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2011, Vol.35, No.4

  • 1.

    Market segmentation of the World Natural Heritage Site visitors using tourism motivation: A case study of Geomunoreum

    Ko Mi-Young | Kyesung Ko | Pilsoo Yang | 2011, 35(4) | pp.11~30 | number of Cited : 28
    This study was design to segment visitors of Jeju Geomunoreum, a World Natural Heritage, based on the visitors' motivation profile. It also examined the socio-demographic and visit characteristics of each segmented groups. Data were collected from 373 visitors of Jeju Geomunoreum from July 10 to August 8, 2010. Results of a K-mean cluster analysis, which was based on five visitor motivations, yielded three different clusters solution of the visitors: sociability-seekers, escape-seekers and multi-purpose seekers. Results also showed that there were significant difference among the groups in terms of their socio-demographic and visit behaviors. From the result of the study, marketing strategies and political implications were also suggested.
  • 2.

    A structural analysis of the world cultural heritage experience of the tourist

    김지선 | Lee, Hoon | 2011, 35(4) | pp.31~49 | number of Cited : 27
    The study analyzed how tourists' experiences World Cultural Heritage Sites and how their experiences were related to level of satisfaction and intention to revisit. Based on the review of previous literature, seven different types of tourist experience(e.,g. ‘novelty’, ‘familiarity’, ‘education’, ‘authenticity’ and ‘nostalgia’) were employed as the independent variables of this study. Data were collected from 400 visitors of four Korean World Culture Heritage sites on September 2010. Results of a structural equation modeling analysis showed that four different types of experiences(i.e., familiarity, education, existential authenticity, nostalgia) of the respondents were significantly associated with their level of visit satisfaction and revisit intention. Particularly, ‘familiarity’ and ‘nostalgia’, which were the newly suggested constructs of tourist experiences in this study, were proven to be as primary factors of heritage tourism experience.
  • 3.

    Valuation of natural resources for the National Seorak Park using a contingent valuation method: Value measuring on installation of cable cars

    강정길 | 이승곤 | 2011, 35(4) | pp.51~73 | number of Cited : 18
    Using a contingent valuation method, this study estimated the value of the Seoraksan National Park. Particularly, it compared the non-market value of the national park when it had a cable car and when it had not. Data were collected from 403 visitors of the national park on May of 2009. Results showed that the benefit value of the national park could be from 45.7 to 52 billion won per year when it had a cable car in the park. However, the benefit value could be only from 2.9 through 3.6 billion won per year when there was no cable car in the park. This suggested that the benefit value of the national park could be 15 times larger when the park had a cable car. Results also indicated that the respondents considered 'appreciation of beautiful scenery' as the major attraction of the Seoraksan National Park. The respondents also tended to think that installation of cable cars could be a new method of inducing tourists as well as preventing environmental damage of the Seoraksan National Park.
  • 4.

    Measures of institutional problems for the resumption of Mt. Geumgang tourism: the issue of safety and security of tourist

    Yongseok Shin | 2011, 35(4) | pp.75~94 | number of Cited : 16
    Mt. Geumgang tourism, which was regarded as a symbol of peace industry on the Korean peninsula, has now become a symbol of the worsening relationship between North and South Korea. Based on the conceptual framework of Johan Galtung's 'extened peace', this paper argues that interruption of Mt. Geumgang tourism resulted from the accumulated institutional problems, which made it impossible to achieve 'positive peace'. Therefore, the paper maintains that there should be institutional reformation before the resumption of Mt. Geumgang tourism if true peace is to be achieved through tourism. This paper also suggests following measures as the ways of resumption of Mt. Geumgang Tourism : the MOU of tourism cooperation between North and South Korea, the adjustment of agreement on the security of South Korea tourists, and the establishment of the authority concerning Mt. Geumgang tourism zone.
  • 5.

    Comparative analysis of DMZ area tourist motivations by destination

    김재호 | 2011, 35(4) | pp.95~112 | number of Cited : 20
    This study was conducted to explore motivations of the Korean DMZ tourists and to determine if there was motivation differences between tourists visiting two different areas of the DMZ: Gangwon area and Gyeonggi/Incheon Area. Data were collected from 1,000 tourists visiting the Korean DMZ in the winter of 2009. Results of a factor analysis indicated that DMZ tourists' motivations could be classified into four factors; education, attractiveness of destination, escape and convenience-of-visit. Result of analysis of variance demonstrated that DMZ tourists’ travel motivation differed from the destination they visited. Specifically, those who visited Gyeonggi/Incheon area of DMZ had higher motivations of attractiveness of destination and escape than those who visited Gangwon area of DMZ. In contrast, those who visited Gangwon area had higher motivation of connivence of visit than those who visited Gyeonggi/Incheon Area. Based on the results of this study, several points were made from the perspectives of DMZ tourism marketing and policy.
  • 6.

    An exploratory research regarding shopping tourism experiences of inbound Chinese tourists: Is shopping in Korea tour planned or impulsive?

