This study verifies the structural causation of tourism satisfaction and behavioral intention as well as the mediating effect of tourism satisfaction on culinary tour participation activities. This was accomplished using a questionnaire distributed among 212 local residents throughout Busan from January 15th to January 30th, 2017. SPSS(V23.0) and AMOS(V21.0) programs were used to analyze the demographic characteristics and ensure the reliability of each measurement item. Confirmatory factors, and correlational analysis have been performed to measure correlations between the pairs of elicited factors analyzed in order to achieve the research purpose of the study. Structural Equation Modeling was used to test fidelity, systematic causation of the complete model, and the mediating effect of tourism satisfaction. The research results demonstrate that each sub factor of participating activities in culinary tourism has collectively the largest significant causation effect on tourism satisfaction. Furthermore, tourism satisfaction acts as a causation of behavioral intent as well. The mediating effect of tourism satisfaction is most significant in terms of tourism cuisine, and partially mediated in the culinary experience participation. However, no mediating effect was detected in the purchase of regional specialty products. These implied culinary tourism participation activities present in the results prove the influence of tourism satisfaction as a systematic causation of behavioral intent. The results also show the mediating effect of tourism satisfaction on behavioral intent through tourism cuisine. Therefore, it is recommended that regional government organizations discover renowned restaurants and traditional cuisine to actively market culinary tourism and seek administrative and financial support.
This study examined the way in which risk perception of fine particular matter influences behavioral intention within the larger context of outdoor recreation. Risk perceptions of fine particular matter were classified into three sub-dimensions: social-environmental risk, economic risk, and physical risk. Then, these sub-dimensions were applied to the theory of planned behavior. 345 responses were collected from recreationists throughout the Han-river region of Seoul. The results of data analysis prove that the socio-environmental and physical risks of fine particular matter positively influence attitudes and subjective norms among recreationists. This influence is also reflected in environmental perspectives but not in perceived behavioral control. On the contrary, there were no statistically significant differences among economic risk of particular matter and attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control respectively. It was also found that the attitude of outdoor recreationists, subjective norms, and the perceived behavior control of fine particular matter positively influenced behavioral intention. These findings imply that recreation participants are aware of their attitudes toward social, environmental and physical risks, but they are not fully aware in terms of the economic risk of fine particular matter.
This paper speculates on the meaning of the 2016 candlelight rally from the perspective of Bakhtin. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the reappearance method that occurred during the 2016 candlelight rally through the carnivalesque. Mikhail Bakhtin’s theory of the carnivalesque was used to examine the unrestraint and liberty. According to Bakhtin’s carnivalesque, members of society try to resolve encountered problems through a carnival. Carnival is a festival in which people are temporarily liberated from their everyday lives and formal routines. The components of carnivalesque are ‘inversion’, familiarization’, ‘grotesque realism’, and ‘satire’. These elements were all present throughout the 2016 candlelight rally. Results of the ethnography revealed characteristics of a new civic culture including class-disruption, cultural festivalization and the offer of a new subject of protest. In conclusion, the 2016 candlelight rally was a way of recovering the positive subjectivity of civil rights.
This study examines the relationship among medical tourism industry-related client management stress for staff, emotional labor and job change intention. The study also explains client related stress factors and provides basic data to decrease emotional labor and the rate of job change. It was found that the effect of client related stress on surface acting in relation to the emotional labor of the medical tourism industry staff was empirically significant. The ambiguous expectation was statistically significant as well. However, the client's negative feelings and the verbal violence of customers had no significant effect. In the case of deep acting, the client's excessive expectations and the client's liking were also statistically significant. Meanwhile, the ambiguous expectation of the client and the verbal violence of the client were not significant. It is important for employees in the medical tourism industry to find ways to solve emotional and psychological problems related to emotional labor since the results for the company are changed in accordance with these contents. In the relationship between emotional labor and the job change intention of medical tourism industry staff, job change intention has a significant effect on surface action, but deep acting has no significant effect.
In this study, we investigated the effects of the emotional labor of airline company employees upon burnout. After a review of prior studies, we defined the burnout concept and found two sub dimensions of burnout, which are emotional/physical exhaustion and depersonalization. We also developed an exploratory trial of emotional labor type built upon a few key prior studies and examined whether these types moderated the effect of emotional labor. The investigation of the relation between emotional labor components and burnout revealed that surface acting had a statistically significant positive effect on both sub dimensions of burnout. Deep acting however had a statistically significant negative effect on depersonalization and showed very big standardized beta coefficient compared to surface acting, but not on emotional/physical exhaustion. While testing for parallelism, we found a moderating effect of emotional labor type on emotional/physical exhaustion, but in terms of depersonalization, the moderating effect of emotional labor type was found only in surface acting. Interestingly, the averages of emotional/physical exhaustion and depersonalization in the positive emotional labor group were lower than those in the neutral emotional labor group. We also investigated the leisure type of respondents and the demographic variables related to emotional labor components, job satisfaction and burnout in order to suggest several fruitful implications.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the physical environment on service quality and relational continuance intention. For empirical testing, this study Focused on a business hotel in Seoul was visited during a month long survey period in which questionnaires were collected. Insincere responses were excluded from the c leaving 309 responses, which were analyzed using a statistical package program named SPSS 21.0. The results of this study are as follows. First, the effect of the physical environment on service quality was identified and had it had a significant effect on the service quality. Second, the effect of service quality on the relational continuance intention was accepted. It also had a significant effect on the relational continuance intention. It can be interpreted that the physical environment was adopted because it has a positive effect on service quality and relational continuance intention. Accordingly, a business hotel can contribute to profitable management by providing strategic support to its physical environment. The results of this study will substantially contribute to the academia of physical environment, service quality and relational continuance intention analysis.
