Tourism enacts a very important part in contemporary cultural consumption.
For this reason, cultural factors are utilized as tourism resources from both cultural and economical viewpoints. And, in this postmodern society, the tendencies to cultural consumption have became much more individualized and differentiated than ever before. Therefore, it is necessary to utilize cultural heritage as a tourism resource so as to respond to the market changes. This study aims to suggest some desirable plans to utilize Hwarangdo as a tourism resource. Since Hwarangdo has been considered the basis of Korean traditional thought and the root of Taekwondo, a lot of historical monuments related to Hwarangdo can be places of historical interest for Taekwondo enthusiasts and international tourists. And the Hwarangdo spirit can help fulfill educational ideas and lend some teaching methods to us. This study also aims to suggests some desirable plans to develop walking tour courses, facilities, and spaces for Taekwondo enthusiasts and tourists to use at the very places of historic interest related to Hwarangdo.
This study investigates the major factors likely to affect the intention to avoid traveling to South Korea based on Protection Motivation Theory and provides the direction to relieve the negative effect of political risk on travel. The proposed theoretical framework provides insight into visitors' cognitive process combined with 4 factors - severity, vulnerability, self-efficacy and response efficacy - affected by the political unstable environment. Two hundred and thirty-five Chinese international students in South Korea were sampled for this study. The results of the empirical analysis show that perceived risk of political instability has positive effects on intention to avoid travelling Korea via protection motivation. However, self-efficacy positively affected by political risk does not have significant correlation with intention to avoid travelling to Korea while severity, vulnerability and response efficacy of protection motivation have positive effects on intention. One important finding is that the strategy to decrease the response efficacy can mitigate the protection motivation behavior, avoiding travelling Korea. Further findings and implications are described within.
Jeju ‘Ollegil' in Jeju Island, South Korea, is well-known as a walking tour destination and considered most preferred among domestic tourists. It is predicted that a total revenues from visitors to Jeju Ollegil will increase from 179.6 billion Korean won in 2010 up to 678.1 billion Korean won in 2015. Considering this large economic impact, visitors' future behavior should be examined. The purpose of this study is to examine the extended theory of planned behavior by adopting the following factors: Attitude, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Subjective Norms as antecedents and Revisit Intention as consequence. and to investigate whether visitor satisfaction plays a moderating role in its relationship. Findings from this study are as follows: First, it is found that there are the significant causal relationships between Attitude, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Subjective Norms and Revisit Intention; Second, that visitor satisfaction has a moderating effect on the relationship between three antecedents and the revisit intention. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed along with imitations of this study and suggestions for future research.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influencing factors on the probability of different types of unplanned eating-out behavior in a tourism destination context. The results indicated that 31.0% of the Japanese tourists consumed specific types foods that they had planned to eat before embarking on travel. The remaining respondents (61%) indicated unplanned eating-out behavior in the form of dropping planned items (21.5%), substituting item (22.1%), adding new item (20.1%), substituting or adding (5.3%). A comparison of pre-travel plans and realized eating-out behavior showed that while travelers developed plans before embarking, these plans frequently were changed depending on various factors. The multinominal logistical analysis reveals that travelers' age, marital status, travel hours to the Busan has a significant influence on the probability of an unplanned eating-out behavior. In addition, the results of binary logistical analysis have shown that store display, sufficient time, good memories of past experiences, preferred taste, travel companion factors played a facilitator's role influencing on the probability of an unplanned eating-out behavior. Implications and suggestions for future research were discussed.
Festival visitors experience authenticity and satisfaction while touring a festival. This study revealed the relationships among visitors’ perception of authenticity, participation satisfaction and revisit intention. The study investigated the relationship between participants’ perception of authenticity and their value assessment of the festival at the ‘Millennial Anniversary of the Tripitaka Koreana,’ celebrating the one thousandth anniversary of the creation of the Tripitaka Koreana. The relationships of three terms has analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation model analysis. Among three authenticities, constructive and existential authenticities had effects on participation satisfaction. None of the authenticities directly affected revisit intention. However participation satisfaction strongly affected revisit intention. The study has several limitations in terms of generalizability and transferability, Moreover, the study focused only on visitors, rather than embracing various stakeholders including residents and organizers.
