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pISSN : 1226-0533 / eISSN : 2713-6388

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 2.37
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2021, Vol.45, No.3

  • 1.

    A grounded theory approach on the experience of employment insecurity of travel industry workers in the COVID-19

    Lee, Jin-Hee | Kim, Nam Jo | 2021, 45(3) | pp.9~32 | number of Cited : 0
    Based on the grounded theory, this study examined the experience of employment insecurity of travel industry workers during the COVID-19. In-depth interviews were conducted with travel industry workers who experienced employment insecurity after COVID-19. We conducted the theoretical sampling until the data achieved the satuaration. The data were continuously reviewed by experts during the analysis processes and NVivo 12 was used to manage and analyze the data. In the open coding process, we found total of 118 concepts, 30 sub-categories, and 12 categories related to employment insecurity of travel industry during the COVID-19. The findings suggest that casual condition was turned out to be ‘tourism crisis caused by COVID-19', contextual conditions were ’industrial structure vulnerable to external factors’, ‘insufficient employment policy’ and ‘digitalization of the tourism industry’ The phenomenon was 'experience of employment insecurity of travel industry workers' and the intervening condition were 'psychological change', 'low work capacity of human resources' and 'limited turnover opportunities'. The action and interaction were 'search and utilize of employment policy', 'k-quarantine and a system-based HRM' and 'establishment of tourism employment safety net'. The consequence was 'improvement of the tourism employment structure in the New Normal Era'. In the selective coding stage, the core category was found to be 'improvement of the tourism employment structure in the New Normal Era according to tourism employment insecurity'.
  • 2.

    Analysis for Economic Impacts of the Tourism/Culture and Whole Industry due to Reduced Inbound Visitors after the COVID-19 Outbreak

    Ye-Sol Kim | Jin Hyun Joung | 2021, 45(3) | pp.33~53 | number of Cited : 0
    Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the domestic air transport as well as tourism and culture industries have suffered significant economic loss due to restrictions on movement between countries. This study investigates loss on production outputs in the domestic tourism/culture and related industries due to the decrease in inbound tourists caused by COVID-19, and analyzes pervasive effects on the entire industry. The amount of losses in the tourism/culture and related industries was estimated based on the per capita expenditure of inbound tourists and changes in the number of foreign tourists after the outbreak. Results show that loss in sales volume was significant in the order of the shopping, air transport, accommodation, and food service industry. Based on the results, scenarios were made by deriving estimated economic losses from 2020 to 2023 (4-year scenario period) in the nine tourism/cultural and related industries. The scenarios were incorporated in the input-output analysis to analyze ripple effects on the whole industry in terms of production, value-added, and employment. Final results indicate that the decline in sales of the tourism/cultural and related industry due to COVID-19 will result in a decrease of 94,071.7 billion KRW in industry output, a decrease of 39,064.8 billion KRW in value-added, and a decrease of 71,557 jobs over the 4-year scenario period. In the case of the culture/arts and entertainment industry, which is the industry of our main attention, would have a loss of 612.1 billion KRW over the four years. This will have a negative effect of 191.9 billion KRW to other industries. Contribution of this study lies in quantifying specific amount of damage caused by COVID-19 on the tourism and culture industry and related industries.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Notion of Freedom in Tourism

    Park, Chang Hwan | Kim, Soo Yong | Lee, Hoon | 2021, 45(3) | pp.55~79 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Freedom is an important concept in tourism, as it distinguishes tourism activities from other activities. Freedom is a prerequisite for tourism and an important factor influencing tourism motivation, tourism experience, and tourism outcomes. However, despite the change in the liberal paradigm and the diversified demand of tourists, freedom in tourism does not reflect this trend. Hitherto based on the classical philosophy of freedom, the concept of freedom in tourism only explains individual choice opportunities. Under the consciousness of this problem, first, the context and discussion of the concept of freedom are reviewed to examine the limitations of the concept of freedom in tourism literature. This paper proposes the expanded concept of freedom in the field of tourism, named tourism freedom. Tourism freedom consists of tourist-level psychological freedom, behavioral freedom, and communal freedom formed through tourism activities. This includes an understanding of community freedom within the scope of tourism, beyond individual and subjective benefits. In addition, freedom at the tourism-based level can be understood as internal resources of tourists necessary to realize freedom in tourism, external resources as a tourism environment, and institutional resources that promote them smoothly. Consequently, it is emphasized that freedom in tourism is a comprehensive examination of the aspects of tourist-level and tourism-based level, leading the issues related to tourism freedom to public rather than to individuals.
  • 4.

    Can Travelers’ Food Photo Posting Lead to Travel Satisfaction?: A Focus on Foodstagramming in a Travel Destination

    Hong Na-Ri | Kim, In-sin | 2021, 45(3) | pp.81~100 | number of Cited : 0
    Travelers searches for food photos and decide what they want to eat in their travel destinations. Foodstagramming refers to taking food photos and posting on social media and it became a common phenomenon in travel industry. The purposes of this study were to identify critical sub-dimensions of foodstagramming benefit in enhancing travel satisfaction, and explore the effect of travel satisfaction on consumers word-of-mouth (WOM) intention to foodstagramming. Online surveys were conducted with Instagram users. A total of 400 surveys were used, and the data were collected and analyzed by using structural equation modeling. The findings revealed that four sub-dimensions of foodstagramming benefits - self expression, enrichment of dining experience, social connection and special occasion memory - increased Instagram users’ travel satisfaction. However, virtual community engagement had a negative effect on travel satisfaction. Additionally, Instagram users’ travel satisfaction enhanced WOM intention to foodstagramming. The results of this study provide useful practical implications to food and beverage restaurant owners and destination marketing managers with strategies to accomplish restaurant business development and become a successful tourism destination by understanding travelers’ food photo-sharing on social media.
  • 5.

