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2011, Vol.35, No.10

  • 1.

    Synthetic Consideration of Urry's Tourist Gaze Theses and it's Criticisms: A View from Eric Cohen's Tourist typology

    박상훈 | Kim SaHun | 2011, 35(10) | pp.13~31 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract
    John Urry's seminal work of 'the tourist gaze' has attracted much attentions from tourism scholars over the last 25 years. Various kinds of criticisms on the tourist gaze were also made by different scholars from different point of view. However, the Urry's original work and the criticisms were limited in the sense that they were all based on a fieldwork of specific country and focused on a certain type of tourist. Based on the Erik Cohen's typology of tourist, this study proposed a more comprehensive model of tourist gaze. According the model, the importance of gaze and behavior might be different from the five types of tourist. For example, to the recreational and diversionary tourists, who travel to a familiar destination of their country, behavior aspects of the travel might be more important than the gaze. The new synthesis also suggested that the power relationship between the gaze of the tourists and local residents might be different among the five different types of tourist. Finally, it proposed external variables that impact on the gaze might among be different among the five types of tourists.
  • 2.

    Differential Location Strategies of Resort Facilities by Consumptive Class

    유광민 | Kim, Nam Jo | 2011, 35(10) | pp.33~55 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Tourist space has been regarded as a space of social class. This study was to investigate consumers' social class based space differentiation strategies of 15 Korean ski resorts. Data for this study were collected using three different methods in 2010: questionnaires survey on resort staffs, visiting homepages and on-site observations. Results of this study showed that the Korean ski resort tended to differentiate their resort space and facilities for different types of consumers. Particularly, the Korean ski resorts had a separate entrance for a facility or space of high social class. In addition, in many cases, the Korean resorts located more expensive and luxurious lodging facilities on a separate place of higher altitude area. Facilities and spaces for high class were also likely to have a better landscape and window view. Results of this study suggested that the location and placement of the ski resort facilities might be the result of consumers' social class based differentiation strategies of Korean ski resorts. The strategies might reinforce the class identity of resort consumers and stimulate their consume desire.
  • 3.

    A Review of Tourism Event Research Papers: 30 Years of Journal of Tourism Sciences

    손선미 | Kyongmo Lee | 2011, 35(10) | pp.57~72 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    The tourism event research has also become an important area of study in the field of tourism sciences. Using a content analysis of tourism event related papers, which appeared on the Journal of Tourism Sciences in the last 30 years, this study aimed to analyze the trend of tourism event research in Korea and provide future research directions. 158 research papers, which were related to the major types of tourism event were selected from the journal. Findings showed that in terms of the numbers of papers, the tourism event research have rapidly grown(i.e., 10 papers in the 1980's, 26 papers in the 1990's, and 122 papers in the 2000's). Findings also revealed that research method used for tourism event research has been significantly changed from qualitative(70% in 1980's) to quantitative(78.5% in 2000's). Results also indicated that over the last 30 years the subject area of the tourism event research has been diversified and that the most popular subject were visitor behavior, event operations, event marketing, policy and economic impact. Future research directions and limitation of the study were discussed at the end.
  • 4.

    Templestay Experiences and Effects: A Qualitative Study

    Chun, Byung-gil | 정윤조 | 2011, 35(10) | pp.73~96 | number of Cited : 30
    Abstract PDF
    Templestay, as a traditional Korean cultural tourism resource, might provide beneficial experiences and socio-psychological effects to its' participants. Using a qualitative research method, this study explored the templestay participants' experiences and the socio-psychological effects of the experiences. Data were collected from a focus group interview with 27 participants of four different templestay programs from January to March 2009. Results showed that nature, buddhist monks, buddhism ritual and life, and cultural events sparked the participant's templestay experiences. Results also indicated that the experience dimensions of the templestay participants included interaction with nature, self-development, education, and relaxation. Furthermore, results of this study revealed three different aspects of short term templestay effects(i.e., affective competency, cognitive competency, social competency). Findings from this study also suggested that from a short term perspective, templestay might contributed the participants' personal growth(improvement of the personal competency). But it also might contribute to the participants' quality of life improvement from a long term perspective.
  • 5.

