This paper has examined variances in social distance perceptions toward Islamic foods as derived from restructured media sources. Recent history of Islamic-based terrorism has given rise to increased perception of threat towards multiculture. In order to describe the relations between Korea and middle eastern countries, a hypothetical newspaper was created through eight messages, based on both negative and positive coverages. It total, 236 visitors at the Itaewon Special Tourist Zone were surveyed. The statistical techniques for data analysis were t-test and two-way ANOVA(Analysis of Variance). The results indicated that those people who had a positive attitude for cultural diversity demonstrated higher social acceptability toward Islamic foods. In contrast, the higher ethno-nationalism was proportionate to the increasement of Islamic foods' repulsion. The research confirmed that the events of 9/11, followed by the kidnapping of Kim, Sun-Il incited reduced inclination towards Islamic foods. Conversely, the Korean Wave in East Asia had a positive effect on the social distance perceptions toward Islamic foods.
Social enterprises have amassed numerous special interests in a wide range on various fields in South Korea. This article explores the potential for social enterprise opportunities in the context of tourism development; a topic which has so far rarely been investigated. This study reveals the relationship of tourism with social enterprises in the context of the emergent trends of New Tourism and community-based tourism; both of which have addressed the concepts and characteristics of social enterprise. This study purports that a social enterprise, when effectively marketed and managed, can be a suitable vehicle for the promotion of tourism's social responsibility management and the viability of a community-based tourism. The research additionally ascertained is the importance for social enterprises in the field of tourism to be aware of tourists' consumption patterns, the socially weak as well as the numerous interest groups and shareholders amongst the community. Lastly, this study discuss the opportunities for the promotion of creative social entrepreneurs in the field of tourism.
The purpose of this study is to compare the construct equivalence and latent means of destination attractiveness elements between tourists occupying a higher level of destination familiarity and those with a lower level of destination familiarity. Multi-Group Analysis(MGA) on structural equation modeling is first performed to test configural, metric, and scalar invariances between the two groups. Latent Mean Analysis(LMA) is conducted to capture the mean differences of attractiveness variables after the three invariance tests between the two groups are obtained. In addition, a structural relationship between destination attractiveness elements and tourist satisfaction is determined and reported. Results of the study confirm the positive relationship between the three destination attractiveness elements(attraction, convenience, service) and tourist satisfaction and show that tourists with a greater level of familiarity have significantly higher latent mean values of convenience and service factors than those who have lesser familiarity except for the mean value of the attraction factor. Overall, findings of this study enrich theoretical development on destination attractiveness offering important implication for tourist destination marketers.
This study is aimed to provide public and private sector tourism marketers and service providers with a behavior and characteristics based segmentation strategy framework for Chinese tourists visiting South Korea. A sample of 1,169 extracted from the Korean Tourism Organization’s 2009 International Visitor Survey data was used to segment Chinese tourists into several groups based on the socio-economic characteristics of the individual tourists, the travel purpose and types of travel. Results of this study showed that the both young and female Chinese tourists preferred shopping and sophisticated cultural experiences in preference to visitation to outdoor natural beauty settings and relaxation. Additionally, young and female tourists preferred the Internet as their travel information source but those above 46 years of age and males preferred to use a travel agency. Based on the results, practical management and marketing policy strategies to cater towards the Chinese tourist attractions were identified and suggested in the concluding section on the article.
Much discussion on the impact of tourism has been mainly focused on its positive side, while neglecting its negative side in recent research. Sensitivity towards environmental concerns has become pervasive and brings with it the concept of Fair Tourism, which concerns the ethical consumption by tourists. Fair tourism advocates consumption that returns tourism revenue to the host community. In a broader sense, it means fairness in tourism consumption to respect for the environment and culture of the local people. Although the notion of Fair Tourism has been recognized widely, research on Fair Tourism remains limited. The results of this study reveal that personal value and ethical consumption have positive effects on cognition of Fair Tourism and behavioral intentions. The finding thus recommended that positive message regarding economic, environmental, and other benefits of Fair Tourism should be widely disseminated in order to maximize benefits while minimizing negative impacts of tourism to the host community and to create demand for Fair Tourism
In this study on Green Health Tourism Products in Kangwon Province, Mongolian medical tourists were examined as prospective consumer along with providers such as medical tourism agencies, health and service sectors to obtain a better awareness of suitability and the divergence of cognition between consumers and providers concerning medical tourism product development. The results of the paired sample t-test indicate that there is no significant difference in propensity for aroma therapy, medical treatment, herbal food tasting, hot springs(Spa), atopic dermatitis treatment, Oriental Experience, and weight management. As it pertains to the appropriateness of tourism program configuration related to Medical Tourism Programs in Gangwon Province, there is little difference in perception between Mongolians and medical tourism companies on the forest and spa tourism program items respectively. The findings indicate that medical tourism products, in conjunction with forest and spa tourism program enable the region to better attract domestic and foreign medical tourists.