The purpose of this study is to recommend physical leisure activity as a stress coping strategy for family caregivers who are under chronic stress and to explore its role in the stress coping process. In this study, qualitative research was conducted. This study adopted a phenomenological approach which focused on “what people experience and how they interpret the world.” The interviewees were 8 family caregivers who had been taking caring of their family member. These family members were patients in need of long-term care who received social nursing care services for less than 4 hours a day. The data were collected from May to October 2016, and a semi-structured interview guide structured the interviews. The analysis of the interviews showed that family caregivers who had been involved in physical activity were able to continuously relieve their stress and experienced positive emotions. This implies that physical activity has a positive impact on their ‘problem-focused’ and ‘meaning-focused’ coping strategies for managing their daily stress. Finally, this study provides implications for practical counseling and policy development for family caregivers through a deep understanding of the role of physical activity as a means of chronic stress management for family caregivers.
The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of the interaction of service contact points and the physical environment quality on satisfaction and loyalty. The study targeted overseas tourists using a guesthouse located in Seoul. The research showed that the interaction of service contact points could be divided into Customer to Customer Interaction (CCI) and Customer to Provider Interaction (CPI). CCI had a positive effect on satisfaction but did not directly affect loyalty whereas CPI had an effect on both satisfaction and loyalty positively. Furthermore, CPI had an influence on satisfaction and loyalty more strongly than CCI did. It was also proved that the Physical environment quality affected satisfaction and loyalty positively. Finally, satisfaction had a strong positively influential relationship on loyalty. Based on these results, theoretical and practical implications for the owners of a guesthouse are presented.
he present study analyzed the effect of consumer emotion variables on their purchase behavior intentions and then suggested appropriate measures accordingly. The specific research focus was on the degree of gratitude and attachment consumers experienced. The study was based on survey evidence collected for approximately 5 weeks starting in July 2015. The questionnaires were distributed throughout several 5-star hotels in Busan, Seoul, and Jeju, with 302 copies being used for the final analysis. The results showed that gratitude has a significant effect on up-buying and cross-buying, especially as it pertains to the purchase behavior intentions of customers who feel higher degrees of gratitude. In addition, attachment was found to play a mediating role in increasing purchase behavior intention, and "high wallet share" customers were found to have a significant effect on up-buying. These study results will help hotel companies when conducting research on consumer behavior and marketing and when devising measures to improve their business performance.
This study investigated the economic value assessment of Suwon-cheon which has been characterized as a leisure place in the living space of Suwon’s citizens. Activity involvement means the degree of their leisure activity achievement and place attachment means their psychological reaction to Suwon-cheon. The research process and method of this study were designed by following guidelines as presented in the NOAA report. The survey was performed over a period of 2 weeks from September 4 to 18, 2016 in Mt. Gwanggyo, Hwaseong Place, Lake Gwanggyo Park, Suwon Je-il Church and other locations. Quota sampling was employed throughout this study. Results of data analysis showed there was a difference between the main variables of activity involvement and place attachment. In the case of activity involvement, it showed no statistically significant effect on willingness to pay for restoration/preservation of Suwon-cheon, however all of the sub-factors of place attachment – place dependence, place identity and social bonding - were verified antecedent variables of a willingness to pay.
The study was to investigate the socio-psychological effects of temple stay experience of the probationers. We examined whether there was any change of psychological states during pre-, post-participation, and one month later. The survey was conducted on 78 probationers of 9 probation stations in total. Data was collected from September to December 2015 with self-administrated questionnaires. The pre-participation survey was conducted on arriving at the temple, and the post-participation survey was carried out immediately after the temple stay experience. And the final survey was conducted one month after their temple stay. An interesting result was that there were no any significant changes in the probationers’ socio-psychological states over the time periods. This was due to the fact that the short-term program provided to the probationers was the same as the program provided to general participants. Based on the result, it was suggested that mid and long-term temple stay programs optimally centered on exceptional people (e.g., the probationers) should be developed to provide with them more positive effects and to enhance the probation system.
This study reviewed Korean casino research published in selected two Korean top hospitality and tourism journals (Journal of Tourism Sciences and Korean Journal of Hospitality & Tourism) for the period of 1977(1993)~2016. Ninety-three full articles from the journals were selected for content analysis. This study looked at research topics, research objects, research designs such as sampling methods and data collection, methodological aspects, and financial support institution for research. Significant trends in research topics were identified and discussed to raise issues for future research. A table at the end of the study illustrated an overview of different characteristic of two Korean top journals. Readers could gain insights into past research and ideas for future research from the study. The study concluded with limitations of this study and general suggestions for future casino research in Korea.