    Leisure Desire and Leisure Behavior of the Married Korean-Chinese Immigrant Women

    김미옥 | KIM MIN JOO | 2011, 35(10) | pp.97~120 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract
    This study explored the characteristics of leisure desire and leisure behavior of married Korean-Chinese immigrant women through a qualitative research. Data were collected from 13 Korean-Chinese immigrant women, two Chinese immigrant women and two staffs of a multi-culture association through an individual in-depth interview, a focus group interview and a semi-structured survey. Ground theory method was used for the data analysis. Results showed that strong achievement motivation of the married Korean-Chinese immigrant women made their leisure desire dislocate. It was also discovered that the married Korean-Chinese immigrant women had nature of slant on leisure due to their own unique motives for immigration and strong achievement motivation. Moreover, it was found out that as married Korean-Chinese immigrant women become adapted to Korea, they tended to revitalize their leisure desire by having psychological composure and seeking their own solution to satisfy leisure desire. Finally, it was identified that married Korean-Chinese immigrant women regarded leisure as the time for preparing their successful diaspora.
  • 6.

    Administrative Measure for Jeju Tourism Development based on Behavior Analysis on Chinese People

    Noh,Hyung-Nam | 2011, 35(10) | pp.121~146 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Recent tourism statistics shows that out of 2 million Chinese inbound tourists, 8..7% prefer Jeju to Hawaii or Maladive as a tourist destination. Based on a thick description on Chinese people's behavior characteristics, this study suggests some administrative measures for Jeju tourism development. From a theoretical point of view, this study relies on institutionalism which focuses on the role of government and market economy in tourism development. Reviews of related literature on Chinese people's cultural characteristics yields four key words of Chinese people's behavior characteristics: social tie, true friendship, leisurely conversation, good foods with good people. Based on the findings of these ethnographic characteristics of Chinese people, as a administrative measure for Jeju tourism development, this study suggests to enclose fortified confucianism with the concept of true friendship for counter-studying abroad. It also proposes to develop a cultural tourism space where Chinese people could appreciate slow life style and leisurely conversation with good food in the midst of world-wide well-known natural scenery and snow of Jeju. Finally, this study suggests to develop a luxury water-bar furnished with pure water produced in Jeju Island for medical tourism.
  • 7.

    A Comparative Study of Story Structure between Travel Novel "『ulliver's Travels』 and 『Around the World in Eighty Days』

    Young-Kwan Lee | KEUNSOO PARK | Lee, Dong-mi | 2011, 35(10) | pp.147~160 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Travel novel is a novel based on the travel process, and its story structure is various and complex contrasting to a simple travel story. This study analyze story structure of two popular travel literatures by Jules Verne: 『Gulliver's Travels』by Jonathan Swift, and 『Around the World in Eighty Days』. It also propose a desired direction of travel novel genre based on the analysis. According to the study results, both travel novels show different social message implying different social atmosphere. The writing style of the novels is also contrasting. The writing style of 『Gulliver's Travels』is satirical, fantastic, and metaphorical as compared with that of 『Around the World in Eighty Days』as straightforward, realistic, and logical. The study suggests there is a common ground between the novels in that they have the same travel story structure that the main characters return to their home in the end after travelling strange areas. Some study implications are suggested.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Crisis Management Strategies based on the Tourism Crisis Typology

    유지윤 | 2011, 35(10) | pp.161~178 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    Tourism is sensitive to different kinds of crisis as it has been seen in the case of 9·11, tsunami, recent radiation rise in Japan. In the context, the importance of tourism crisis management has been emphasized. This research was performed to build a crisis management strategies based on the types of tourism crisis. Review of related literature suggested seven different types of tourism crisis: tourism cooperation management crisis, natural disaster, traveller's security crisis, political crisis, economic crisis, disease and hygienic crisis and technology crisis. Out of the seven crisis, this study suggested crisis management strategies for five public crisis including natural disaster, travellers' security crisis, political crisis, economic crisis, and disease and hygienic crisis. Particularity, the five aspects of crisis management strategies were examined in terms of proactive strategies and reactive strategies. Limitations and future research directions were also discussed.
  • 9.

