The purpose of this study was to confirm the continuance intention of users in terms of the beacon service in food-service industries. In addition, this study used an extended expectation-confirmation model to identify the relationships among expectation-confirmation, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, satisfaction rate and continuance intention to use beacon service. A survey questionnaire was developed based upon previous relevant studies and survey questionnaires were distributed to customers who had used the beacon service. Data were collected from questionnaires completed by 296 customers throughout Seoul and the surrounding metropolitan areas. The findings yielded the following results: 1) There was no significant relationship between confirmation and perceived usefulness. 2) There was also no relationship between perceived usefulness and the continuance intention to use beacon service however other factors were significantly related. 3) Perceived usefulness plays the most important role in the relationship between perceived usefulness and satisfaction. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed as related to food-service industries.
This study investigates the impact of organizational silence on counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and subsequent turnover intention. It also tested the difference between contract and regular workers in these relationships. To verify the hypotheses, the study used structural equation modeling (SEM) applied to 337 employees in the foodservice industry. The results show that: 1) Two types of silence behavior (acquiescent and defensive silence) significantly influence counterproductive work behavior (CWB). 2) Interpersonal CWB had a positive influence on turnover intention, whereas organizational CWB did not significantly impact turnover intention. 3) Acquiescent silence did not significantly affect turnover intention, while defensive silence did significantly influence turnover intention. 4) Contract workers showed higher turnover intention than regular workers through acquiescent silence. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
This study examines the effect of interpersonal attraction among service company employees on a customer's perceived value. This was done in order to confirm the interpersonal attraction of service employees needed to enhance the performance of service companies. The categories of interpersonal attraction were defined in terms of physical attraction, social attraction, and task attraction. Perceived value was divided into quality value, emotional value, price value, and social value. The samples used were taken from those who had experienced receiving service in restaurants. This was done because restaurants are one of most common places in which most people often experience the attraction of a service provider. The survey was conducted in Seoul Station in an area of constant human movement with 317 questionnaires being used to obtain the results. By applying factor analysis, interpersonal attraction converged into three factors according to the research design. However, as the quality value and the price value converged into one factor, perceived value separated into three factors being: quality-price value, emotional value, and social value. As a result, task attraction had a positive effect on quality-price value but physical attraction had a negative effect on it. Task attraction and social attraction had a positive effect on emotional value. Physical attraction, task attraction, and social attraction all had a positive effect on social value.
The problem of emotional labor in the service industry has grown with the simultaneous growth of the service industry itself. It has therefore received a great deal of attention because some emotional laborers in service are not able to deal with this stress and tend to make extreme choices. The following self-defense mechanisms are present within the workplace: They are Repression of work-related stress, Suppression of one's emotions, Projection as the ‘buck-passing’ of a crisis, Escape from reality and Sublimation to improve in a positive direction. Therefore, people who work in the service sector unconsciously conceal their stress however the accumulated effects of it can surface after their work. After employees have finished dealing with a crisis at work, they tend to reveal their negative emotions and attitudes to a third person or withdraw from reality as such experiences are often repeated. However, the stress that service employees experience may not only be considered in terms of their negative aspects, but also as a positive opportunity for self-growth. In conclusion, this study provides findings concerning various psychological symptoms within the framework of Sigmund Freud's theory as well as the defense mechanisms these emotional workers experience.
This study focuses on developing a measurement tool for the country image of restaurants from the viewpoint of the food service industry and restaurants. Measuring tools should be able to measure the variables in question accurately and appropriately. Until now, there have been no suitable tools to measure country images throughout the food service industry at large and restaurants particularly. Because of this, the new tool in this study was developed. The measurement tool developed can now explain the impact of consumer image on other countries’ images according to properties related to the evaluation of restaurants and the food service industry. This measurement tool will also be useful for the scope of country image research related to the food service industry and restaurants. In particular, the country image related to restaurants in this study is defined as the total of all technical, inferential and informational beliefs. These include: food, general culture, food culture and the traditional factors of a specific country.
This study examined the effects of process control and social control on franchisee’s financial performance resulting from affective commitment. The study also examined the moderating effect of self-determination on the relationship between process control and social control as well as the subsequent affective commitment of franchisees. This research was conducted using data collected from 344 respondents of franchisees who had at least six months of experience in the food service franchise industry. The analysis utilized a structural equation model and this indicated that process control had no significant effect on the affective commitment of franchisees. Unlike process control, social control had a positive effect on affective commitment. Franchisee’s affective commitment had a positive effect on financial performance. There was no significant moderating effect of self-determination on the relationship between social control and affective commitment. On the other hand, self-determination had a significant moderating effect on the relationship between process control and affective commitment.
