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2012, Vol.36, No.2

  • 1.

    Forecasting Tourism Demand Using Feasibility Rates(Gruber and Self-Confidence Indices): The Case of Potential Expo Visitors

    Lee Choong-Ki | Seolmin Yoon | 2012, 36(2) | pp.11~29 | number of Cited : 9
    Forecasting demand for mega-events is prerequisite for event managers since accurate demand is necessary to determine supply for mega-events. In this respect, the purpose of this study is to compare three types of forecasting methods when predicting demand for Expo visitors. These forecasting methods include 1) forecasts with willingness-to-visit(WTV), 2) forecasts with WTV+Gruber index, and 3) forecasts with WTV+Self-confidence index. The last two methods reflect feasibility rate. To this end national surveys were conducted to residents of 16 metropolitan cities and provinces using telephone and internet surveys. The results indicate that approximately 25 million Expo visitors were predicted by method 1(forecasts with WTV only), 10 million visitors were predicted by method 2(forecasts with WTV+Gruber index), and 18 million visitors were predicted by method 3(forecasts with WTV+Self-confidence index). The findings imply that forecasts with willingness-to-visit only overestimated Expo visitors as compared to such forecasts with feasibility rate as Gruber and Self-confidence indices. Thus, the findings of this study will provide researchers and event managers with appropriate forecasting method when predicting demand for mega-events.
  • 2.

    Promotion of Inbound Tourism Utilizing the K-pop Neo Korean Wave

    이원희 | Kim, Sung-Jin | 2012, 36(2) | pp.31~56 | number of Cited : 26
    This study aims to analyse the main outcomes and limitations of the Korean Wave (Hanryu) related tourism generated by both private and public sectors. The results of interviews are consistent with prior research indicating that Hanryu tourism has contributed to the growth and diversification of inbound tourism market, opportunities to develop high value-added tourism products, motivation for visitiation to rural areas, and overcoming a low-demand season in winter. However, this research also pointed out some challenges for, namely of the absence of a middle and long term plan for an inbound tourism policy, lack of tourism programs and facilities to genuinely experience Hanryu, and overcoming short stay/experience of Hanryu tourism products. From the findings, the following five key suggestions are proposed to promote inbound tourism utilizing the Sin-Hanryu (Neo-Korean Wave) led by K-pop: 1) differentiating tourism marketing by target regions/countries; 2) corresponding to the characteristics and demands of the Hanryu consumers; 3) developing high value-added tourism products utilizing the Hanryu; 4) promoting the Hanryu tourism by use of new media like SNS; and 5) organizing a private-public and a domestic-overseas partnership system for Hanryu tourism.
  • 3.

    An Analysis on the Policy Change of Tour Guide Qualification System Focusing the Power Process of Advocacy Coalitions

    Youn Taek Lee | 김현주 | 2012, 36(2) | pp.57~79 | number of Cited : 12
    This research aims to analyze the political power process affecting the policy change of South Korea’s tour guide qualification system. For this purpose, previous studies on the qualification system, policy change and policy advocacy coalitions were reviewed, and the results of the related researches were discussed. In this study, a research model was developed based on the Advocacy Coalition Framework, which addresses the political power process of advocacy coalitions. A research proposition also was established to identify the influencing factors forming the political power process of advocacy coalitions. Major findings of the research demonstrate that two advocacy coalitions; 'employment-obligation' and 'employment-recommendation', were established and the policy change were made as a result of the resulting power process of these two coalitions. That is, the 'employment-obligation' program was adopted by the coalition of pro-policy change. The findings highlight that this coalition is formed by horizontal networks, reveals shared values and a diversity of strategies. In conclusion, it was suggested that future studies on policy change should employ inclusive approaches covering rational policy change process as well as political power process.
  • 4.