    Differentiation between Social Class Leisure Consumption in Korea: By Focusing on Art and Culture

    한교남 | Han, Beom-Soo | 2011, 35(10) | pp.181~199 | number of Cited : 24
    Abstract
    Bourdieu's cultural capital theory suggests that the upper class prefer only upscale leisure consumption in order to ‘distinguish’ them from the lower class. In contrast, Peterson's omnivore theory propose that the upper class has wider range of leisure consumption than the lower class has. In other words, according the omnivore theory, the upper class is likely to consume both upscale and popular style of leisure, while the lower class is likely to consume only popular leisure style. Using a secondary national survey data on Korean people's art and culture consumption, this study empirically examined which of the two theories were more appropriate to modern Korean society. Results showed that overall the upper class preferred upscale types of art and culture, while the lower class preferred popular culture. However, results also indicated that the upper class participated not only upscale types of art and culture but they also actively participated in popular culture such as movie watching. Results of this study show that omnivore theory is more appropriate in understanding social class based leisure consumption in Korean society.
  • 10.

    Relationships of Marital Discords and Leisure Experience: Sexual Difference? or Personality's Difference?

    Ko, Dong Woo | 2011, 35(10) | pp.201~222 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    This study aimed to explore diverse relational patterns between marital discords and perceived leisure experience. In particular, it focused on the moderating effects of gender and leisure identity which works between the variables as a personality . As dependent variables, marital discords driven psychological leisure experiences were conceptualized in terms of four dimensions: escape, deviation, resistance, and harmony-seeking. Based on a review of related literature five research hypotheses were developed and all five hypotheses were empirically tested using the survey data from 1,073 Korean sample(i.e., husbands 543 Vs. wives 530). Results empirically supported all the five hypotheses. More specifically, results showed that the effects of marital discords on perceived leisure experience were significantly moderated by sex and leisure identity. It was also found that wives seek for more hazardous leisure experience than husbands do, when marital discords increased. But the possibility was lessened as leisure identity strengthened. The conclusion included limitation and implications of this study, discussions, and future researches.
  • 11.

    Strategic Perspectives for the Korean Casino Industrybased on Setting up Domestic, Citizen-permitted Casino

    오용수 | 2011, 35(10) | pp.223~246 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Recent success of Singapore and Macao's large casino complex development showed the potential of the casino industry as a strategic industry of a country. Using the delphi-technique, this study was to examine the strategic polices for developing more citizen allowed casinos in Korea. Data were collected from 23 casino industry and policy specialists in 2010. Results suggested several strategic polices for developing more citizen allowed casinos in Korea. First, the respondents were likely to agree that large integrated casino complex should be considered for developing a internationally competitive casino. They also suggested that online gambling should be restricted before permitting more citizen allowed casino development in Korea. Regarding the time period for approval and expansion of more citizen-allowed casinos in Korea, the respondents tended to agree that the national per capital income should be over 30,000 dollars. Moreover, the respondents were likely to think that more citizen allowed casino in Korea could be considerable as far as more than half of the Korean people are in favor of the citizen-allowed casinos. Finally, Jeju was selected as the best location of a new citizen allowed casino, and it was followed by Saemangeum in Jeonbuk and Haenam in Jeonnam.
  • 12.

    The Relationships between Boredom Relief Leisure Behaviour and Health/Wellbeing: Focusing on Australian Young Adults

    한지숙 | 2011, 35(10) | pp.247~266 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This study was to explore the kinds of leisure behaviour activities that young adults participate to relieve boredom. It also examined the relationships between young adults choice of leisure activities and their perceived levels of health and wellbeing. Data were collected from 443 Australian university students in Brisbane Australia using the internet survey method. Results identified eight different kinds of boredom relief leisure activities of the respondents: active-social, work-related, creative, sports-physical, casual, passive-technology, passive-home, outdoor-travel. Results revealed gender differences in terms of the types of leisure that the respondents participate to relieve boredom. Moreover, results found significant positive or negative relationships between the types of leisure activities that the respondents participate and their perceived levels of health and wellbeing. Specifically, sports-physical activity participation turned out to be the most influential variable in explaining the respondents' perceived health. Practical implications of the study were also discussed.
  • 13.