The purpose of this study is to reveal how 3 factors which are Influence of satisfaction, perception and importance of Oriental medical Tourism is effective on Revisit intention through the Oriental Medical Experience. The result of this study are listed. First, entertainment and deviation factors among the oriental medical experience factors influenced satisfaction of oriental medical tourism. Second, There are no relation between factors on oriental medical experience and perception of oriental medical tourism. Third, entertainment, education, deviation and esthetics factors influenced importance of oriental medical tourism. And also, education factor influenced negatively on importance of oriental medical tourism. Satisfaction of oriental medical tourism influenced intention to revisit, intention of oriental medical tourism didn't influence on intention to revisit. Today, there are limited studies on oriental medical tourism. Thus, as figuring out desire and behavior, this study may be used basic material for making program of oriental medical experience.
This goal of study is to enquire how tourism correlates with a country’s image as indicated in recent marketing literature, a majority of tourists will rely one’s image of a country rather than the travel itself or one’s economic benefit from the travel. The purpose of this study is to verify the effect that a country’s image has upon tourist attitudes and behavioral intentions. In this aim, the targets of the survey were Chinese tourists which comprise a large majority of Jeju foreign tourists as per the results released by the Korea Tourism Organization and Jeju Tourism Association in 2009. The results of the study indicate that, as long as there is an interdependent and complementary relationship among the country image, the tourist destination attitude and tourist behavioral intentions, cooperation and diversified efforts are required to induce positive attitudes and behavioral intentions of tourists. As tourist destination attitudes are very important factors for tourist behavioral intentions, efforts to increase favorable perceptions of destinations are required as a means of create greater visitation demand.
This study was conducted to examine the effect relationship among previously identified flow constructs (challenge, skill, focused attention, playfulness, positive affect, and time distortion) as they influence the perception and experience of adventure tourism activities. The results of the study elicited some implications: After examining relationship among the antecedent variables (challenge, skill, and focused attention), the relevant variables (playfulness) and the consequent variables (positive affect, and time distortion), most of relationships among constructs of flow experience demonstrated statistical significance. All attributes represented a positive correlation with the exception of only one construct; skill and playfulness. Additionally, playfulness was found to be a mediating variable to connect antecedent variables and consequent variables of flow experience. This outcome supports our findings that playfulness is academically the core variable in flow experience. Findings which also offer implications for tourism practitioners in the adventure tourism market.
The purpose of this study is to examine the motivation for duty free shopping along with the reported satisfaction variances as they relate to demographic characteristics of Chinese tourists. Additionally, the study attempted to explore how differing levels of motivation for duty free shopping had an effect on overall shopping satisfaction. To satisfy the research objectives, a theoretical study related to motivation for shopping motivation and satisfaction of tourists was reviewed and hypothesis was proposed based on the findings of previous academic literature. Data were collected from 263 Chinese tourists; all of whom having had duty free shopping experiences during their travel to Jeju Island. The results show that there are statistically significant differences in duty free shopping motivation and satisfaction according to differing demographic characteristics. In addition, duty previous motivation for partaking in duty free shopping corresponded with differing levels of shopping satisfaction experienced. Based on the study results, implications and future study directions were suggested.
This study is aimed at introducing System Dynamics as a Stochastic Method and introducing a phased app219lication for financial feasibility analysis according to the analytic procedure of system dynamics, in order to apply it to tourism. System Dynamics is a research method which focuses on predicting a pattern of growth or change by describing interrelation among factors causing the changes. Procedure of construction and analysis of System Dynamics Model is divided to five phases: (1) to perceive and define problem and set boundary of system model; (2) to draw a map of causality which conceptualize the problem at the view of feed-back; (3) to construct qualitative model based on the map of causality, so that we may simulate it on computer; (4) to review feasibility of simulation model so constructed. (5) to analyze the model so constructed. Application of system dynamics in the financial feasibility analysis of tourism development project can include factors which have been presupposed or omitted in the traditional methods into the model, and various alternatives can be suggested in which we set stochastic range value as input value by better predicting uncertainty through the model.
