had a significant influence on the parents' satisfaction, 2) Parents's satisfaction of U-tourism service had positive influence on their perceived service quality, 3) Parents' perception of children's satisfaction had stronger influence on their perceived service quality than their satisfaction of U-tourism service, and 4) the perceived service quality had strong influence on the overall satisfaction. Based on these significant findings, theoretical implications and limitations of the study were discussed.
This study was to identify the possible types of medical tourism product development using deep sea water of Gangwon Province, Korea. The Q-methodology was used to examine subjectivity of university students with regard to the product development. 25 Q statements were drawn from the review of related literature and in-depth interviews with tourism major students. 17 P samples were used in this study. Results Q factor analysis showed that there might be three different types medical tourism product development using the deep sea water: demonstration use type(n=8), plant use type(n=4)], edibility use type(n=4). Results also indicated that all the three segments agreed with the 13 Q-statements. Based on the findings of this study, several practical implications and future research directions were also discussed.
This study examined the structural relationship between travelers' perception of smart phone services and their attitude and intention to use. By incorporating the Technology Acceptance Model(TAM) and Pleasure-Arousal- Dominance(PAD) theory , five hypotheses were developed and empirically tested using a structural equation model analysis. Data were collected from an online survey of 131 individual travelers who have had experience of using smart phone services from May to July 2010. Results showed that ‘pleasure’, ‘perceived usefulness’ and ‘arousal’ made significant effects on the respondents' attitude toward using smart phone services. Interestingly, ‘pleasure’ made positive impact on the travelers' attitude, while ‘arousal’ made negative effect on the travelers' attitude. In addition, results indicated that the ‘perceived ease of use’ was not significantly associated with the intention to use. Results of this study suggest that tourism industry practitioners might need to understand both cognitive factors and emotional factors in their understanding of travelers consuming behaviors.
Using a sample of 167 five star hotel employees, this paper investigated the relationship between burnout, job satisfaction, and job dissatisfaction and different types of response behaviors. Farrell's exit, voice, loyalty and neglect(EVLN) model was employed to test the relationship. Results showed that burnout was the main factor of both job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. It implies that burnout might reduce job satisfaction and increase job dissatisfaction at the same time. Results also indicated that burnout could lower voice behavior, while it might heighten neglect behavior. In contrast, job satisfaction might raise loyalty behavior and decrease neglect behavior. while job dissatisfaction could reduce loyalty behavior and increase neglect behavior. Findings from this study might be helpful for hotel mangers to establish internal marketing strategies.
This study was to examine the effect of job satisfaction on customer orientation among hotel employees. Particularly it focused on testing the moderating effect of social competence in the relationship between job satisfaction and customer orientation. Data were collected from 446 hotel employees of five star hotels in Seoul on March 2009. Results of a exploratory factor analysis identified four underlying dimensions of job satisfaction; relationship with superiors and co-workers, promotion and wages, job itself, motivation. It also identified three underlying dimensions of social competence; leadership, sensitiveness and decisiveness. Result of regression analysis showed that there were significant relationships between each dimension of the job satisfaction and the customer orientation. Furthermore, results empirically supported the moderating effect of social competence in the relationship between job satisfaction and customer orientation. Practical implications and limitations of this study were also discussed.
Operational efficiency through the exact evaluation of brand personality is becoming an important issue in the field of hospitality. More importantly, from the standpoint of research, it is necessary to review current research trends and contributions. Research should focus on how suitable analysis may be conducted and also on the logical development of studies within a framework of appropriate research methodology. This research examines the journals concerning Hospitality and Tourism registered with the National Research Foundation of Korea within the topic of the Brand Personality of Restaurants. It is worth noting that the majority of previous research has been applied in the domain of Aaker’s (1997) dimensions, thus these require to be classified appropriately and a study carried out on research trends and contributions.
The study examined the structural relationships between servant leadership, team cohesiveness, team commitment, team satisfaction, and team performance among flight attendants. Data were collected from 322 full-time flight attendants of K Airline from June to July 2010. Results of a structural equation model analysis showed that servant leadership significantly influenced team cohesiveness and team commitment. Results also indicated that team cohesiveness made a significant impact on team commitment and team satisfaction. In addition, team commitment made a significant influence on team satisfaction, while it did not make a significant impact on team performance. Lastly, it was found that team satisfaction had a significant influence on team performance. The study also presented implications of its findings, limits of the study, and directions for future studies.