The purpose of this paper the propensity of social media user adoption. And in particular to understand why travellers may or may not want to move alter their existing approach in gathering tour information to social media. Synthesizing key findings from relevant research, it builds an integrative framework on social media use using migration theory, and further explores interdependences among these predictors. In particular, we examined how this migration theory can serve as a useful theoretic lens for explaining user migation from the existing way to socia media. Survey data collected from 218 travelers were used to test the model using partial least squares analysis. This study contributes to our nascent body of knowledge on social media migration by drawing attention to this emerging phenomenon as well as identifying factors that enable and hinder social media migration. We expect that this research will stimulate researchers' interest in tourism management by which the preliminary model presented can serve as a basis for guiding future research in tourism research with social media applications.
This study aims to understand individuals' decision process to adopt smartphone usage for traveling and to explore the differences in influencing factors by adoption groups. Based on innovation-decision process model by Rogers (1995), smartphone users are classified into different groups depending upon their decision to use smartphones while traveling and continuity of the adoption; non-adopter, active non-adopter, discontinuous adopter, and continued adopter. In oder to empirically examine the differences in influencing factors by adoption groups, college students were surveyed in November 2011 (n=381). Group comparison was applied to active non-adopter (n=128), discontinuous adopter (n=62), and continued adopter group (n=163). The results of the study indicate statistical differences in the use of some functions, such as photo taking, news search, map service, and social network/blog, and evaluation on innovative attributes of their smartphone. No statistical differences are appeared in the evaluation on functionality of smartphone for travelling between discontinuous adopter and continued adopter group. Theoretical and empirical implications of the findings and directions for future study are addressed.
Unlike traditional group travelers who commonly seek different countries for their trips, a sizable number of free individual travelers are likely to revisit particular destinations. It is reasoned that these individual international travelers continuously pursue distinctive trip experiences such as cultural authenticity and personal contacts with residents, which often lead to re-visitation. This study aims to compute the economic benefits which free individual travelers acquire during their stay in Korea. This paper also intends to evaluate aggregate economic values of Korea as an international travel destination. In order to calculate willingness-to-pay (WTP) values, this study makes use of travel cost method (TCM) as a popularly used non-market valuation tool. The study's results suggest that an individual traveler who visited Korea from 2006 to 2008, and from 2007 to 2009 indicates consumer surplus of US$3,364 and US$4,361, respectively. The total economic value of South Korea as a tourism destination are also estimated using the total number of free individual travelers. These valuation efforts are important for policy makers to determine the optimal level of public investment in provision of better travel opportunities.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the determinants of recreational casino gambling activities using logit and ordered logit models. To this end, an onsite visitor survey was conducted at Kangwon Land Casino. Three main factors (demographic, visit-related, and social-psychological factors) were included as independent variables in the models in order to understand recreational gamblers’ gambling activities. The results of this study reveal that married people and high income earners had a positive effect on the probability of being recreational gamblers. Further, that a low visit rate, overall satisfaction, and machine game preference were also found to affect the probability of being recreational gamblers. Finally, in terms of social- psychological factors, low monetary motivation and less obsessive passion influenced the probability of being recreational gamblers. Practical implications to encourage responsible gambling culture are also presented based on the results of logit and ordered logit models.
The purpose of this study is threefold; Firstly, to review previous journal articles comprising the key words ‘selective attributes of hotel restaurant'; Secondly, to review these in the light of research methodology; and Lastly, to offer suggestions for future research. In terms of methodology, the study critically reviews the research purpose, hypotheses, sample size/sampling, the subject of investigation, as well as selective attributes and analytical techniques described within the Korean journals in relation to hospitality and tourism. The evaluation reveals that some research has been conducted with inappropriate or insufficient explanation or verification of sample size/sampling. In addition, the implementation of a limited range of locations and types of hotel restaurants researched did not provide sufficient insight into the selective attributes of hotel restaurants. Importantly, by solving these problems, the levels of validity and reliability of the research would be enhanced. Future research should consider using a proper sample size and sampling procedures.