Jeju has been a representative province in tourism since 1970s. With a massive influx of external investment capital, there have been ceaseless conflicts over the process of tourism development in Jeju among the interested parties such as local governments, public and private organizations, and local communities. The findings provided not only theoretical foundations of an endogenous community tourism development which induces the residents to manage and participate in tourism development and makes the interested parties understand the local community during the process of planning, promoting and policy-making tourism development, but also implications and directions for more desirable and sustainable tourism development improving the quality of their lives and preserving the local identity and environment. It is necessary to provide the local residents with various educational programs continuously for the local residents to inspire community attachment and local patriotism so that they can be the driving force of a small and medium-sized tourism development.
The study aims to identify the factors influencing rural tourism operators' motivation as a entrepreneurship. On-site survey was conducted for entrepreneurs in the rural tourism communities with self-administered questionnaires. The survey was obtained from 293 questionnaires in the study area. A factor-clustering method identified three distinct segments; low motivated (32.9%), lifestyle and utilize resource (27.7%), and increase income (39.4%). The estimation of a Multinominal logistic regression model determines the characteristics of rural tourism entrepreneurs who are most likely to opt for each type of motivation of participating for rural tourism business. Results indicated that The most important determinants on motivation of participating for rural tourism business were 'farm size', ‘main crop’, 'type of tourism business.' The motivational aspect of entrepreneurs should be considered for rural tourism development.
It is known that diverse elements such as constraints, negotiation efforts, motivations, and participation are intricately interconnected to each other in the travel constraints negotiation process. Previous studies that investigated the decision-making framework for travel participation have paid little attention to people with disabilities although this group presumably perceives travel constraints differently and adopts distinctive patterns of negotiation efforts. Accordingly, we made use of Korean people with disabilities as our study population to examine formative relationships among those important elements in the travel constraints negotiation mechanism. This study also proposed a conceptual framework based on Hubbard and Mannell’s (2001) constraint- effects-mitigation model. Results indicate that Korean people with disabilities often faced distinctive types of travel constraints and employed various cognitive negotiations strategies for their travel participation. More importantly, their travel constraint negotiation mechanism seemed to be considerably different from that of individuals without disabilities. Findings from this study lead to several management implications that enable people with disabilities to facilitate their negotiation efforts.
This study aims to examine the impact of social capital on elements including knowledge management, job satisfaction and organizational commitment on hotel food and beverage employees. Additionally, the study aims to provide strategic management materials which are useful for hotel managers and service marketing business. The results from the surveys conducted indicate the following; First, perceived social capital from the food and beverage employees may be classified into a group of categories comprising terms such as trust, participation, network and norm; Second, trust, participation and network indicate a positive influence on knowledge management; Third, trust, participation and network contribute a positive influence on job satisfaction and organizational commitment; and Fourth, knowledge management. conveys a positive influence on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The findings further support priority for enhanced employee engagement as means of satisfying enhanced job satisfaction and performance.
This study identified the effect of hotel brand equity on the customer's preference and satisfaction for hotel brands and pursued to compare the evaluation of hotel brand equity between individualist and collectivist consumer groups. Results confirmed that customer preference for hotel brands was significantly influenced by brand equity factors such as ‘attachment’ and ‘social image’, over factors of 'value' and 'performance'. In addition, the factor of customer preference for hotel had a great impact on guest satisfaction. The examination of whether two groups are identical or not, individualist and collectivist, revealed that there was no significant difference between the group classifications. The results further indicated that customers; either individualist or collectivist) are no different in understanding hotel sphere, like as a result of the standardization of modern service deliver. It's not useful, therefore, for the hotel businesses to conduct the marketing strategy through market segmentation of individualism and collectivism from the cultural perspectives. It is suggested in stead that demographic or lifestyle-related segmentation be pursued.
This research presents a customer relationship marketing strategics and verifies a comprehensive approach of mediating effects of relationship volition & trust to integrate customer relationship marketing for a hotel business model. Regression analysis was used to test the relationship variables, key variables, customer immersion and also to test the mediation effects of relationship volition and trust between relationship variables and customer immersion. Data were obtained from 244 hotel users in the Seoul Metropolitan area. The empirical findings of this study are: Firstly, relationship discontinuance cost affects relationship volition; Secondly, contact intensity affects trust; Thirdly, trust affects relationship volition; Fourth, relationship volition affects customer immersion; Fifth, trust affects customer immersion; Sixth, relationship volition has fully mediating effects between relationship discontinuance cost and customer immersion; Seventh, trust has no mediating effects between contact intensity and customer immersion.