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2016, Vol.40, No.9

  • 1.

    The Effects of Internal Marketing by Institutional Food Service Companies on Customer Value Co-creation Behaviors

    Kim, Byeong Yong | 2016, 40(9) | pp.11~33 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The following research suggests that internal marketing activities are key factors promoting customer value co-creation behaviors. This result was found empirically investigating the relationships among internal marketing activities, customer participation behaviors(CPB) and customer citizenship behaviors(CCB). This research investigated how internal marketing activities affected both CPB and CCB, and subsequently how these behaviors affected customer satisfaction (CS). Dayadic research was performed by using both dieticians from institutional food service companies (survey for internal marketing activities) and customers eating meals provided by institutional food service companies.(survey for CPB, CCB, and CS). Survey questionnaires were used to collect data from 222 dieticians and 222 customers throughout March of 2016. Results showed that internal marketing activities were affected significantly by both CPB and CCB, which in turn affected CS. Suggestions were made based on this research findings.
  • 2.

    The Effect of Leadership Type on the Workers’ Recognition of Conflict within the Divisions of a Hotel

    KwonSoo Kim | 2016, 40(9) | pp.35~50 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to suggest ways to manage conflict within the organization of a hotel effectively based on empirical analysis about the effect of readership types (transactional leadership, transformational & authentic leadership, servant leadership and self-leadership) on conflict within the organization (task conflict and relationship conflict) of a hotel. Analysis was done with 239 questionnaires filled in by the hotel employees working at five-star or four-star hotels throughout Seoul. Self-leadership was found to affect task conflict negatively. Workers who were in their 20s and 30s and who made 3million Won or more a month experienced more task conflict than the rest of the subjects. Transformational & authentic leadership, servant leadership, and self-leadership affected relationship conflict negatively. Workers in their 20s and 30s who had worked for 5years or more experienced more relationship conflict than the others. Therefore, in order to reduce task conflict, an organizational system and an environment that enhances workers’ self-leadership and collaboration system between departments have to be made. In order to reduce relationship conflict, leaders have to show transformational leadership and servant leadership with authenticity. Furthermore, they must make an organizational system and an environment that enhances workers’ self-leadership and organizational culture and also one in which workers sympathize and consider colleagues.
  • 3.

    A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Emotional Labor on the Related Outcomes of Hospitality Employees: Focusing on Domestic Research

    Wooseok Kwon | Yejin Kim | Lee null | 2016, 40(9) | pp.51~68 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    Despite the accretion of social interest and academic research, the ramifications of emotional labor have not been consistently reported. This study examined the effects of emotional labor on its’ relational outcomes by performing a meta-analysis of precedent studies throughout the hospitality industry. 1,420 studies on emotional labor from 2008 to Mar. 2016 were reviewed and 121 studies corresponding to the aim of this study were finally selected. After being coded, 12 positive outcome factors and 6 negative outcome factors were categorized. Effects of surface action on positive outcome factors were not significant, implying that they had no effect, however effects deep action were positively significant. Surface action had a positive effect on the negative outcome factors, although the deep action disclosed no significant effect size on them. Nonetheless, deep action negatively impacted burnout among the negative factors, which indicated it had suppression effect. Subsequently, the subdivisions of those outcome factors are also analyzed to compare the effect sizes. Both synthetic interpretation of the results and implications for future research are discussed in the conclusion.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Emotional Labor of Hotel Employees in Korea: Focusing on Busan Deluxe Hotels

    Jungeun Kim | 2016, 40(9) | pp.69~83 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    This study was designed to explore the status of emotional labor among hotel employees throughout the tourism sector, specifically in hotels. To achieve the purpose of this study, a single face-to-face interview, and 10 phone interviews were conducted with employees who were working in the room department of 3 deluxe hotels located in Busan at the time of the study. Data collection was conducted in both November,2015 and August, 2016. Findings from the study revealed that hotel employees were exposed to various types of emotional labor. This depended on if there was a high rate of occupied hotel rooms and the online information about hotel use shared among hotel customers. Due to emotional labor, hotel employees suffered stress and they tried to overcome this stress by sharing their experiences with their colleagues. Even though hotels tended not to have official manuals for hoteliers handling cases of emotional labor, they made efforts to reduce the employee’s emotional labor such as sharing cases of emotional labor or developing a preventative black list. Suggestions and implications were discussed based on the findings of the study.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Effects of Abusive Supervision by Hotel Culinary Staff on Job Engagement and Turnover Intention