With the development of social media, consumers are sharing and spreading information rapidly. Since hotel reviews affect hotel image and reputation, it is important to understand the value of customers in hotel reviews. This is in order to consistently provide hotel quality, maintain brand loyalty and create new customers. Hotel companies need to determine which selection attributes are the most meaningful and relevant in online reviews written by consumers. To accomplish this, hotel reviews were collected using the data analysis tool ‘R’ in the online travel community Trip advisor. The text network was analyzed using UCINET6, Netdraw, and the obtained results were then visualized. The results showed that the frequency and network centrality of the attribute room, cleanliness level, staff ability, kindness level, accessibility, and location were all significantly high factors affecting hotel image and reputation. Furthermore, attributes related to the core product of the hotel are being treated as important evaluation items. Based on these results, theoretical and practical implications for hotel market segmentation and future marketing strategies are suggested.
The purpose of the study is to analyze the effect of social responsibility in a consumer’s cooperative on social connectedness, the purchase intention of organic foods, the consumer’s cooperative image and the joining presence of consumer’s cooperatives. The findings of the study were as follows: 1) Philanthropic activity which was a sub-dimension of corporate social responsibility and this had a significant positive effect on social connectedness. 2) Economic·ethical activity which was a sub-dimension of corporate social responsibility had a significant positive effect on social connectedness. 3) Social Connectedness had a significant positive effect on cooperative image and purchase intention. 4) Cooperative image had no significant effect on purchase intension. These research findings suggest that significant efforts to seek a direction for effective marketing strategies will contribute to a consumer's cooperative composed of socially responsible activities.
Tourism distribution responds to various drivers such as technology and the environment. Development and dispersion of IT triggered a rapid change in tourism distribution along with a proliferation of innovative products, channels, and methods. This rapid change coupled with ever dimming lines between regions and industries has greatly increased the limitations of traditional data collection methods. We suggest the 5C model in order to forecast tourism trends as a solution. In the 5C (Consumer, Commodity, Channel, Charge, and Competitor) model, the Consumer is simultaneously the source of information, and the subject to be studied. Commodity is the object that is distributed. Channel becomes the intermediary as well as the catalyst between the commodity and the consumer. The charge encompasses the perceived value along with the associated price and payment. Finally, it is the Competitor who represents the diversity of suppliers and alternatives for consumers. This model overcomes limitations of conventional models due to the help of consumer surveys and it synthesizes and reinterprets the extant literature on tourism distribution. This proposed 5C model should provide new insight into consumer research on tourism distribution from an unbiased and value-neutral perspective. It should help to forecast future changes in the tourism market by allowing inference on the overall flow of tourism distribution.
The popularity of Korean wave cultural contents not only contributes to favorable sentiments toward Korea but also positively affects attitude formation and the subsequent evaluation of medical tourism products. This study examined how the flow of Korean cultural contents affected emotional attitudes and how it affected trust and relationship-orientation toward Korean medical tourism. Also, the current study investigated relationships among emotional attitudes, trust, and relationship-orientation. In addition, this study examined the relationship between trust and relationship-orientation. We conducted a questionnaire survey on 200 college students throughout the Nanchang and Jiujiang regions of Jiangxi province, China. Frequency, reliability, and correlation analyses were performed using IBM SPSS 23.0 and hypotheses were tested using AMOS 21.0 program. The results showed that the degree of flow of Korean wave cultural contents positively affected emotional attitudes, but there were no significant relationships between the degree of flow and trust and relationship-orientation toward Korean medical tourism. Additionally, emotional attitudes caused positive effects on the trust and relationship-orientation. These results suggest that direct feeling and emotional judgment concerning Korean wave cultural contents have a direct effect on Korean medical tourism.
This study investigated the effect of construal level theory (near future vs. far future) and a consumer reward program (instant discount vs point accumulation) of travel products on the purchase intention. This was done according to temporal distance and focused on the moderating effect of using a regulatory focus and an evaluation mode. The moderating effect of regulatory focus (promotion focus vs prevention focus) was examined in the first experiment and an evaluation mode (separate evaluation vs joint evaluation) was examined in the second experiment. A total of 296 and 277 samples were collected and analyzed for the first and second experiments respectively. These were taken from college students aged in the 20s throughout Seoul and Gyeonggi Province from May 12 to May 25, 2017. These results show that the moderating effect of the regulatory focus was partially adopted while the moderating effect of the evaluation mode was fully adopted. In conclusion, the study identifies the importance of consumer behavioral changes in the purchasing intention for travel products and suggests effective ways of using a consumer reward program.
Based on TMT(terror management theory), the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of mortality salience on travel intention and world-view defense. It was also to examine the moderating effects of travel intention and self-esteem as related to mortality salience and its dependent variables. This experiment on mortality salience and control was conducted using distal defense treatments to answer a series of research questions. A control group was also used for comparison. The results showed were as follows: 1) Mortality salience had a statistically significant relationship with travel intention. 2) The experimental group with mortality salience had a higher instant travel intention than the control group. 3) The control group with high self-esteem showed higher travel intention than the control group with low self-esteem. 4) Participants in the mortality salience condition were willing to spend more money on overseas travel. This study demonstrated that having a mortality-related image led participants to spend more on overseas travel, but not domestic travel. Findings are discussed in the context of consumer behavior.