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2012, Vol.36, No.9

  • 1.

    Tourism Research Methods and Statistical Assumptions:A Review of Articles appeared in the Recent Journal of Tourism Sciences

    Hyojin Kim | Stout, Betty L | Jeon, Min-Sun | 2012, 36(9) | pp.11~26 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    This study is designed to explore whether recent empirical research articles published in the Journal of Tourism Sciences (JTS), one of the top academic journals in the tourism and hospitality field in South Korea, are published with full considerations of statistical assumptions applied by respective authors. As statistical tools and methods of analyses have flourished, greater usage of advanced statistical analyses are being more commonly utilized by researchers. This evokes the question of whether the quality of research methodologies has improve? Therefore, of 641 articles published to date, the 426 reviewed articles that used questionnaires for data collection and were published between 2006 and 2010, were found neither distinctly mentioned nor had reliably met statistical assumptions. The finding’s identify incidents of research of mal-practices and suggest methodological suggestions. This study is expected to become a cornerstone of future empirical research by encouraging researchers to report information related to statistical assumptions.
  • 2.

    A Study of Development and Validation of Walking-tour Motivation Scale: A Case of Jeju Ollegil

    Young A Park | 현용호 | 2012, 36(9) | pp.27~50 | number of Cited : 26
    Abstract
    Albeit the increasing popularity of the walking-tour tourism, little effort has been invested to understand people's motivation for walking-tours and to develop a related measurement scale. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a walking-tour scale as perviously addressed by Park & Hyun (2009). Towards this goal, as suggested by Park & Hyun, eight dimensions were purified through a means of expert judgement and pre-testing. Following this, a survey of 300 participants who visited Course 7 of Jeju Ollegil was analysed to validate the dimensions of the measures. The scale items were then purified to examine the scale's dimensionality, and to evaluate the scale's validity, factor structure, and reliability including cross-validation. The scale development procedure yielded a four factor measurement scale with acceptable levels of reliability and validity. Four motivational dimensions (14 items) of walking-tour were labelled: Self-introspection, Self-meditation, Self-achievement, and Self-purification. The findings and applications of the developed scale are discussed both in terms of methodological and theoretical implications.
  • 3.

    An Empirical Study of Bicycling Toward a Causal Relationship among Constraints, the Extent of Participation and Behavioral Intentions

    Kim Jae Hak | 2012, 36(9) | pp.51~72 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    The main purpose of this study was to use the concept of constraints (intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural) to examine the causal relationships among constraints, the extent of participation, and behavioral intentions of bicycle users. Two separate analyses were used based on completed surveys from 378 bicycle users in the cities of Cheongju and Seoul. In the first analysis, a principal component factor analysis was conducted to identify six constraint factors including costs, infrastructure, social interaction, motivation, time/commitments, and physical/skills. The findings showed potential benefits using the concept of constraints in the bicycle setting. A regression analysis was then employed to test the hypotheses. Results indicate that some constraints share both positive and negative effects to the extent of participation and behavioral intentions, which partly supported the hypothesized relationships. Results also show potential benefits that the causal relationship between Extent of Participation and Behavioral Intentions was well incorporated into the proposed model. Based on these results, this study discusses policy and development issues to encourage bicycle uses.
  • 4.

    The Effects of Temple-stay Experienced Tourism Satisfaction, Suggestion and Revisit Intention

    Ahn, Hae-Yeon | Lee, Yang-Hee | Dae-Hwan Park | 2012, 36(9) | pp.73~91 | number of Cited : 29
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to look at ways to improve temple-stay experiences, by analyzing visitor satisfaction which could be felt when participating in temple-stay. Based on previous studies, temple-stay experienced factors were derived according to their influential relation with experienced tourism factors. Templestay experience factors, which include, Social Interaction, Relaxation, Adaptation to Nature and Amazing were also factors of experience tourism based on previous studies; denoting the significantly influential relationship between Experience Tourism and Temple-stay Tourism. For the study, a total of 212 questionnaires were used for analysis. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed that temple-stay experienced factors had a significantly influential relationship with tourism satisfaction. This study suggested a desirable direction of study throughout the tourism sectors in that temple-stay was suggested as an alternative tourism which can dispel worries of destroying the environment caused by existing mass tourism. Limitations and suggestions for further research are enclosed.
  • 5.

