With the increasing variety of motivations for visitors to mega events, still there remain intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural constraints. The purpose of this study is two-fold: The first is to analyze structural relationships between the motivations and constraints; the second is to explore the differences of structural relationships as it pertains to the’ means’ in tourists' motivations and constraints according to Plog's personality types. A total of 291 survey questionnaires were collected from visitors to 2012 Yeosu Expo, usable questionnaires totaled 262 for the data analyses. Results showed that the best fit of the structure model was the one which showed the relationships between the three latent variables of motivations and the second order of constraints comprising intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural constraints. It was found that there were no significant differences in the structural relationships by visitors' personality types. Additionally, the ‘novelty-seeking’ motivations only were differentiated in the mean differences of latent variables by visitors' personality type. The findings from this study enrich theoretical development on structural relationships between motivations and constraints and contribute to mega event marketers’ know-how.
The trend of foreigners to Korea can be witnessed in the Korean men marry immigrant women. The fusion of cultures through interracial marriage is complex. This research aims to examine the impact of leisure activity on cultural adjustment; proficiency and use frequency of Korean language on leisure activity and cultural adjustment. A survey for this research was conducted with a sample of 343 married immigrant women from multi-cultural families living in Seoul and the capital region. SPSS 18.0 and LIMDEP 8.0 were used for analysis. Results indicated firstly that the classification of 'family activity', 'cultural experience activity' and 'hobby activity' has a significantly positive (+) influence on married immigrant women’s’ adjustment to Korean culture. Secondly, for the married immigrant women's group which indicated a high proficiency and usage of the Korean language, 'family activity', 'cultural experience activity' and 'hobby activity' were the most influential categories; while for those with a low language proficiency, 'family activity' and 'cultural experience activity' have a significant positive (+) influence on adjustment to Korean culture.
This study examined the expected effect of food leisure-therapy programs on decreasing school violence in adolescents. The study also explored the differences in perception on propensity for school bullying according to an eating habit in order to develop the food therapy program. Data were collected from 243 students from KSCHS (Korea Science of Cookery High School) in Kyonggi city in 2012.
Results show the food therapy program is effective in preventing school violence. The highest coefficient was ‘friendship support’ after making the food, followed by ‘creating a well-being menu’. There were few positive effects on the eating habit on a possibility of prevention of school violence with healthy good eating habits. The study found it advantageous to combine a food-therapeutical leisure program with a changing dietary life attitude.
This study aims to analyze how after purchasing at item regret may follow, and the irrational intention to use and item, and even repurchase pre-paid coupon packages. Five different experimental scenarios were created and 536 respondents participated in the research. Results of the study indicate that consumer's regret after the purchase of coupon package influence the intention to repurchase. In addition, influence of the post-purchase regret differ based on the percentage of pre-paid coupons.
This research was conducted to examine the structural effect relation among prior knowledge, risk perception, overall image, negative emotion, attitude, and behavioral intention based on the ‘no-show’ phenomenon. From the 25th of August to the 25th of September in 2012, an onsite survey was conducted with tourists who were aware of the ‘no-show’ phenomenon in the area of tourism (e.g. hotel, resort). After testing and verifying the eight hypotheses, the derived conclusion was that all effective relationships among the constructional concepts were statistically significant. This is in contrast to prior research which indicated a negative image. Risk perception had an effect on negative emotion, which in turn influenced overall image, and attitude. Risk perception was a more significant variable than prior knowledge when examining negative emotion. Among variables explaining behavioral intention, overall image and attitude were most important. Based on these findings, theoretical and practical implications are further discussed.
This study investigated the impacts of exhibition organizer's characteristics on the performance of an exhibition. Based on the prior research on exhibition performance, we categorized ‘performance’ into the number of visitors and exhibitors. We examined 552 exhibitions held in 2011 which were documented at the Association of Korea Exhibition Industry. The results showed that the scales of exhibition centers significantly increased the number of both visitors and exhibitors, while the possession of exhibition certifications and exhibition experiences had differential impacts on the number of visitors and exhibitors. We conclude that reliability of exhibition organizers have different impacts on attracting different types of participants, namely visitors and exhibitors, to exhibitions.
In order to understand behavior of adventure recreationists, this study explored their flow experiences and addictive behaviors. Previous studies on outdoor recreation only provided the positive side of recreation within flow experiences. However, addictive behavior can also arise in recreation experiences in which recreationists have lost control. This study therefore examined the relationship between the flow experience and addictive behavior. Through a structural equation model of flow experience, addictive behavior and continuous participation showed that higher flow experience indicated more addictive behavior in adventure recreation. Moreover, flow experience was affected by continuous participation. However, addictive behavior was not affected by continuous participation. The reason is that for addictive behavior in adventure recreation, there is a tendency to want to enjoy the recreational activity on one’s own. In other words, continuous participation, including social participation, was not affected by addictive behavior in adventure recreation. Adventure recreation management, and planning the flow experience, must be considered.