    Segmentation of Tourism Festival Visitors by Experience Realms: Focus on Pine and Gilmore`s Experience Realms

    Lee, Ju-Hyun | GANGHOAN JEONG | 임명재 | 2012, 36(2) | pp.81~100 | number of Cited : 36
    The purpose of this study is to identify the market segmentation of festival visitors according to their experience realms. The study of experience realms for festival visitors was previously by researchers Pine & Gilmore (1999). With the goal of adding further contribution to this approach, a surveys conducted at the Hampyeong Butterfly Festival reveals three main segments which can be categorized as entertainment experience group, education experience group and escapism experience group. Demographic characteristics by each segment reflect strong differences pertaining to age difference and age and identified marital status. As for the festival experience characteristic differences were also found significantly depending on the number of participation programs, travelling companions type and expenditure. And the festival satisfaction of each cluster was found significantly different. In conclusion, this study provides the opportunity to observe and target the experience realms for different market segments. Suggested in the recommendations is that festivals and events such as the Hanpyeong Butterfly festival should consider and pay careful attention to the specific needs and requirements of the different market segments.
  • 5.

    The Effect of Festival Lovemarks on Satisfaction and Behavior Intentions: Focused on SEMs(Strategic Experiential Modules) and Environmental Cues

    Tae-Hee Lee | Oh, Sun Young | 2012, 36(2) | pp.101~118 | number of Cited : 25
    This aim of this study is to suggest criteria for evaluating lovemarks used to measure the emotional relationship between tourists and festival brand, and to examine how lovemarks, developed through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and environmental cues, can influence satisfaction and behavioral intention. In this pursuit, visitors at various regional festivals sanctioned by the South Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism, including the Geumsan Insam Festival, Icheon Rice Cultural Festival, Ceramics Festival of GIMHEA, and the PUSAN International Film Festival, were surveyed. The relationships hypothesized in the model were tested simultaneously by using SEM, and these results could be summarized as follows. First, Strategic Experiential Modules and Environmental cues show positive effects on Lovemarks β=.797, β=.213). Second, lovemarks on satisfaction (β=.750) and behavior intention (β=.426). Third, satisfaction influences positively on behavior intention (β=.447). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed and future research direction are outlined. Putting the results and implications of this study together, the management of the festival brand should be extended to the area filled with love that can capture consumer's mind.
  • 6.

    Effect of Low-Carbon Environmental Information on Purchase Intention Toward Green Tourism Products

    Joungkoo Park | Kim, Myung-Sik | 2012, 36(2) | pp.119~139 | number of Cited : 9
    This study investigated the attribute-utility difference in the effects of low-carbon information on purchase intentions of green tourism products. This study also examined a variation of environmental consequences might incline subjects to choose more environmentally friendly alternatives. In this pursuit, it examined the utility difference by using five determinants such as transportation, lodging facilities, organic food, leisure and resource product. Data were collected through survey of 239 visitors to the Bomum Special Tourist Complex in Gyeongju, South Korea. Conjoint, t analysis, and ANOVA were performed to determine effects of attributes of low-carbon green tourism. As a result of the research, in the same as their purchase intentions toward low-carbon green tourism products prior to disclosure of information on carbon emissions, low-carbon food, food materials, accounting for 27.782%, was regarded the most important. Moreover, as shown in utilities according to attribute levels, the use of carbon-emitting transportation was shown -0.007 and bicycle/walking was shown 0.007, indicating the effect of low-carbon transportation towards purchase intention. This implies that eco-labels promote the choice of environmentally benign alternatives.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Tourism Development Indicators Responding to Climate Change

    Na, Jong Min | Dae Kwan Kim | 2012, 36(2) | pp.141~158 | number of Cited : 11
    The purpose of this study was to determine and build tourism development indicators responding to climate change. Delphi survey and AHP were employed to carry out this study. The attributes of tourism development to respond climate change were analyzed and selected. The importance of each attribute was evaluated, reviewed, and verified, and tourism development indicators were developed to respond climate change. By arranging the tourism development indicators, the importance of each perspective was investigated through AHP. A total of 148 tourism development indicators were drawn to cope with climate changes. Thirty of them were grouped into the field of land use, 30 were in the energy and building, 25 in the transportation, 26 in the recycled resources, and 37 were in the tourism management. The findings are mostly consistent with previous studies in the tourism field, and somewhat consistent with previous studies in architecture and ecological environment. The results could be used as the guideline of effective decision-making for tourism developers. However, this study has limitations relating to the generalization and interpretation because the developed indicators have yet to be objectively evaluated and applied.
  • 8.