    Constructs of Cultural Heritage Interpretation and Analysis of Interpretation Delivery Process

    배기철 | 신학진 | 김영성 | 2011, 35(10) | pp.267~290 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This study investigated the components of cultural heritage interpretation and analyzed the cultural interpretation delivery process. Based on a review of related literature, this study developed a structural model between visitors' experiences of four different dimensions of cultural interpretation, visitor satisfaction and revisit intention. In order to examine the causal relationship between the theoretical constructs, data were conveniently collected from 240 visitors of Jeonju Hanok Village. Results showed that three dimensions of the interpretation factors(i.e. informative and educational, easy to follow, entertaining factors) positively affected kindness of the interpreters. Results also indicated that the three factors did not directly but indirectly affect the interpretation satisfaction via the kindness factor. Moreover, findings showed that the respondents' satisfaction on the interpretation turned out to be a significant predictor of their revisit intention. In conclusion, the interpretation delivery process verified in this study could be summarized as follows: Three heritage interpretation factors → kindness factor → interpretation satisfaction → behavioral intention.
  • 14.

    The Effect Influenced by Behavioral Interview Training for Undergraduates Looking for a Job

    Eui-Jin Han | 2011, 35(10) | pp.291~310 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to test if a behavior interviewing training of tourism major students influences on their interviewing behavior. Based on a review of related literature, the interviewing behavior was conceptualized in terms of verbal communication, articulative communication, and nonverbal communication Data for this study was collected from 64 airline service major students at K college and pre-to-post test was used to examined the effects of behavior interview training on the three dimensions of the students interviewing behaviors. The result of this study showed that the behavioral interview training significantly enhanced interviewee’s verbal, articulative and nonverbal communication skills. Results of this study also suggest that additional skills such as mock interview, role play, and feed back by visual data such as viewing interviewee’s own mock interview should be included in the training.
  • 15.

    Asymmetric Effect of Attribute Level Service Performance on Overall Satisfaction

    Lee, injae | 2011, 35(10) | pp.311~327 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of the study was to provide additional thoughts to the traditional satisfaction study conceptualizing the asymmetry relationship between perceived performance and overall satisfaction. The total 423 valid samples were collected during 2008 High Seoul Festival Period. One of the major findings was the non-linear nature of relationship between perceived performance and satisfaction. Further, this study also found the differences in the magnitude of effects on satisfaction among individual attributes. Finally, study implications were summarized in theoretical, methodological, and practical perspectives.
  • 16.

    The Analysis of Relationships between the Residents' the Community Attachment and their Perceptions on Modern Cultural Heritage

    Hoosuk Lee | 2011, 35(10) | pp.329~345 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    Author examined the relationships between residents’ community attachment and their perceptions on modern cultural heritage. The analysis was from 280 questionnaires returned by residents of Joong-Ku of Incheon on May 2011. A factor analysis on 3 items(identity, dependence, rootedness) of residents’ community attachment and 2 items(tourism commodification, heritage conservation) of residents’ perceptions on modern cultural heritage was made. The results showed that there were canoncial correlation between residents’ community attachment(identity, dependence, rootedness) and residents’ perception on modern cultural heritage(tourism commodification, heritage conservation). Other results suggested that residents’ community attachment(identity, dependence, rootedness)made an effect on residents’ perception on modern cultural heritage(tourism commodification) and the one(identity, dependence) affected the other(heritage conservation).
  • 17.

    Appearance of Korean Tourism Industry: During the Enlightenment and Japan-ruling Era

    한경수 | 2011, 35(10) | pp.349~369 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    This article was written with TOSOK's effort to trace and document the history of the tourism industry in Korea which includes the Enlightenment Era(1870-1910) and the Japan-ruling period(1910-1945) for the first time as a part of Korea's tourism history. The former era saw the first advent of steamships and trains in Korean history. Trains made travel faster than ever and the steamships foreigners' travel to Korea possible. A few first modern hotels were built in Jemulpo(Incheon) due to the arrival of Hundreds of foreign psychocentric travellers. The first modern foundation of the Korean tourism industry was established during the latter era with the 1st travel agency and guides, modern hotels like Chosun Hotel, large and modern ocean steamships and high-speed trains, etc. These also made travel guide books published, travel tickets issued, travel advertisements put in magazines, travel movies cranked, travel informations contained in the newspapers for the first time in Korea. So it may be possible to call the Enlightenment Era a sprouting time and the Japan-ruling period a founding time in the history of the Korean tourism industry.
  • 18.