    Do the Linguistic Styles of Hotel’s Tweet Message Affect the Customer Engagement?

    Lee, Yun Hye | LeeJungwon | Cheol Park | 2021, 45(3) | pp.101~125 | number of Cited : 0
    Social media is used as a major marketing strategy for companies as a marketing tool to increase customer engagement. Social media marketing strategies are considered important in the context of communication as well as nature of the messages. Therefore, marketing communication through social media requires continuous content management and brand response strategies. This study analyzed the effect of the linguistic styles of the global chain hotel Twitter content on customer engagement based on the speech act theory. In addition, the differences in linguistic styles that affect customer engagement were discussed using replies to content as a moderating variable as a brand response strategy. Postings from official Twitter accounts operated by global chain hotels were collected, and the linguistic styles of Twitter posts were analyzed using LIWC 2015 software an automated text analysis program. Poisson regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between customer engagement and linguistic styles. It was found that there is a difference in the linguistic styles of the social content strategy and the social monitoring strategy that affect customer engagement. The study expands the knowledge of existing research on corporate strategy and customer engagement using social media, and provides practical implications for the role of social media as a marketing communication strategy.
  • 6.

    The Effect of Chinese AI Hotel Users’ Perception of Self-Service Technology on the Hotel Revisit Intention

    Li, Siyuan | Kim Hyunkyu | CHUNG NAMHO | 2021, 45(3) | pp.127~148 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Self-service technology has recently spotlighted due to the Covid-19 situation, bringing companies a wide range of benefits especially in the hotel industry. Self-service technology also gives satisfaction to customers. By using the balance theory, this study examined whether tendency maintains a consistent attitude toward the related targets, and the relationship between positive attitudes to technology and the hotel's re-visit intentions. An online survey was conducted to users who had experienced self-service technology at AI Hotel in China within a year. The findings show that the degree of expected confirmation and personal absorption of users had a positive effect on the satisfaction of use of hotel self-service technology, and satisfaction of use affected the attitude and revisit of hotels. Specifically, perceived benefits had a strong impact on satisfaction with use compared to perceived risks. However, unlike we hypothesized, perceived risks had a positive effect on satisfaction with use. Overall, these results show that self-service technologies need to be considered in terms of attracting hotel revisit customers, and suggest the benefits for customers that increase satisfaction from using the technology of customers.
  • 7.

    Effects of Social Capital within Delivery Platform-restaurant on Restaurants’ Continuity Intention to Use Delivery Platforms

    Lee, Junghoon | Lee null | 2021, 45(3) | pp.149~166 | number of Cited : 0
    This study examined the effect of how social capital between the restaurant owners and delivery platforms on the intention to maintain their supply chain partnership. Nolinear relationships were reviewed through hierarchical regression analysis to investigate the quality of relationship and the contiunity of the supply chair partnership, which was not consistently examined in the previous studies. In addition, the focal relationship was hypothesized to be contingent on restaurants’ dependency on delivery platforms. Hypotheses were tested with questionnaire survey data collected from April 6th to May 27th, 2020 and total of 282 usuable data was collected. The results from hierarchical regression analysis provided support for the hypothesized nonlinear relationship as well as the moderating effect of dependency. Moreover, the finding confirmed that when the more social capital was formed, intention to maintain chain supply partnership increased, and the nonliner (U-shaped) influence relationship to increased. However, the moderate effects of restaurant owners’ dependency on delivery platforms had a non-linearly positive effect on the restaurant owners with high dependency, while there was a linearly positive effect on low dependency restaurant owners. This study draws scholarly interests to the new supply chain of the food service industry, including delivery platforms and provides practical implications for supply chain relationship management among the industry participants.
  • 8.

    A Focus on the Restaurant Social Servicescape on the Solo Dining Satisfaction: Moderating Role of Restaurant Familiarity

    Im, SooYeon | Sunhee Seo | 2021, 45(3) | pp.167~191 | number of Cited : 0
    Recently, the changes of personalized lifestyle, solo dining became one of the culture, and in terms of restaurants side it became an important fact to attract solo diners. This study explored the relationship between crowding, negative response from other diners, interactional fairness from employees, and solo dining satisfaction as well as moderating effect of restaurant familiarity. The survey was conducted in September 2020 among Korean consumers who have dined alone within the last three months. A total of 403 consumers participated in this study. The results of the structural equation model analysis suggested that the crowding level of the restaurants was identified as the predictor of the negative response from other diners, while it had no significant influence on the interactional fairness from employees. The influence of the negative response from other diners and the interactional fairness from employees on solo dining satisfaction were also verified. Multi-group analysis results found the moderating effect of familiarity between crowding and the negative response from other diners. Specifically, crowding had a significant impact on the negative response from other diners for solo diners with low familiarity, whereas crowding did not show any significant effect on the negative response from other diners for solo diners with high familiarity. This study contributes to enhance understanding of solo dining experience and provide beneficial information to relevant practitioners by verifying the role of social servicescape and restaurant familiarity in the solo dining experience.