    An Study of the Impact of the Residents' Perception toward Walking-tour Course Development on Jeju OIlegil Development Support: A focus on a Moderating Effect of Attachment

    Young A Park | 2012, 36(2) | pp.159~178 | number of Cited : 29
    The purpose of this study is to examine the direct influential relationship between residents' perception (economical, social, cultural, and environmental impacts) toward walking-tour course development and development support, and to investigate whether local resident attachment plays a moderating role in its relationship. A total of 350 questionnaires were distributed to local residents who live in proximately to the 7 and 8 Je-Ju Olle course. The usable 269 samples were analyzed by structural equation modelling analysis. Findings from this study are as follows: First, it is found that there are the significant causal relationships between antecedents(economical․cultural impacts and environmental impact) and consequences support for Ollegil development; Second, support for Ollegil tourism development was not influenced by social impacts; Lastly, it is identified that local attachment has a moderating effect on the relationship between economica and cultural impacts and support for Ollegil development, as well as between environmental impact and its support. The paper concludes with recommendations for sustainable and successful development of walking-tour tourism with theoretical and practical implications discussed.
  • 9.

    Segmentation of Tourist Motivation and the Relationship between the Motivation and Satisfaction: Focusing on the Moderating Effect of Representative List of the World Heritage Site

    Minjae Oh | 2012, 36(2) | pp.179~199 | number of Cited : 25
    The purpose of this study was to better understand visitor segmentation at World Heritage sites based on a visitors motivation profile and the moderating effect of representative list of World Heritage sites. A total 528 valid samples were collected from 11 – 26 September as the Andong Hahoe Folk Village. Data was analyzed with descriptive statistics, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, cross-tab and regression analysis. World Heritage motivation questions measuring the results of factor analysis ‘Cultural Heritage’, ‘Friendly’, ‘Tourist Attraction’, ‘Novelty’ and ‘Escape’ of the five factors were derived from EFA. Cluster analysis of tourist types according to the tourists’ motivations are ‘Escape and Socialization seekers’, ‘Cultural Heritage seekers’, ‘Relaxation seekers’ and ‘Attraction seekers’. In addition, findings indicate that in the relationship between motivation and satisfaction, the results of hierarchial regression analysis which focused on the moderating effect of a representative list of the World Heritage site were that the representative list is evidenced to influence the relationship between tourists’ motivation and satisfaction.
  • 10.

    Travel Motivations of Outbound Free Independent Travelers

    LEE, SANGHOON | Ko, Dong-Wan | 2012, 36(2) | pp.201~220 | number of Cited : 27
    The study investigates the difference of travel motivations with accordance to Free Independent Traveler’s (FIT) carrier as well as how are Pearce’s TCL (Travel Carrier Ladder, 1998) and Ryan’s TCP (Travel Carrier Pattern, 1998) applied to travel motivation investigations. The result’s of the study reveal that FIT’s would travel with mixed motives. Second, in Travel Carrier Pattern, it shows a low correlation to FIT. Third, on the contrary to Self-development motivation of Ryan (1998), the fewer of traveling carrier goes for Host-site involvement and the more of traveling carrier goes for Personal development. Fourth, Autonomy motivation is not verified from the theory of Ryan (1998) and Lee (1998) but, shows it is very high irrespective of traveling carrier. It has a fundamental limit to draw a conclusion with how much travel is done as there are numerous factors influencing travel decisions. None the less, Pearce’s TCL and Ryan’s TCP continue to be persuasive in explaining general travel motivation, and consumer travel decisions made by FIT travelers.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Effect of Psychological Empowerment on the Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction

    Park, Yung-Jin | Yoon Ji-Hwan | 2012, 36(2) | pp.221~240 | number of Cited : 18
    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of psychological empowerment of travel agency employees towards organizational commitment and job satisfaction. To conduct this research, a survey was administered to 413 employees over a two-month interval through in-person data collecting techniques. The results of factor analysis, simple regression analysis and multiple regression analysis indicate that employees working at travel agency are mostly young and highly educated as it is shown in demographical characteristic. Improvement of job environment and system development are needed for young employees working at travel agency as women, in particular, prefer working at travel agency and organization commitment should be promoted by systematically managing psychological empowerment of the employee. This study was conducted to determine the effect of psychological as such as work autonomy, job competence, work significance, management reliability, and management dissatisfaction. In conclusion, managers should endeavor to raise job satisfaction and employee motivation as these characteristics, as evidenced in prior research, have been correlated with overall company performance and profit.
  • 12.