    A Study of Tourism Educational Institution in Korea: Focused on the Emergence and Development Process of Tourism Educational Institution

    Kyuwhan Choi | 2011, 35(10) | pp.371~383 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    40 years have passed since tourism educational institution established in Korea. Tourism education has evolved so much quantitatively as well as qualitatively. However many numbers of researchers point out that it is needed to establish the body of knowledge and standardization of curriculum of tourism. By promoting the importance of tourism education, it is necessary to examine the emergence and development process of tourism educational institution. This study suggests the necessities of the variety of tourism education, development program of industry-university cooperation and the introduction of tourism education accreditation.
  • 19.

    The History of the Hotel Industry in Korea

    Chung, Kyoo Yup | 2011, 35(10) | pp.385~401 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    It is essential and important to enlighten history in each and every academe as well as industry field. Development and growth of the hotel industry in Korea and worldwide, in parallel have contributed much for enhancing economic and socio-cultural life of human being. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to trace and verify historical highlights and millstones of the hotel industry in Korea. Before liberalization of Korea, opening backgrounds, synopsis of facilities, and symbolic meaning for such representative hotels as Daebul, Sontak, Chosun(Chuldo), and Bando are introduced. After that time, same subjects of best representative hotels in every decade are introduced. Finally, anticipatory roles and futuristic challenges are suggested.
  • 20.

    Development and History in Food Service Industry

    Chong,Yu-kyeong | 2011, 35(10) | pp.403~418 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract
    In the prehistory of foodservice industry after Korean-War, diet-life of people lied in poor surroundings. After Korea gained independence, as the economy developed, the people's diet improved as well. The foodservice industry had also improved until now. This conceptual paper will discuss how the foodservice industry has historically changed and developed over the last five decades. The author divided the last 50years into six different stages; embryonic, introduction, high-growth, stagnation, low-growth, and transition. Until the year of 1974, the foodservice industry was in its embryonic stage. Between 1975 and 1985, it was in the introduction stage. Thirdly, from 1986 to 1995, it met high-growth period and after that it suffered hardship until 1999. It was a so-called stagnation stage. The foodservice industry faced low-growth but steady period up until 2008 and it has reached a transition period now.
  • 21.

    The History and Assignment of Korea Tourism Information

    WooHee Byun | 2011, 35(10) | pp.419~434 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    This study is the qualitative research focusing on how tourism information has been formulated and what is the responsive task of tourism information of Kore in the future. To begin with, this study unfolds the tourism history of Western world as they took advantage of using the computer earlier than Korea. Similarly, the study examines the on and off-line tourism history at that time in Korea. It is generally divided into a case study and the age of the Western world, and then spreaded out in the form of discussing and analysing of the tourism information age in Korea since 1950. Especially, the tourism information in Korea has been developed with the advent of the computer and the internet just like in the Western world. The study further attempts to focus on some critical issues as a result of a definite development in the field of tourism information of Korea in the 1990s.
  • 22.

    The History and Future Response for Institution and Development of Legal Tourism Site in Korea

    Ko, Dong-Wan | 권인택 | 2011, 35(10) | pp.435~450 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to explore the history and future responses for the institution and development of legal tourism sites in Korea. The history of legal tourism sites was examined through the approach of case studies. The data was collected from the official institutions such as Korea National Tourism Organization and Korean Culture & Tourism Institute. And it was arranged chronological change of tourism destination policies and the state of legal tourism sites. As a result, a few weaknesses was discovered when the government selected a legal tourism site and developed it. Therefore, this study suggests that government should establish obvious criteria of development and carry out efficient management, continuous investment, and involvement of regional residents for more improvement of condition of legal tourism site.
  • 23.