    손해경 | 2011, 35(4) | pp.113~135 | number of Cited : 21
    Chinese market is one of the two biggest inbound tourism markets and the fastest growing market in Korea. Moreover, recent market research of KTO showed that Chinese tourists tended to spend more money for shopping than Japanese tourists(i.e., the other biggest market) did in 2009. Using a qualitative research method, this study explored shopping experiences of inbound  Chinese tourists in Korea. Particularly, it investigated whether their shopping were more likely to be planned or impulsive. Data were collected from in-depths interviews with 11 Chinese women FIT tourists and two Korean sales women from December 2010 to January 2011. Participant observations were also conducted for a better understanding of Chinese inbound shopping behavior in Korea. Results showed that Chinese inbound tourists were most likely to do planned shopping, while they occasionally tended to do unplanned shopping. However, they rarely did impulse shopping. The findings were discussed in the context of establishing shopping tourism strategies for Chinese inbound tourist market in Korea.
  • 7.

    An analysis of time-series data on the determinants of inbound tourism demand from China to Jeju

    홍미영 | 2011, 35(4) | pp.137~154 | number of Cited : 8
    Analyzing monthly time series data accumulated for 8 years from January 2002 to December 2009, this study examined the inbound tourism demand from China to Jeju Island. The unit root test was conducted to determine the stationary of the time series data. Results of Granger Causality Test indicated that the number of air routes between Jeju Island and China were interactively and steadily associated with the inbound tourism demand. Results also showed that the income of Chinese people appeared to have impact on their demand for the visit to Jeju Island. Furthermore, Chinese people's demand for the visit to Jeju Island appeared to have impact on the number of travel agencies in Korea Finally, estimation, based on the Ordinary Least Squares(OLS) method indicated that the income, exchange rate, increase of transportation and travel agencies made positive impact on the inbound tourism demand. In particular, the exchange rate was estimated to have greatest influence on Chinese people's demand for the visit to Jeju Island1.
  • 8.

    A critical review of Japanese tourism demand models for Korea

    Son,Tae-Hwan | 2011, 35(4) | pp.155~169 | number of Cited : 5
    Several studies have investigated the determinants of inbound tourism demand from Japan to Korea over the last ten years. This paper critically reviewed five previous studies which employed unit root test to identify the stationary of the independent variables. Results showed that even though some of the variables were not stationary, Kim et al.(2002) did not adopt cointegration test. As a result, the study was not able to rule out the possibility of spurious regression. Lee et al.(2006) resolved the problem by taking the relevant differencing of the variables in question. Park(2009) employed the cointegrated models, but the interpretation of the long run equilibrium model was not inappropriate. Park and Mo(2000) and Mo(2004) did not have any faults in the models, but the results of the two studies were quite different. Finally, among 5 studies, only Mo(2004) insisted that the korea-bound tourism was not a luxurious good for Japanese tourists.
  • 9.

    A study on food service quality perception of Chinese tourists to Jeju island

    LEE, Young-Ran | Lun Yun | Moon-Soo Cho | 2011, 35(4) | pp.171~188 | number of Cited : 12
    This study was aimed to analyze the preception of importance and performance of the food service quality among Chinese tourists to Jeju island and to discuss the ways of improving the food service quality. To accomplish this purpose, first, a critical review of literatures related to Chinese food culture and food service quality was conducted. Then, data were conveniently collected from 344 Chinese travelers in the Jeju International Airport from December 2010 to January 2011. Results of IPA analysis showed that 7 items were distributed on the keep up the good work quadrant(Ⅰ). Those were 'cleanness of restaurant', 'kindness of employee', 'healthy food', ' freshness of materials', 'good for diet', 'congestion of restaurant' and 'comfortable seat'. In the concentrate here quadrant(Ⅱ), 'Chinese menu explanation', 'variety of menu', 'communication with employees', 'taste of food', 'serving hot water or tea', 'authenticity of food' were distributed. This study concludes with managerial implication and suggestion to maximize Chinese tourists satisfaction on food service.
  • 10.

    Case studies on boosting Chinese tourists arrivals to Korea:Focus on Japan's strategy aimed at Chinese tourists

    김진곤 | 2011, 35(4) | pp.189~211 | number of Cited : 6
    By analyzing the changes in China’s outbound tourism policies and examining Japanese recent inbound tourism marketing strategies for attracting more Chinese tourists, this study suggested policies that Korean government should consider for attracting more Chinese tourists to Korea. To to this, literatures from national tourism organizations and ministries of China, Japan and Korea were critically scrutinized. Results indicated that China has pursued balanced development between inbound and outbound tourism. Results also showed a critical change of Japanese tourism policy from its original outbound-centered strategy to recent inbound-centered strategy. Based on the review, this study suggested that well formulated policies (i.e., improvement of market flexibility, development of high-valued products and promotion) have to be preceded for attracting more Chinese tourists to Korea. It also proposed effective cooperations among state, local governments and private sectors.
  • 11.

