Journal of Tourism Sciences 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 2.61

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pISSN : 1226-0533 / eISSN : 2713-6388
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2020, Vol.44, No.5

  • 1.

    An Analysis of the Punctuational Changes of Tourism Budgets and its Determinants by the Type of Local Governments

    LEE. S. H | 2020, 44(5) | pp.9~31 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to identify the punctuational change patterns in tourism budget and find the determinants of the punctuational changes. A total of 1,824 tourism budgets from 2008 to 2019 were collected from 152 local governments in South Korea. This study adjusted 25% to annual average growth rate of each budget and divided into three types of change patterns, which were used as dependent variables. The independent variables were identified using punctuation equilibrium theory and included focusing events (financial crisis in 2008), mega-events (two regional events), and institutional frictions (elections). A multinomial panel regression analysis was used for data analysis. The results showed that the elections, financial crisis, and regional events were the major determinants of punctuational changes. At city level, elections and regional events had an impact on the negative punctuational changes. At county level, the parliamentary elections had an impact on negative punctuational changes. Financial crisis had an impacts on both positive and negative punctuations. The results indicate that the punctuational changes are mainly caused by a lack of group who advocates and protects budget on tourism project as the status of tourism is lower than other functions in local government. The punctuational changes are more likely to happen for the small city which has limited budget. This study suggests that the stable budget growth for tourism depends on the local economic empowerment.
  • 2.

    China-North Korea International Tourism Cooperation in Tumen River : An Exploratory Study

    Chung, Jin Young , Cui, Zhe-Hao | 2020, 44(5) | pp.33~55 | number of Cited : 4
    Border tourists from China to North Korea have become significant economic engines for the development of North Korea’s economy, so that the North Korea’s new leader, Kim Jung-Un has been largely interested in the tourism cooperation with China. Thus, this study examined the border tourism between China and North Korea. Results showed that the border tourism in the region has been changing from in the form of cross-border tourism to trans-border tourism cooperation. In particular, it was found that over the years three countries in the Tumen river area(i.e., China, North Korea, Russia) have collaborated together to build a shared vision for the tourism development, the Tumen River Delta International Tourism Zone, which is composed of the three countries’ territories. We suggest that both public and private sectors in Korea should consider proactively participating in the international tourism cooperation in Tumen river. Also, the tourism cooperation project led by the local governments in the river area suggests that regional governments in the border between South and North Koreas should take the lead in developing the peaceful relations in the border. Due to the difficulty in collecting empirical evidence, this study took an exploratory approach including literature review and fieldwork to collect on-site information, and suggestions for future study based on empirical data analysis would contribute to improving the body of literature on border tourism in Northeast Asia.
  • 3.

    An Exploratory Study of Success Factors of Co-operatives in the Tourism and Leisure Service Sectors

    Kwon Yoo Hong , Heo,Moon-Kyung | 2020, 44(5) | pp.57~75 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study explores the success factors of co-operatives in the tourism and leisure service sectors. We reviewed the literature on the success factors of domestic and overseas co-operatives, and focused on the essential characteristics of co-operatives, which is referred to as human associations. It was found that business models should be developed in the business sectors that can meet the needs of co-operative members while showing the benefits of collaboration. In organizational aspect, the dedication and competence of leaders, and the trust and cooperation among members, are particularly important. It was also found that active solidarity between co-operatives and external organizations is necessary to complement competitiveness of co-operatives. The surveys were administered three times. Results from 157 surveys show that 'trust and cooperation among members' and 'competence and dedication of leaders' were the most important success factors. The differences in the perception of success factors between the beginning stage and operational stage, co-operative members and non-members, chairmen of co-operatives and other employees were further analyzed. Policy implications and research recommendations are discussed.
  • 4.