The purpose of this study is test if there is any significant effect of hotel enterprise intellectual capital on empowerment and organizational commitment. In accordance to theoretical studies and previous research, hypotheses were set to accomplish the objective. Four hundred and fifty questionnaires were sent to 20 five-star hotels in Seoul. From the 425 questionnaires collected. 415 questionnaires were appropriate for analysis. The findings of this study are summarized as follows: First, the human capital, structure capital, customer capital turned out to have affirmative effects on hotel employees empowerment. Second, the human capital, structure capital, customer capital turned out to have affirmative effects on hotel enterprise employees on their job satisfaction. Third, the human capital, structure capital, customer capital turned out to have affirmative effects on hotel enterprise employees on their organizational commitment. Fourth, the empowerment turned out to have affirmative effects on their jon satisfaction and organizational commitment. It is concluded that hotel enterprise intellectual capital has significant effects on employees empowerment, job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Emotional labor can be defined as the degree of manipulation of one’'s inner feelings or outward behavior to display the appropriate emotion in response to display rules or occupational norms. The aim of this research was to investigate the emotional labor on emotional dissonance as it was perceived by hotel Foof and Beverage employees and to examine the effects of the emotional dissonance on job burnout and turn over intentions. Data were collected from hotel Food and Beverage workers at 10 five star hotels in Seoul. A total of 238 samples were finally used for the analysis. The result of factor analysis delineated four factors of the emotional labor: deep acting, surface acting, emotional deviance and naturally felt emotions. The results of the analysis showed that emotional labor, such as deep acting, surface acting, emotional deviance, had significant effect on emotional dissonance, while the expression of naturally felt emotions did not. The results also indicated that emotional dissonance had a significant influence on the job burnout, while it was not significantly associated with turnover intention. In contrast, the job burnout had a significant effect on turnover intention. Practical implications and limitation of the study are discussed within.
Several studies have investigated the determinants of ethnic restaurant selection over the last 5 years. This study aims to explore the constructs of novelty and sensation seeking tendency to further examine criteria for ethnic restaurant selection. This paper critically examined the effects of the sensation seeking tendency using the Sensation Seeking Scale(SSS) and novelty on selection importances of ethnic restaurant. Data were collected by 336 respondents from the age of the 20 to 40. In a stage of Validation exercise, 10 items of Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) were extracted into two factors. 18 items of novelty were extracted into two factors. Selection importances of ethnic restaurant were extracted into three factors. This findings suggestion that quest for novelty and sensation seeking tendency affected the selection importances of Ethnic restaurant. Practical attempts to increase the acceptance and exposure of ethnic foods may be successful depending on individual`s own trait of novelty, sensation seeking tendency. Further research is needed to better differentiate the applicability of SSS, Novelty and needed to modify to fit the validity.
Setting the correct price for hospitality products is a crucial management task that has a major influence on a firm's profitability. In general, there has been a lack of academic interest in the area of pricing in the hospitality industry. This study was conducted to develop pricing strategy based on understanding about customer perceived value of an Americano (long espresso) in Korean coffeehouses. The technique known as PSM (Price Sensitivity Measurement) was used for analysis of price sensitivity for Americano coffees. PSM questionnaires for on-site survey were collected from 519 customers on their visit to the four coffee brands (Starbucks, Coffeebean, Angel-in-us, and Caffeebene). The results showed that the present prices of Americano for four brands were within the range of acceptable price and that the price sensitivity of Americano at Starbucks was the highest followed by Coffeebean, Angel-in-us, and Caffeebene. Among the four brands, Starbucks revealed the lowest cumulative rate of indifferent price, the widest price stress, the narrowest acceptable price range, and the biggest stress factor. This study concluded with the implications of the research findings and future research areas.
The role of the booth staff at trade shows has emerged as an important issue for trade show success. This purpose of this study is two-fold. First, this study explores the structural relationship between exhibitors' on-site activities and their respective performance at the trade show. The second purpose is to investigate moderating roles of staff expertise and empowerment in the relationship between exhibitors' on-site activities and the trade show performance. This findings indicate a positive relationship between exhibitors' on-site activities and trade show performance is partially proved. It shows that on-site non-seeling activities have positive relationships with trade show performance. Statistical significances exist only in the role of staff expertise between non-selling activities and trade show performance within groups, but are not found in the differences of path coefficients between groups using the multi-group analysis. Overall, findings of this study enrich the theoretical development in the relationship between exhibitors' on-site activities and trade show performance and provide important implications of staff's expertise and empowerment for exhibitors.