    Kim Young Joong | 정윤조 | 2016, 40(9) | pp.85~99 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the influence of abusive supervision in deluxe hotels on job engagement and turnover intention. The research empirically analyzed these moderating effects according to job status (full time and part time) in order to find the relationship between abusive supervision and subsequent job engagement and turnover intention. Empirical research from a total of 305 employees was obtained and reviewed using the reliability and fitness research model to verify a total of 4 hypotheses using the AMOS program. The hypothesized relationships in the model were simultaneously tested through the use of a structural equation model(SEM). The proposed model provided an adequate data fit, χ2= 181.887(df=73), p<0.001, CMIN/df=2.492, GFI=0.921, AGFI=0.886, NFI=0.937, CFI=0.961, RMSEA=0.070. The model’s fit, as indicated by these indexes, was deemed satisfactory, thus providing a good basis for testing the hypothesized paths. The SEM results indicated that the abusive supervision(β=.138) in hotels showed a negative significant influence on job engagement. Also abusive supervision(β=.264) had a significant positive influence on turnover intention. Job engagement(β=.213) had a significant negative influence on turnover intention. The moderating effects on status do. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Importance of the Communication Skills of Open-kitchen Cooks on Customer Satisfaction through Knowledge Acquisition

    박동희 | Kim, ChungAh | 2016, 40(9) | pp.101~118 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This study examined the impact of the communication skills of open-kitchen cooks on customer satisfaction as well as their mediating effects on the knowledge acquisition of customers. The result showed that the communication skills of open-kitchen cooks have significant impacts on customer satisfaction while knowledge acquisition of customers led to significant mediating effects. The research suggests that customers’ knowledge acquisition is a new value customers pursue when they dine out. The Academic implication is that knowledge acquisition does not only occur when customers seek information during the decision-making process but it also occurs throughout the service environment. As an operational implication, the mediating effects of knowledge acquisition have been proved and therefore the professional education institutions and/or food service firms should not only provide education and training in accordance with the traditional roles of the cooks but also with the new dynamic roles, such as communication skills. The findings are expected to draw attention away from academia and toward the food service industry and to provide insights on the new, emerging and expanded roles required for the cooks.
  • 7.

    The Effect of Service Employee Emotional Labor on Job Burnout and Turnover Intention: Focusing on Employees in Coffee Shop Franchises

    JO MI NA | Cha, Jae-Bin | 2016, 40(9) | pp.119~135 | number of Cited : 20
    Abstract
    This study was to assess the effects of service employee emotional labor on job burnout and turnover intention. The specific focus was on employees of coffee shop franchises. A total of 268 samples were carefully selected from franchise coffee shop employees from October 28th, 2015 to November 8th, 2015. The results were as follows. First, among the sub-dimensions of emotional labor, surface acting and deep acting had the most significant effect. Second, among the sub-dimensions of job burnout, the sub-dimensions of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization had a significant effect on turnover intention. However, reduced personal accomplishment did not have a significant effect on turnover intention. The suggestion of this study is that the emotional labor of franchise coffee shops’ employees is an important antecedent of emotional exhaustion among the sub-dimensions of job burnout, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Furthermore, among these categories, job burnout is the most important antecedent of turnover intention. So business managers need to pay close attention to prevent emotional exhaustion.
  • 8.

    An Analysis of Customer Price Sensitivity to Americano among Three Franchise Coffeehouses Using Price Sensitivity Measurement: A Case Study of Starbucks, Edya and Paik’s Coffee

    Sukbin Cha | Kim, Young-Gook | 2016, 40(9) | pp.137~150 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    Using the PSM(price sensitivity management) technique, this study attempted to develop pricing strategy based on an understanding about customer perceived price sensitivity of Americano coffees in three coffee franchises(Starbucks, Edya and Paik’s Coffee). The data were collected from 210 customers during their visits to the three coffee chain stores in the Seoul metropolitan area from April 20th to May 15th, 2016. The results revealed that the current prices of Americano for three brands were within the range of an acceptable price. Among the three brands, Edya revealed the widest price stress, the narrowest acceptable price range, and the biggest stress factor while Starbucks revealed the lowest cumulative rate of indifference to price. In the case of Paik’s Coffee, respondents were second place in acceptable price range and had the least price sensitivity in the cumulative rate of indifference to price, price stress, and the general stress factor. In conclusion, the price sensitivity of Americano at the Edya chain was the highest followed by Starbucks and Paik’s Coffee. This study concluded with implications of the research findings and suggestions for future research areas.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Optimal Location Decision of Business Hotels