    Psychological Implications of Leisure Experience at Home Alone: A Self-Determination Perspective

    youngju hwang , 남윤영 , Lee, Hoon | 2020, 44(5) | pp.77~95 | number of Cited : 3
    The perspectives on spending leisure-alone are sharply opposed. Studies regarding related experiences as social isolation, in terms of non-voluntary leisure consumption, maintain negative results while those focusing on self-determination present positive psychological effects. The purpose of this study is to analyze the psychological meaning of ‘leisure experience at home alone’ in the context of self-determination. Data were analyzed using phenomenology approach to identify the nature of subjective leisure experience. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven participants. Interviews were stopped when no new information emerged from the participants' narratives. The result shows that the participants experienced physical comfort and psychological happiness recognizing their home as their ‘own’ place. They revealed its own satisfaction by reflecting their whole preference free from involuntary activities with others. This leisure experience was named ‘egocentric leisure experience' in this study. It contains strengthening self-reality as well as high leisure satisfaction and self-determination is a key factor that make participants perceive themselves as actively participating in leisure activities. Despite the positive responses, due to the traditionally shared collectivist value, the surrounding shows negative bias against the participants. As a new leisure culture, efforts to understand the privatization of leisure and various studies on subjective leisure experience are needed.
  • 5.

    Determinants of Tourism Destination Ranks in Multi-destination Travel - An Application of Anchor-point Theory -

    Park, Deukhee , Lee Gyehee , KANG SANGHOON | 2020, 44(5) | pp.97~115 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Tourism has been recognized as a critical power for sound condition of regional economy. It is also essential to understand tourists’ multi-destination travel patterns for vitalizing regional tourism, since tourists tend to visit multi-destinations during their single trip. Applying Anchor-point Theory, this study investigated the determinants related to the ranks in tourism destination hierarchy, which was computed by social network analysis techniques, such as degree centrality. We used raw data of “2016 Korea National Tourism Survey” and “Regional Tourism Competitiveness Model Index,” conducted by Ministry of Culture, Sports, and Tourism of Korea and Korea National Tourism Organization, respectively. Data were analyzed using social network analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Results revealed that Haeundae was the 1st-ranked tourist destination in both in-degree and out-degree networks, and confirmed to be the anchor-point among other tourist destinations. Meanwhile, out of fifteen tourism competitiveness indicators, only the number of tourism accommodations was significantly related to in-degree centrality scores (ranks), while no other indicators showed such relationships. The results hold several theoretical and practical implications regarding travelers’ multi-destination travel behaviors and the relationship between the characteristics of tourism destinations and multi-destination travel of travelers.
  • 6.

    Processing of Convention Agenda Selection: Applying the Information Processing Adoption Model

    Kim, Jong-Chul , Yhee, Ye Rin , Koo Chulmo | 2020, 44(5) | pp.117~139 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that affect the selection of the agenda, which is the core content of convention events and the mechanism of agenda decision-makers' adoption of the agenda. In the convention industry, the agenda is the most important keyword faced by society. Although it plays a role in determining the success of the convention, related research is lacking. Therefore, in this study, an empirical study model was presented by referring to the decision processing through the personal information processing and the usefulness of the information. In addition, the attitude and impact on the agenda were analyzed by adding social norms and government policy agenda variables, which are social impact variables, in consideration of the convention context. Based on qualitative interviews with convention experts, a survey was conducted and a total of 203 data were collected. As a result, it was found that the association and timeliness of the agenda as a quality factor of the agenda act as a leading factor in the usefulness of the agenda and the necessity of the agenda. On the other hand, agenda necessity and source credibility did not significantly affect the usefulness of the agenda. It was confirmed that social norms and government policy agendas showed different results in attitude and intention. This is expected to be an academically and practically useful barometer by further organizing the theoretical framework of research on the convention agenda selection process, which was conducted without a rationale by using the information adoption model.
  • 7.

    A Review of Casino Research Trends in Korea using the Semantic Network Analysis Methods

    Yoon, Tae-Hwan | 2020, 44(5) | pp.141~160 | number of Cited : 10
    This study examined the casino research trends in Korea using the semantic network analysis. A total of 517 casino-related studies identified through RISS search, were used for the analysis. Both frequency of occurrence and centrality analysis results showed that research topics related to human resource management, casino customers, and casino businesses ranked the top. Among them, the influence of human resource management related keywords was the largest. The result of comparative analysis of casino research trends divided them into two periods: the first half (2008-2013) and the second half (2014-2019) showed that the human resource management field was the most important topic of Korean casino research at all times. However, keywords such as 'integrated resort', 'corporate social responsibility', 'organizational citizenship', and ‘responsible gambling’ that were not in the first half appeared in the second half suggesting that the topics of Korean casino research are also changing due to changes in the casino industry and social needs. Finally, this study suggested that despite the quantitative increase in Korean casino research, the diversity of research topics is very limited. It is necessary to initiate creative research design in various aspects beyond existing research.
  • 8.

