Many hospitality firms strive to improve service performance through teams, in order to respond to rapidly changing circumstances. However, team efficiency may be impaired when evaluation and compensation of respective team members’ contributions is deemed unfair. Despite their importance, the contributions of individuals to team service performance have lacked attention in academia. This study introduced a service team performance model, in which direct and team contributions by the individual to service performance are identified. The service team construct was manipulated using all possible combinations in a field setting. Through weighted least squares (WLS) analysis of data collected from 186 respondents, we found that individual performance in service teams differ significantly in terms of direct and indirect contributions. Therefore, the need to consider interaction effects among team members when evaluating service performance was motivated. Furthermore, the learning effects, rest effects, and frequency of customer visits were found to affect service quality. This study contributed to the dynamics in service team formulation and service performance, and also provided a meaningful implication for human resource managers in hospitality and tourism industries. This was done by suggesting a holistic approach to employee evaluation.
This study adapted multidimensional scale analysis to explore how consumers position dessert cafe brands according to brand personality. A position strategy that establishes competitive advantage is critical for the marketing success of a franchise brand. This study has produced perceptual maps showing the locations of dessert cafe brands. Data were collected from a sample of 240 dessert cafe consumers in Busan. A self-completion questionnaire was used to measure brand similarity, brand personality and brand preference. The results of multidimensional scaling analysis show that Sealbing & Kong Kkomul, Mango Six & To The Different, Wicked Snow & Baekseol Gongju were highly competitive with each other as can be seen by their close proximity in the perceptual map. The vector map for all respondents indicated that Baekseol Gongju and Wiched Snow had the strongest positioning based on ‘attractive’ and ‘active’ characteristics. On the other hand, the vector map for female respondents indicated that Sealbing and Kong Kkomul had the strongest positioning according to brand personality based on ‘young’, ‘successful’, ‘professional’. This study provides a useful implication for competitiveness among seven brands.
This study intends to evaluate the impacts of coffee-shop ambience and service as it relates to customer pleasure and satisfaction. It also attempts to investigate how variations in employing ambience stimuli such as lighting, music, and crowding might influence the customers’ ambience-perceptions. Data shows that several elements of coffee-shop ambience stimuli affect ambience perceptions. Lighting brightness of a medium or high intensity tends to produce greater positive perceptions of ambience compared to that of dimly lit locations. The level of positive ambience perception correlated with the order of high, medium, and low music volumes. The faster the music tempo, the greater the positive ambience perception. Higher crowding enhances positive ambience perception. Data also indicates that positive perceptions of ambience and service enhance the customers’ perceived pleasure. In addition, perceived pleasure increases customer satisfaction. Positive perception of coffee-shop service results in the direct effect of enhancing customer satisfaction, However, a direct impact of ambience perception on satisfaction is shown to be absent.
The purpose of this study was to find out the effects of Servicescape on the emotions and behavioral intention of coffee shop customers in the Busan area and their correlation with the moderating effect of coffee shop background music. As a result of empirical research, it was found that coffee shop Servicescape has a partial(positive or negative) influence on the emotional reaction of customers. It was also found that the emotional reaction of customers has an influence on behavioral intention. As a result of analysis on moderating effects of background music, it was found that servicescape has partial moderating effects on the emotional reaction of customers. This results because comfortability of seats which is a lower factor of servicescape provides moderating effects on positive emotional reactions of customers. Furthermore, the esthetics factor causes moderating effects on negative emotional reactions of customers. The practical implications of this research are that continuing investment is needed for those servicescape factors which can enhance positive emotions of customers. This will in turn give the greatest influence on the behavioral intention of customers such as the intention to re-visit and recommend the coffee shop. That improvement is needed for other service scape factors which provoke negative emotional reaction of customers. For background music which has partial moderating effects, it is suggested that musical variables such as genre and tempo should be adjusted appropriately.
As consumers, Korean people can afford to buy more bottles of wine than ever before, and they are now interested in and concerned about the quality as well as diversity among brands of wine. However, we should discuss this issue more before we talk about the popularization of wine market in Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine how the self-image congruity for wine brands influences the emotions of consumers and their resulted purchase behavior. Accordingly, a total of 497 effective questionnaires were obtained from wine consumers who live in the metropolitan area and SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0 statistics programs were used to test latent hypotheses. The result of analyses showed that all three types of self-image congruity of wind brands had significant effects on consumption emotions. Likewise, Consumption emotions had significant influence on brand attitudes and brand loyalties. Furthermore, brand attitude had a significant effect on the brand loyalty of consumers. Based on these results, the thesis specifies a few suggestions and implications for wine dealers. There should be continuous consumer management and proper opportunities for wine tasting. Also brand story marketing utilizing SNS would be effective for consumers with social self-congruity.
The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of physical environment on the internal response and job satisfaction based on employee status in Korean restaurants. The data collected from a survey of 325 restaurant employees in the Seoul metropolitan area was analyzed. Factor analysis revealed that there were four dimensions for physical environment(cleanliness, attractiveness, functionality & convenience), two dimensions for internal response(cognitive response & stable response) and one dimension for job satisfaction. The findings of the study showed that attractiveness, functionality, and convenience had a positive effect on cognitive response while cleanliness and attractiveness had a positive effect on stable response. Both cognitive response and stable response had a positive effect on job satisfaction. The moderating effect of employee status was shown in the effect of cleanliness and attractiveness on stable response for full-time employees and of attractiveness on stable response for temporary employees. The moderating effect of employee status was shown in the effect of stable response on job satisfaction for full-time employees and of cognitive and stable response on job satisfaction for temporary employees.