    송병덕 | Ko, Young Dae | 2016, 40(9) | pp.151~167 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The Facility location challenge has been widely addressed by using various mathematical models since 1960s. However, there are not sufficient Operation Research perspective approaches on the location problems throughout the hotel industry. In this study, we developed a mathematical model to optimize the location and size of new business hotels within their budget restrictions. As a solution approach, a genetic algorithm was developed. A proposed mathematical model and a genetic algorithm were tested using the real data of head offices and using hypothesis hotels data in Seoul metropolitan city. A Proposed mathematical model and a genetic algorithm were examined via numerical example by deriving the optimal location and size of new hotels in a reasonable time.
  • 10.

    The Effect of Self - Leadership among Flight Attendants on Self - Efficacy and Job Performance: Focus on the Full Service Carrier

    김희수 | Yeong Gug Kim | Han Sang-Hyun | 2016, 40(9) | pp.169~186 | number of Cited : 21
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship among self-leadership, self-efficacy and job performance for flight attendants, working for a full service carrier. For this research, data were collected from 293 questionnaires completed by flight attendants from a total of 400 questionnaires distributed throughout the two major full service airlines in Korea. For this study, the quota sampling method was employed within a non-probability sampling model. From the research, the main results were as follows: First, the factors of organizing for Self-leadership, such as the Behavior-focused strategy factor; Natural rewards strategy and the Constructive thought strategy, have significant effects on self-efficacy. Secondly, Self-efficacy also has a significant effect on Job performance. Finally, this study presented some implications related to effective human resource management in the airline industry, and the role of self-leadership to achieve effective service from flight attendants.
  • 11.

    Effects of Scarcity Messages on Purchase Intention on the TV Home Shopping Channels

    공혜진 | Chong,Yu-kyeong | 2016, 40(9) | pp.187~205 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    This study examined how purchase intention of customers was affected by different types of scarcity messages on the home shopping channel. The current study thus aims to provide for TV home shopping marketers to use appropriate impactful scarcity messages to better sell processed foods. Survey questionnaires were distributed to home shopping customers in the capital area from April 29th to May 5th, 2016. Out of 240 questionnaires, 205 questionnaires were used for further analysis except 35 that had no purchase experience. The results showed that a time-limited-scarcity message brings concerns of exhaustion in the products as time pressure is applied and also increases purchase intention. When consumers are exposed to quantity-limited-scarcity messages saying that other consumers are purchasing the products, they become concerned that purchase opportunities of the product could be reduced and purchase intention are also increased accordingly. When there were six minutes of TV home shopping airtime left and a message of 3,000 sets sold went on the air, consumers felt that they needed to purchase. In this case, both time-limited-scarcity messages and quantity-limited-scarcity messages influenced purchase intentions. In conclusion, home shopping marketers could apply the results of this study to maximize their persuasive effect using scarcity messages. Finally, limitations of this research and future directions were discussed.
  • 12.

    The Valuation of Selection Attributes in Coffee Shops in Accordance with the Type of Consumer Preference

    김미연 | YUN SUN MI | 2016, 40(9) | pp.207~225 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The market for coffee shops has grown over 300 million won, due to the expansion of franchised coffee shops over the last 5 years. This has now become a huge market with total annual sales approaching 1 billion won for all coffee shops. Despite such a continuous growth of coffee shops, the managing ground of many brand coffee shops that have a weak profit structure and little differentiated management strategy has been collapsing down. Based on such a critical concern, this study analyzed the consumer’s desire, which has not been examined in previous research, to enhance the competitiveness of coffee shops. This research also involved classifying the consumer groups following the customer’s coffee shops using types in order to analyze the optimal combination that was preferred by each group, subject to the price, staff’s service, additional benefit, taste/quality, and brand. 500 university students and office workers, who had experienced visiting the coffee shops in Seoul and Daegu, were chosen as the samples of this study, and 358 questionnaires were used for the final analysis. The questionnaire survey was carried out for 30 days from August 1st, through to August 30th, 2015. The data analysis used a conjoint model for the initial design of the experiments, SPSS 20.0 for the basic statistics analysis, and NLOGIT 3.0 for the marginal willingness to pay. The results of this research were as follows: First, coffee shop customers fall into three categories subject to the type of consumer preference. Second, the marginal willingness to pay has been presumed for the models derived from the choice experiment method.