    A Study on Motivation, Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intention for Foreign Visitors to Hanok: Comparison of Motivation between Asian and Western Visitors

    LEE DAE EUN | Lee Choong-Ki | 2012, 36(9) | pp.93~115 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract
    Korean Traditional Houses (Hanok) provide unique heritage experience for visitor in South Korea. In light of the increasing popularity of Hanok’s, this study aims to further identify foreign tourists’ motivation for Hanok experiences, to examine any significant differences in motivation between Asian and Western visitors, and to investigate the relationships between motivation, satisfaction, and behavioral intention. To this end, an online survey was conducted to foreign visitors who stayed at T-Guest house in Bukchon, Seoul. Factor analysis delineated six dimensions of Hanok motivations from 24 items of motives: Cultural exploration, Escape, Socialization, Family togetherness, Hanok experience, and Novelty. The results of t-test indicate that there was a significant difference in motivation between Asian and Western visitors. The results of regression analysis reveal that the motivation factors of Cultural exploration, Socialization, Hanok experience and Novelty had a significant effect on visitors’ satisfaction and behavioral intention. Furthermore, Z-test show that the coefficient of Hanok experience was significantly different between Asian and Western visitors.
  • 6.

    Religious Theme Festival Visitors' Attitude Change Toward Other Religions: A Focus on the Millennial Anniversary of the Tripataka Koreana

    CHO, SEUNGA | Kim Tae Young | 2012, 36(9) | pp.117~134 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    In Korea, there are various kinds of conflicts, such as class, localism, ideology, generation gaps and religion. In particular, newly emerging religious conflicts have recently combined with oriental-western geo-cultural conflicts, with the consequence that these combined conflicts have become amplified. Thus, a need has arisen for greater understanding, acceptance, and in some instances conflict resolution between religions in Korea. This study has examined the phenomenon of attitude change toward other religions other following the visitation to religious themed festivals. As such, this study endeavors to identify opportunities for acceptance and conciliation amongst different religions through tourism. With respect to how visitors' attitudes changed after they experienced religious theme festival, this study found that festivals present the potential to contribute to a greater understanding and appreciation of other people’s religions. In other words, positive attitude change resulting from visiting religious theme festival can reduce religious conflict. Especially, religious themed festival offer the potential to ease religious tension and promote social integration with their respective roles in society. Further discussion and limitations are enclosed.
  • 7.

    Arguments for and Against the Cable Car' Construction within Bukhan National Park

    Joungkoo Park | Park Jong-Sun | 2012, 36(9) | pp.135~155 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Issues of debate concerning the construction of a cable car in Bukhan National Park have been based numerous arguments; most notably, the notion of enhancing visitors' satisfaction versus the potential environmental threat to scenic zones. This study examined visitors' different perceptions towards cable car construction. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire study of 250 visitors to Bukhan National Park. t-analysis, logistic regression analysis and ANOVA were performed to determine important determining factors causing the arguments for and against cable car' construction. The results from supporters argued that cable cars offer some advantages such as local economic effect, the ability to access natural park for the disabled, and tourists' convenience. On the contrary, opposers argued that it affected environmental degradation. The result of logistic regression analysis indicated four variables which include the need to increase visitors, limiting environmental damage, regional development, and experience of joyful leisure affected widespread support in arguments of the cable car' construction.
  • 8.

    Study on Dark Tourism Participants's Environmental Perception: A Focus on JeJu April 3rd Peace Park

    Hye-Won, Jang | Choi Byoung-Kil | song jae ho | 2012, 36(9) | pp.157~176 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    This study aims to understand participant’s Environmental Psychology on Dark Tourism. As such, we sought to identify the dimensions of environmental perception and in-turn to examine the structural relationship between environmental perception, flow, visiting satisfaction, and recommendation intention. An extensive review of previous literature and empirical research were conducted. The empirical analysis was based on 275 responses. We tested the two-factors of cognitional perception and emotional perception by using Structural Equation Model and found that cognitional perception factor has significant effects on visiting satisfaction and recommendation intention. Further, visitor satisfaction has significant effects on recommendation intention. While emotional perception factor did not make significant effect on visiting satisfaction and recommendation intention. Also, both cognitional perception and emotional perception had significant effect flow. The findings of the study are as follows: 1) Flow is important role of relationship quality with dark tourism environmental and tourist; and 2) Cognitive perception is deeply involve in the sustainability of dark tourism. Theoretical and practical implications based on these findings are enclosed.
  • 9.