    History of the Casino Industry in South Korea

    Lee Choong-Ki | 2011, 35(10) | pp.451~464 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    The purpose of this paper is to overview the casino industry in South Korea and suggest future trends. The first casino-related law traces back to 1961, but modern casinos are regulated by the Tourism Development Law as one of the tourism businesses in 1994. In 1967 the Olympos casino was first opened in Incheon in order to provide foreign tourists with entertainment, and in the following year the Walker-hill casino was opened in Seoul. In 2000 Kangwon Land casino was opened as the first casino for Korean nationals. Currently 16 casinos operate for foreign visitors, and they attracted 1.9 million foreign visitors with expenditures of US$ 882 million in 2010. Kangwon Land operates for domestic and foreign visitors and attracted 3 million total visitors with expenditures of US$ 1.1 billion. Integrated resort (IR) casinos similar to those recently built in Singapore are expected to be a major trend in the future. Also, responsible gambling strategies should be emphasized in the casino industry as code of ethics to protect casino visitors.
  • 24.

    A Study on the Future Strategies of Developing Resorts in Korea based on the Classification of Resort Generation

    Tae-Hee Lee | 2011, 35(10) | pp.465~480 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    This study focuses on the pattern of revolutionary change of resorts developed in Korea. Based on the analysis of the type and characteristics found from the existing resorts, future forecasting which will suggest appropriate resort developing strategies for demand of next generation of leisure and tourism in Korea.. For environmental consideration eco-related resorts are likely to be a major part of resort brand production which will prevent severe negative impact from physical development. Eco-resorts will protect nature-side benefits of visitors from high-impact of drastic change of environment, whether they are on site or potential users. The other option for future development type is culture-oriented resort which will provide.
  • 25.

    History of Korean Festival: Focusing on the Modern and Contemporary History

    Lee, Hoon | 김미정 | 2011, 35(10) | pp.481~499 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to analyze the history of Korean festival in order for understanding Korean social context and development process in the view of historic perspectives. To achieve the objective, this study mainly focused on the historical festival context that how Korean festivals’ changed as a cultural organism and how to reflect the social conditions. According to the study, modern and contemporary history of Korean festival is divided into totally 4 periods. Each period includes ‘1960`s~mid-1970`s: revival of traditional culture’, ‘late 1970`s~1980`s: restoration of local culture,’ ‘1990`s~mid-2000`s: quantitative growing period’, and ‘since mid-2000`s: issue of qualitative growth’. This flow of historical context reflects our lives and communication.
  • 26.

    Policy Actions to Develop Korea's Tourism Transportation Industry: Lessons from the Past and Prospects for the Future

    김경숙 | 2011, 35(10) | pp.501~516 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Historically, Korea has experienced much suffering and forbearance, including invasions and annexation by the Japanese Empire in the first half of the 20th century; and country’s current territorial division. Despite periods of occupation and disturbance, Korea’s tourism transportation industry has evolved and grown significantly. This study suggests a policy plan to cope with the country’s future environment by considering both the history and present condition of the tourism transportation industry. If organizations within various industries and the government, academic circles, and civil assemblies can endeavor to collaborate cooperatively, the future of the tourism transportation industry will help elevate Korea’s position as an important economic power in Asia and beyond.
  • 27.

    Historical Review on Korean Convention Industry

    김철원 | 허준 | 2011, 35(10) | pp.517~533 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract
    The article reviewed historical development of Korean convention industry in terms of policy framework, infrastructure, alliance and human resource. Policy development regarding the convention industry has been systematically made to keep up with world trends for fostering the convention industry which is a high value added and knowledge based industry. As well. convention infrastructure and venues were dramatically developed to accommodate higher number of international conferences and exhibitions which have contributed to enhancing national image as a convention destination. As intermediaries of the convention industry, PCO and CVB have been created across the country. Furthermore, to produce operational excellence of convention cities, MICE alliances have been established around cities in Korea. MICE alliances will make a great contribution to inceasing efficiency and effectiveness of the convention industry. Above all, human resources have been fostered in establishing convention related educational institutions and in providing certified system for convention experts.