The purpose of this study is to suggest ways to improve the mental health of hotel front-line employees based on empirical analysis of the effect of interpersonal stress resulting from customer relations and subsequent workplace happiness. Analysis was done using 237 questionnaires completed by hotel employees working in the Food & Beverage and Room departments of five or four star hotels in Seoul. Results show that the more the monthly income, the happier the hotel employees feel in the workplace and the longer they have worked, the less healthy they become mentally. Interpersonal stress with customers affect workplace happiness and the mental health of hotel employees negatively and happiness in workplace affects the mental health of hotel employees positively. Furthermore, happiness in the workplace mediates perfectly between interpersonal stress with customers and the mental health of hotel employees. Therefore, in order to improve the mental health of hotel employees who provide customer service, first, the hotel has to give employees reasonable wages and start an EAP(employee assistance program). Second, hotels must recruit employees who have more resilience to mental health problems caused by interpersonal stress with customers and so enhance happiness in workplace. Third, hotels must try to create an organizational culture in which employees support and recognize one another and feel happier in the workplace.
This case study analyzed hotel frontline employees’ job crafting and job engagement. It particularly tested the mediating effects of job burnout on the relationships between job crafting and job engagement. By doing so, this study provides implications for more effective business performance and human resource management in the hotel business. The results can be summarized as follows: There were three effects resulting from a hotel frontline employees’ job crafting which are: negative effects on job burnout, positive effects on job engagement and negative effects on job engagement. Furthermore, hotel frontline employees’ job burnout played a mediating role in the relationship between job crafting and job engagement. This study presents theoretical and practical implications to improve organizational effectiveness and enhance management performance in a hotel environment where human resource management is important.
As the development of integrated casino resorts became visible, the discussion on policies for the Casino Control Act and the casino regulatory authority are under way. An important part of such discussion are the control guidelines for junket promoters. This study provides understanding of the basic terminology and the current situation of the casino junket system in Korea. Furthermore, the study analyzes multiple cases in Singapore, Macau and Nevada, and suggests the necessary measures to control and supervise the junket systems in Korea. The establishment of an authority for supervision and the obligatory reporting of junket operation, a policy on junket commission, an amendment of tax-related regulations on junket promoters, and a joint liability system for casino operators and junket promoters are proposed as a short-term plan. For the long-term, the establishment of a casino control board and rules for junket operations and the introduction of a junket promoter registration system are suggested. We conclude by offering additional considerations for the pre-implementation stage.
Research examining cruise passengers’ behaviors is not abundant. The present research attempted to assess the complexity of the relationships among travel motivations, affective experiences, and loyalty intentions in the emerging cruise industry. We also tested the mediating impact of affective experiences in determining loyalty intentions and the moderating effect of perceived risk in loyalty formation. Based on Baron and Kenny’s (1986) process, we utilized a series of multiple regression analyses. Our findings indicated that the employed measures included an acceptable level of reliability and validity. In addition, results showed that affective experiences in general significantly mediated the impact of cruise-travel motivations on passengers’ loyalty intentions. Furthermore, perceived risk was identified to be a significant moderator in the relationship between motivation factors and affective experiences. In sum, this study is one of the few studies that empirically demonstrates cruise passenger loyalty formation by considering the impact of both mediator and moderator within a single theoretical framework. Our findings would be useful for tourism researchers and cruise operators.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of perceived consumption values(CV) for premium brand Hoengsung Hanwoo in stock farm products upon purchase intention(PI) and empirically analyze the moderating effects of regulatory focuses between the relations of CV of the premium brands and PI. Based on a total 316 consumer’s surveys obtained by empirical research, the study reviewed the reliability and fitness of the research model and verified a total of 6 hypotheses with the Amos program. The hypothesized relationships in the model were tested simultaneously using a structural equation model(SEM). The proposed model provided an adequate fit for the data=618.441(df 192), p<0.001, CMIN/df=3.221, GFI=0.849, NFI=0.854, CFI=0.893, RMSEA=0.084. The model’s fit, as indicated by these indexes, was deemed satisfactory; thus, it provided a good basis for testing the hypothesized paths. SEM resulting in a CV of premium brand in stock farm products(quality value, social value emotional value, epistemic value) had a positive significant influence on PI and prestigious value was not significantly effective. In addition, regulatory focuses(promotion․prevention) had partially moderating effects. between the CV of premium brands and the PI. Limitations and future research directions were also discussed.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between perceived quality of life and experiential factors(cognitive and affective) associated with a temple stay. The data was collected from 765 temple stay participants throughout 30 different Buddhist temples that accommodate guests, and analyzed by structural equation modeling. Results indicate that three experiential factors(Being with nature, Learning, and Relaxation) are useful in predicting the level of positive emotions. In turn, positive emotions significantly influence perceived quality of life. As such, it is concluded that three experiential factors(Being with nature, Self-growth & Reflection, Relaxation) are antecedents for the perceived quality of life. In addition, the mediating role of emotion in the relationship between experiences and the perceived quality of life is also examined.