    The Effect of Blockchain-based Crypto-currency on the Intention to Use A Casino

    Lee Sa-Hee , Yoon Ji-Hwan | 2020, 44(5) | pp.161~179 | number of Cited : 3
    China occupies over 50% of total bitcoin mining output and ranks no. 1 in the number of tourists to Korea and casino visitors. When it comes to the recent Crypto-currency, casinos overseas already attempted to introduce crypto-currency due to the convenience associated with payment, safety, and quicker money exchange. Accordingly this study was conducted to understand more deeply the decision making process among users when Crypto-currency is introduced into casino. Casino is considered one of the fields in the tourism industry where Crypto-currency’s influence is expected in the future. Specifically using the TAM and TPB combined model. we aimed to identify the process of users’ decision making to use the casino that introduced the Crypto-currency. A total of 315 surveys from Chinese who had experience of visiting casino were used in this study. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. As a result of analysis, it appeared that among the variables that constituted the TAM and TPB combined model, individual’s perceived easiness and usefulness toward the casino that introduced the Crypto-currency had a significant impact, which eventually had an impact on the intention to use casino. It also appeared that perceived behavior control had a significant impact on the intention to use casino, but subjective norm did not have a significant impact on the intention to use casino. To successfully introduce Crypto-currency into casinos, there is a need to create an environment for anyone to easily and quickly use the casino. Furthermore establishing the infrastructure considering the subjectivity of users is also needed.
  • 9.

    The Structural Relationship between Hotel Employee's Emotional Labor, Job Stress and Response Behaviors: An Application of Farrell`s EVLN Model

    Kim, Min-Young , Lee, Hyung-ryong | 2020, 44(5) | pp.181~207 | number of Cited : 5
    The purpose of this study is to identify the structural relationship between emotional labor, job stress, response behaviors (EVLN) for hotel employees. To test the hypothesis, questionnaires were developed based on the precedent research. The research was conducted on four-five stars hotel employees in Seoul who have more than one-year experience using judgment sampling. A total of 350 questionnaires were sent out, and 305 questionnaire were used in the analysis. The SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0 statistical packages were used to perform frequency analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis, and verify the hypothesis through a structural equation model. Regarding verification of hypothesis, first, the emotional labor of hotel employees shows significantly positive (+) effects on job stress. Second, hotel employee's job stress had significantly positive (+) effects on exit, loyalty, and neglect except for voice among the constituents of response behavior. Lastly, it was verified that work job stress performs a mediating role in the correlation of exit, loyalty, and neglect out of the hotel employees’ response behavior, with emotional labor. Based on the results of this study, the need for ways to reduce the job stress of hotel employees who are exposed to emotional labor was emphasized, and the importance of how to cope with the employees' response behavior in a desirable manner was confirmed through effective management. Hotel managers will also need to pay greater attention to the importance of employee dissatisfaction with their work.
  • 10.

    The Impact of Customer Experience(CX) of the Aircraft Cabin Service on the Service Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty

    Im, Jin-Young | 2020, 44(5) | pp.209~228 | number of Cited : 8
    The experience of customer on services gives a significant impact on the satisfaction and future behavioral intention of customer. In case that the space for providing services is physically limited, it is necessary to examine the characteristics more specifically. This study is based on exploring experience economy, and investigated the impact of customer experience on the cabin service satisfaction and customer loyalty of the aircraft. The survey was conducted online with passengers who had experience with international flights within six months. A total of 292 questionnaires were used for analysis. The results reveal that cabin service satisfaction significantly affected in order of relational experience and emotional experience, and the customer loyalty is significantly affected in order of emotional experience, relational experience, and cognitive experience. The significant influence of both relational and emotional experience seems to stemmed from the characterization of aircraft cabin service. The results show that the differences between groups according to airline type (FSC/LCC) though multi group analysis. FSC airlines is influenced by effects on relational experience and sensible experience, and LCC airlines is influenced by effects on relational experience, emotional experience and cognitive experience. This study identified the factors of customer experience(CX) that revealed the characteristics of aircraft cabin service, based on the theoretical foundation of the experience economy. In addition, the findings suggest what needs to be focused on to strengthen the competitiveness of cabin service.