    An exploratory study on tourism constraints of Chinese inbound travel agency with visiting Korea and overcoming strategy:A grounded theory approach

    김철원 | 오정학 | 2011, 35(4) | pp.213~235 | number of Cited : 14
    It is very important for marketers and policy-makers to understand different kinds of constraints tourists experience. In spite of its importance, there have been few studies on the constraints that Chinese tourists' experience in their visit to Korea. This study was aimed to identify tourism constraints perceived by chinese tourists visiting Korea. It was also designed to examine overcoming strategies from the practitioners' perspective. Based on a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews with 8 practitioners of China travel agencies were conducted from November to December 2009. Results of three stages coding were schematized into a paradigm model, capturing constraints and overcoming process. The study suggested tourism paradox of Korea as a core concept which causes the tourism constraints on the one hand, and facilitates overcoming constraints on the other hand. The study also discussed emerging implications that should be applied by practitioners.
  • 12.

    The structural relationship of emotional labor, job stress, organizational commitment, and turnover intention in service encounter

    Kim Hyeon Cheol | 이정탁 | 2011, 35(4) | pp.229~315 | number of Cited : 40
    This research was conducted to analyze the structural relationships among emotional labor, job stress, organizational commitment and turnover intention of family restaurant employees in the service encounter environment. Data were collected from 247 respondents who worked at 10 family restaurants in Seoul and Incheon area as a customer contact service provider. Results of a structural equation modeling analysis showed that surface acting which was a sub-dimension of the emotional labor had a significant positive effect on job stress, while deep acting had not a significant impact on the job stress. Results also indicated that job stress had a significant negative impact on organizational commitment and, in turn, organizational commitment was negatively associated with turnover intention. However, results showed that emotional labor had not a significant effect on turnover intention. Results of this study implies the importance of human resource management in the service industry
  • 13.

    Are domestic and international tourism demand substitutes or complements?

    박상곤 | 김상태 | 2011, 35(4) | pp.237~257 | number of Cited : 9
    Using the survey data of 36,989 responses obtained from the 2009 Social Statistics Survey, this study analyzed the relationship between domestic tourism and outbound tourism in Korea. In order to analyze the relationship, this study employed the bivariate probit and bivariate count regression as a naive model. Results showed that bivariate and count data probit models were better than the single probit model in terms of the model fit. Previous literature, which used a survey conducted in 15 European countries(EU-15) reported that the relationship between the demands was more likely a substitution pattern. However, results of this study showed the relationship between domestic tourism and outbound tourism in Korea was found to be complements. Implications and future research directions were also discussed.
  • 14.

    Comparison of expenditures between routine life and leisure travel : An application of frame theory

    Ko, Dong Woo | kim so yun | 2011, 35(4) | pp.259~277 | number of Cited : 7
    This study was aimed to identify the different patterns of expenditure between routine life and leisure travelling situation. Depending on Kanhneman and Tversky's frame theory, it was expected that there would be a significant difference of expenditure patterns between the two different contexts of life. Experimental designs with two different scenarios for imagined routine life and leisure travel were adopted for the comparison. Data were conveniently collected from 110 independent and 110 paired subjects of college students on November 2010. The results showed that the group with the frame of leisure travel was likely to spend significantly more expenditure on all categories of consumer goods and services than routine life framed group was. Findings from this study implies the difference of mental frame of pleasure travel from rational consumption of routine life. Limitations of this study were also discussed.
  • 15.

    A study on tourism storytelling and strength of relationship of visitor's in Busan: the mediating role of lovemark

    김수인 | JunHyuk Lee | Chol-Shik Won and 2other persons | 2011, 35(4) | pp.279~297 | number of Cited : 19
    This study was designed to empirically examine the effects of storytelling on strength relationship via lovemark. Based on the review of previous literature, attributes of story telling were conceptualized in terms of six dimensions: interestingness, educational, socio-culture, emotional sentiment, descriptiveness, and originality of region of tourism spots. In addition, strength relationship was measured with eight items and relationship strength was measured with two items. Data were conveniently collected from 185 visitors to Busan on November 2010. Results showed that four dimensions of storytelling attributes(i.e., interestingness, educational, socio-culture, emotional sentiment1) made significant impacts on the lovemark. Results also showed that lovemark was likely to intensify the degree of relatedness toward the tourism spots. Implications and limitations of the study were also discussed.
  • 16.

    A study of tourism-related major students' personality and preferred teaching methods relationship: In terms of mediating effects of deep approaches to learning

    김정아 | 2011, 35(4) | pp.317~339 | number of Cited : 4
    Using a sample of 324 tourism major students from two universities in Korea, this study examined the relationship between the personality types, deep approaches to learning and preferred teaching methods. Results showed that there were significant differences of personalities and teaching methods between male and female students. Results also indicated that extraversion and openness to experience personalities had significant influences on the preference of the lecture and discussion type of teaching methods, while agreeableness personality had significant influences on the preference of practical practice, presentation and fieldwork teaching methods. Furthermore, results showed that deep approach to learning had a mediating effect in the relationship between personality types and preferred teaching methods. Implications and future research directions were also discussed.
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