    Comparing the Effectiveness of Interpretation Boards onCultural Heritage Resources byUsing a Communication Information Appeal Method

    Han Sang-Hyun | 2012, 36(9) | pp.177~196 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study recognizes the occurrence of that interpretation boards concerning the cognitive information appeal method are being neglected by people as they do not have any effect on interpretation. Alternatively, it is proved that an affective information appeal method has a great effect, not only on interpretation but also on interest and satisfaction. The interpretation board of Gyerim in Gyeongju as a site was selected to verify this issue. For the study, the same information was given - one with a cognitive appeal and the other with an affective appeal - to make a valid comparison between a cognitive appeal method and an affective appeal method. We surveyed visitors who read the cognitive appeal board and the affective appeal board respectively. The research includes visitor’s opinions pertaining to the effectiveness of interpretation and visitor’s satisfactions depending on methods. The results show that the affective appeal methods are considered better than the cognitive appeal in terms of effectiveness interpretation. In conclusion, the research suggests the use of an effective information appeal method for cultural heritage resources.
  • 10.

    Changes in Distinction of Leisure Consumption between Social Classes

    Han, Kyo-nam | Han, Beom-Soo | 2012, 36(9) | pp.197~219 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to examine the discriminative phenomenon of modes and leisure consumption trends according to social class groups in contemporary Korean society. Theories in relation to this study are classified into two categories. The first is Bourdieu's theory of cultural capital on 'distinction', suggesting that modes of leisure consumption according to social classes are the same (Bourdieu, 1979; 1986). The second is Peterson's omnivore theory, suggesting that the upper class tends to show a wider modes of leisure consumption (Peterson & Simkus, 1992; Peterson & Kern, 1996). Based on these frameworks, this study made a trend analysis of modes of leisure consumption according to social classes, in view of classification into culture / art consumption in Korean society between 2000 and 2010. The results indicate that ’upper class’ of Korean society in the 2000s showed a higher preference tendency toward high-quality leisure consumption, whereas ‘the middle and lower classes’ showed a tendency toward popular leisure consumption. However, for the ‘upper class’, the omnivores demonstrated a tendency toward both high-quality and popular leisure consumption according to their wider breadth of leisure consumption.
  • 11.

    Analysis of the Spatial Characteristics and Effect that Determine Leisure Movement:An Application of Spatial Autocorrelation and Spatial Regression

    Lee, Jeong-Sub | kIM, Young-Rae | 2012, 36(9) | pp.221~240 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    Leisure movement in nature is a spatial phenomena happening between origins and destinations. This implies that leisure movement is likely to be spatially dependent and heterogenous similarly to all other geographical data. The purpose of the study is to explore the spatial characteristics and effects that determine leisure movement by appling spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression. Data were drawn from a Traffic Survey in Seoul Metropolitan Area (Seoul, Incheon, Gyeonggi-do) in 2006. The findings were as follows: Firstly, it was verified that leisure movement showed strong spatial autocorrelation. This means that leisure movement was spatially dependent and heterogenous as is the same for all other spatial data. Secondly, leisure movement was not free from a spatial context and was heavily influenced by the spillover of leisure movement that was interacting in and among surrounding areas. Thirdly, it was found out that leisure movement increased with a high connectivity among areas, large population, high quantity and density of commercial facilities, and a high volume and variety of cultural spaces. Further discussion and implications are discussed within.
  • 12.

    A Difference Analysis of Tourist Deviant Behaviour by Playfulness

    Lee, Hoon | 최일선 | 2012, 36(9) | pp.241~260 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined the phenomenon of deviant tourist behavior. This tourist behaviour is seen as being deeply related to tourists’ inherent propensity which is highly dependent on playfulness. In order to understand tourist behavior, the relationship between playfulness, deviant tourist behaviour and tourist satisfaction were analysed from a total of 1148 survey responses collected from an online survey. The results showed higher playfulness of tourist influences on more deviant tourist behaviour. Otherwise stated, deviant tourist behavior is a desire for hedonic value; one such is playfulness as an approach of hedonic value. Thus, human beings' playfulness influences on their behaviour in tourist destinations. Moreover, there were relationships between deviant tourist behaviour and tourist satisfaction. Specifically, there was a negative causal relationship between social deviant behaviour and satisfaction. As it could be stated, tourists whom indicated social deviant experiences at tourist destinations, they could experience greater legal and social risks which could reduce their satisfaction. However, in the case of internal deviant tourist behavior, there were positive causal relationship with satisfaction. The result of analysis further showed that more commitment in the tourism, the tourist satisfaction was more increased.
  • 13.