    The Effect of Hotel Employee's Perceived Suitability on Career Development,Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: Focused on Employee of Deluxe Hotel in Jeju

    Jang Jeong Hoon | Moon-Soo Cho | 2012, 36(2) | pp.241~260 | number of Cited : 12
    This research, specific to hotels facing environmental alteration and growth tendency, is focussed on analyzing the influence hotel employees' Perceived Suitability, Career Development, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and then to present the suggestive issues. The outcomes of this research survey are following: First, Perceived Suitability statically made the meaningful influence of Career Development; Second, Perceived Suitability also statically made the meaningful influence of Job Satisfaction; Third, Perceived Suitability meaningfully affected Organizational Commitment with statical impact; Forth, Career Development made the meaningful and statical influence of Job Satisfaction; Fifth, Job Development had the statical and meaningful of Organizational Commitment; and Sixth, Job Satisfaction mane the meaningful and statical influence of Organizational Commitment. Over all, they each criteria represent a significant relationship. The results state that the importance of Employees' Perceived Suitability is one of the important indicators to improve the expeditious personal management and the productivity.
  • 13.

    Differences of Positive WOM and Negative WOM Effects in On-line Tourism Information

    Kim Ga Yoon | Kim Hyun Jung | Jang, Joon Soo | 2012, 36(2) | pp.261~279 | number of Cited : 23
    The purpose of this study was to compare differences of tourism destination's images and attitudes according to the balance of online Word of Mouth (WOM) tourism informations. Data were collected from 167 tourism majors throughout the month of May, 2011. using a static-group collection method and comparison design including two experimental groups and one control group. A preliminary analysis to identify appropriate measurement dimensions including exploratory factor analysis, reliability and validity analysis was conducted, followed by t-test to examine analysis propositions. Through the analysis, five factors of tourism destination's image were identified as follows: cognitive image: tourism infrastructure, tourism activity, tourism environment/ emotional image: active, comfort. The results show that there are significant differences among three groups. Most discernable, the group which had negative information was responded to almost factors strongly rather than the other groups. This result supports a prospect theory. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed based on the results for marketers of the online tourism companies and organizations. Also limitations of the study were discussed.
  • 14.

    A Empirical Study on Development of Service Quality Measurement Scales by Using Smart Phone Tourism Information

    김용일 | 2012, 36(2) | pp.281~300 | number of Cited : 24
    The purpose of this study is to identify the dimensions of mobile tourism service quality, and to develop a reliable and valid measurement instrument. Surveys were conducted with users of mobile tourism information service via smart phone as subjects from 15 September to 30 October, 2010 for verification regarding empirical application possibility of measurement categories deduced through study of preexisting research, expert interviews, a survey of expert opinion. Dimensionality verification and reliability verification were obtained during the index development phase, and in the subsequent index assessment phase, confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis was conducted out for re-verification of dimensionality, and construct validity and predictive validity. As a result, composition of mobile tourism information service quality utilizing smart phone was classified into a total of six dimensions comprising 28 categories including functionality, information quality, ease of use and usefulness, responsiveness and empathy, ubiquitous accessibility and reliability; consequentially; supporting more accurate design, management and measurement of mobile tourism services.
  • 15.

    Leisure Acceptability Process of Disabled Children's Parents : A Grounded Theory Approach

    Chung, Juyoung | 정철 | 이 훈 | 2012, 36(2) | pp.301~322 | number of Cited : 11
    Leisure can be understood and studied by analysing personal, social, and cultural roles in the modern society in that it fulfills an individual's basic right of self-achievement. While parents of special children share the same interest towards leisure, they are unable to actively take part in leisure activities due to various barriers. However, the benefits of leisure are highly needed for parents of special children who struggle with the challenges of raising children with physical and other disabilities. Data for this study was collected through in depth interviews and participant observation of ten parents of special children and was later analyzed based on using a grounded theory approach (Strauss and Glaser) documenting the experiences of parents of children with disabilities. Study results showed that parents of special children showed a consistent pattern of change from a phase where they had no time to even think about leisure to a stable phase of leisure activity participation. In this process, the parent's acceptance of their child's disability was shown to have the closest relation with their leisure. Based on the relation between the participant and such affecting factors, the parents could be categorized into those who suppressed their leisure, those who compromised, and those in the stable phase.