This Study identified the factors for inbound tourism demand to Korea from 49 countries during 2005 to 2012. The results of analysis on the group panel mean FMOLS found that foreign income elasticity is 0.8462 and the exchange rate elasticity is 0.5976 which are to be appeared non-elasticity. In considering the cross-country panel analysis of heterogeneity, in the cases of Asia, the Middle East and the Americas, the United States, Brazil, and Chile, it showed that the income elasticity of them is flexible while exchange rate elasticity is inelastic or no significance. On the other hand, in the case of African countries and Australasia, income elasticity is to be appeared no significance or inelastic, but elasticity of exchange rate to be appeared elastic. A tourism demand function in most European countries, exception of Norway, could not be found.
This case study analyzed a hotel supervisor’s abusive supervision and organizational silence. It particularly tested the mediating effects of psychological contract violations on the relationships between abusive supervision and organizational silence. By doing so, this study provides implications for more effective business performance and human resource management in the hotel business. The results can be summarized as follows: First it showed that a hotel supervisor’s abusive supervision had positive effects on contract violation. Second, the hotel employees’ contract violation had positive effects on organizational silence. Third, the hotel supervisor’s abusive supervision had positive effects on organizational silence. Fourth, hotel employees’ contract violation played mediating roles in the relationship between abusive supervision and organizational silence. We would like to present the theoretical and practical implications to improve the organizational effectiveness and enhance the management performance in the hotel business in which human resource management is important.
Urban parks have been recognized as one of the important recreational facilities with recreational, environmental, educational, social, and economic significances. Exploring the spatial patterns of urban park distribution is an essential responsibility of public leisure providers for establishing better recreation policy and planning. The purpose of this study is to explore the spatial patterns of the urban park distribution in Seoul Metropolitan City, South Korea. Several spatial statistical techniques based on point pattern analyses and exploratory spatial data analysis was employed to explore the spatial patterns of urban parks distribution and relevant area park accessibility at global and local scales. The results indicated that urban parks in Seoul were unevenly distributed. Specifically, a number of hot spots were located within Southern areas (Songpa-gu, Seocho-gu, Gangnam-gu, Nowon-gu, Yangcheon-gu), while the distribution of cold spots were observed within Northern areas (Jongno-gu, Seongbuk-gu, Eunpyeong-gu. These findings are useful in helping policy makers establish more effective recreation policy and planning through providing overall identification on distribution of urban parks.
While Korean tourism authorities have made various efforts to decentralize more international tourists to Korea, the substantial majority of tourists are known to visit limited tourism destinations including Seoul and the capital area. This study aims to examine how several factors representing socio- demographic and travel characteristics of international tourists are associated with their multi-destination travel behaviors. Using the 2012 International Visitor Survey data, this study also intends to identify the underlying between- group diversity in international tourists, which are segmented by their cultural background. With a series of count data model estimations, the results of this study suggest that the multi-destination travel decisions of international tourists are affected by different travel features including travel information sources, and travel companion types, as well as several socio-demographic information, such as age, and education levels. The study results also indicate meaningful behavioral differences in multi-destination travel patterns among international tourists from Asian and Western countries. Based on these findings, this study discusses useful policy suggestions and marketing strategies to decentralize the international travel clientele.
A Tourism Climate Index (TCI) is a useful indicator to evaluate a climate’s environment to determine whether it is appropriate for tourists to participate in outdoor activities. The purpose of this study is to develop a Korea Tourism Climate Index (KTCI), to investigate the weights of climate indicators including thermal comforts in daytime (high temperature) and daily (average temperature), precipitation, windy speed, and the amount of cloud (sunshine). For this study, on-site surveys during all four seasons for outdoor recreationists were investigated. This study suggests that the weights for KTCI are as follows: high temperature is 25.9%; average temperature is 20.9%, precipitation is 32.2%, windy speed is 11.6%, and the amount of cloud is 9.5%. This result is somewhat different from research by Mieczkowski (1985). This study also suggests that KTCI may consist of different climate indicators depending on the season and the outdoor activity. The KTCI suggested in this study may contribute to tourists and tourism enterprises to find the most appropriate season and place for socio-economic benefits.
This study examines the structural relationship of the related variables of high-contact service provider's such as plastic surgery and aroma-therapy and customer behavior of medical tourist. The study is based on 202 Japanese and Chinese tourists that deluxe hotel with a luxury aromatherapy and plastic surgery provided. and used the SEM analysis applying the AMOS 18.0 for verification of the hypothesis. In this study, the hypothesis is set to six and five hypotheses were adopted. The first, service provider's expertise and customer compliance showed an positive influence. Second, friendship and customer compliance do not affect the positive influence. Third, customer orientation and customer compliance are positively influenced. Fourth, customer compliance and customer satisfaction are positively influenced. Fifth customer satisfaction and word-of-mouth are also a positively effected. Sixth satisfaction and anticipation of future interactions howed a positive influence. In addition, the study presents implications of its findings, limits of the study, and directions for future studies.