    A Study on ‘WON’, the Buddhist Hospitality Facility,in the Koryo Dynasty Era:A Study on the Origin of Korean Hospitality

    Yoon-Joong Nah | 2012, 36(9) | pp.261~274 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    ‘Won’ is a name for buildings attached to buddhist temples in the north-eastern Asian countries including China, Japan and South Korea. “Won’s’ had special functions of hospitality facility; particularly those in Korea which differed from those in China and Japan, in that they more actively participated in economic activities such as trade and finance. In fact, during the era of the Koryo Dynasty, Won’s functioned not only as a place of religious hospitality but also the center for both transportation and business. Its origin starts from around 8th century AD, and it had flourished in the era of Koryo dynasty, between 10th and 14th century AD. Although it was a part of a temple facilty, its hospitality characteristics and functions were different from that of European monastic hospitality, more closely resembling functions of Caravanserais of the Silk Road. Concurrently, however, with the fall of Koryo Dynasty and the rise of Chosun dynasty, Won lost not only its religious character but also the function of business functions and lost its dynamism and became a part of ‘totalitarian station system’(驛傳制), called as ‘Yok-Won-Je’(驛院制). However ‘Won’ was a peculiar hospitality system of Korea, which experimented business complex hotels or accommodations 1000 years ago.
  • 14.

    The Impact of TV Drama Contents on Viewer’s Attitudes toward the Destination of the On-Screen Location in Terms of Mediating Effect of Location Difference

    Hong-bumm Kim | Kwon, Jun | 2012, 36(9) | pp.275~294 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    This study examines how TV viewers’ awareness of TV drama contents and attributes can affect their communication of the drama considering a mediating variable of the attitude to on-screen location and a moderating variable of the types of on-screen location. Four TV dramas adopting hotels for the use of product placement (PPL), to be included in background drops of respective drama scenes, were selected for empirical validation of the research hypotheses. Product placement in TV dramas is a commonly employed indirect advertising method, not only in the entertainment industry but also in hospitality and tourism industry. A total of 419 effective questionnaires were collected for data analysis and hypotheses validation. Since the research model includes several variables in their causal relationships, this study applied a structural equation model to validate the hypothetical model. Possible implications of this study are that, first, high level of direction, visual style and quality of contents are more affect to viewer’s attitude toward on-screen location than story, characteristic and the main player of TV drama contents. Secondly, product placements in advertisements in overseas locations provide greater viewer affection.
  • 15.

    Identifying the Relationships among Visitors‘ U-tourism Service Experiences on Site, Satisfaction, and Attitude Change of the Smart Phone Application, U-SEUM, at the Suwon Hwaseong Museum

    SEOHO UM | Yun, Ja-yon | KIM, Jaewon | 2012, 36(9) | pp.295~313 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract
    With the availability of technology, heritage sites, such as museums, have been increasing developing smart phone applications as a tool to provide more enjoyable and educational experiences for visitors. The Suwon Hwaseong museum, located at the UNESCO world heritage site, recently introduced the U-SEUM service – an Android smart-phone application which functions with a Location Based System (LBS). To assess its impact, a total of 221 valid reponses were collected to measure visitor experiences to identify the relationships amongst visitation variables including on-site experience, satisfaction and changed attitudes toward the U-SEUM. Five dimensions of the U-SEUM experience were extracted by through exploratory factor analysis. Path analysis with AMOS package showd that fun and education were significant antecedents to satisfaction of the U-SEUM while fun and novelty as well as satisfaction were significant antecedents to changed attitudes toward the U-SEUM. Togetherness was not significant to either satisfaction or changed attitude while fun was significant to both satisfaction and changed attitude toward U-SEUM. The experiential dimensions of the U-SEUM need to refined and confirmed by further research, involving the applicability of smart phone applications in heritage tourism.
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