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2021, Vol.45, No.7

  • 1.

    Conflict between Publicness and Tourism Development : A Case Study of Jeju Songak-Mountain 1st Tourism Development Project

    Kim, Ik-Tae | 2021, 45(7) | pp.9~32 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Using the case of Jeju Songak-Mountain Tourist Destination 1st Development Project, this study examined multi-dimensional aspects of conflict between publicness and tourism development. The model of publicness, which is constituted by the tripartite frameworks: ‘contents’, ‘acting subject’ and ‘process’, was employed as the theoretical framework of the study. In particular, this study theoretically elaborated an integrated model of ‘content-acting subject’ by critically applying Habermas’ Theory of Communicative Action to the procedural issue. The current study posed three particular research questions: (1) What were the contents of publicness during the tourism development project? (2) Who were the acting subjects, and how did they implement and interfere with the publicness?(3)How was the process of publicness conducted? To provide answers those questions, content analysis was performed using a wide range of data including documents of court decisions, auditors reports, internal reviews of business sectors, relevant articles of various newspapers and broadcast news. Results showed that the project failed to facilitate public interest and community sustainability. Results also indicated that the public sectors as acting subject were engaged with private interests and financial benefits. Moreover, civil societies failed to voice solidarity with local communities and the media failed to serve as a public sphere to prompt the procedural rationality. The research sought to make a theoretical and analytical contribution to the development of tourism studies by exploring the multi-dimensions of conflict between publicness and tourism development.
  • 2.

    Negotiation of Leisure Constraints among Koryo-people Residing in Korea: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Pak, Sergey | Sukbin Cha | 2021, 45(7) | pp.33~58 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    With the recent rapid increase in the number of Koryo-people in Korean society, issues such as Korean society's views and stereotypes toward Koryo-people, their maladaptation to society and culture, and consequent non-participation in leisure activities require academic attention. The purpose of this study is to understand leisure constraints experienced by Koryo-people who migrated to Korea and the process of overcoming them. In order to achieve this purpose, this study used theoretical sampling, and in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 Koryo-people residing in Korea in November 2020. Grounded theory approach was used which consisted of open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. The concepts derived from the interviews were grouped into 37 subcategories. As a result of classifying subcategories, a total of 13 upper categories were presented: daily stress, maladjustment to life in Korea, inappropriate perception of leisure, COVID-19 situation, stress as a Koryo-people, willingness to overcome leisure constraints, intrapersonal constraints, interpersonal constraints, structural constraints, behavioral negotiation strategies, cognitive negotiation strategies, maintaining work life balance, and social adaptation. The core category was analyzed as participation in leisure activities through negotiation strategies and willingness to overcome perceived constraints.
  • 3.

    Validating Attention Restoration Theory: Testing the Control Effect of the Level of Cognitive Load of Everyday Life and Crowding of a Forest Visited

    Kim, Seon-AH | KIM MIN JOO | 2021, 45(7) | pp.59~80 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study examines the validity of the attention restoration theory by exploring the relationship between perception of recovery environment and psychological effect. It was also investigated whether the level of cognitive load in everyday life and the level of perception of congestion at the place of visit act as a moderating variable. Items to measure the variables were organized based on prior researches, and two preliminary surveys were conducted. The population of the study was tourists returning home after visiting Jangheung-gun Cypress Forest Woodland. The survey was conducted from September 25 to September 26, 2018, and a total of 250 samples were used for the final data analysis. Results show that the perception of the recovery environment had a positive effect on psychological recovery in the case of short-term psychological recovery. In addition, it was found that 'rest and universal attraction' among the components of the perception of recovery environment had the most significant effect on psychological recovery. Although the validity of the attention restoration theory hypothesis was not tested in this study, evidences of this study suggest that the hypothesis could be valid if the cognitive load of daily life was below an appropriate level. Also, findings of this study show that congestion perception in the natural environment has a significant effect on the causal relationship between recovery environment perception and short-term psychological recovery.
  • 4.

    The Impact of Interaction between Hosts and Guests on the Guests’ Agri-tourism Experiences and Attitude Formation: The Case of Overnight Visitors

    Park, Jin-Kyung | Kim, Jae-Hak | 2021, 45(7) | pp.81~102 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study explores how agritourism visitors’ interactions with hosts affect their tourism experience and attitude formation. Specifically, three objectives of the study were formulated: (1) to identify where and which situations interactions of the visitors with hosts occur; (2) to identify dimensions of agritourism experiences and attitude; and (3) to test the direct and indirect effects of interaction between agritourism visitors and hosts on their tourism experience and attitude. A total of 200 surveys from overnight agritourism visitors were used in the analysis. The surveys were collected by an online research company. Critical review of previous literature suggests that the places and situations of rural village such as accommodation, food, and on-hand activity program were found to be different dimensions of agritourism experiences. Results revealed that interaction between visitors with hosts made significant effects on agritourism experience and attitude. Moreover, while village experience and on-hand activity program experiences made a significant indirect effects on the relationship between interaction and attitude, accommodation and food experiences did not have a significant impact. Findings of this study confirmed that different dimensions of agritoruism tourism experiences could make different mediating effects on attitude when interactions between visitors with hosts occur.
  • 5.

    An Analysis of the Behaviors of Overseas Casino Visitors from the Responsible Gambling Perspective: A Sample of Korean Casino Visitors in Macau and Philippines

    YongSeok Seo | 2021, 45(7) | pp.103~121 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    With the increasing number of Korean overseas casino visitors, understanding their psychological and behavioral characteristics is essential. This research investigated the effect of casino visitors' problematic gambling behavior and problem recognition on their attitudes and revisit intentions. Using a sample from a survey of 201 participants who visited Macau and the Philippines for gambling, a structural equation model analysis tested the relationships among the variables. While the previous study indicated that the domestic casino visitors' problem recognition had a significant effect on forming a negative attitude toward casinos, there was a statistically significant effect of overseas casino visitors' problem recognition on their positive attitude formation in the current study. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers should consider the differences in the psychological characteristics between overseas and domestic casino visitors when establishing policies for responsible gambling. With regard to the responsible gambling, in particular, policymakers should contemplate the fact that the overseas casino visitors would not be willing to stop gambling even when they recognize their gambling behavior is problematic. Results of this study suggest that the systematically strengthened policy of responsible gambling is necessary to prevent gambling addiction successfully.
  • 6.

    Exploring Factors Affecting Attitude toward Disclosure of Personal Information in Restaurants during the COVID 19 Pandemic

    Eunji Lee | Kim Hyemin | Kim Jin-Young and 1other persons | 2021, 45(7) | pp.123~147 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    With the COVID-19 outbreak, South Korean government implemented QR(Quick Response)-code based registration system for the patrons at high-risk facilities. While the use of digital tools was complimented as an exemplary case of an effective application of information technology for contact tracing, it has also raised concerns for individuals' privacy. This study aims to unveil the drivers and inhibitors underlying attitudes and behavioral intentions on Personal Information Disclosure (PID) to restaurant visitors. Considering the specific context of COVID-19, we noted that the willingness of PID is driven by (1) intrinsic factors (perceived risk and benefit) and (2) extrinsic factors (subjective norm and government pressure). Privacy calculus theory and institutional theory were used to establish a conceptual model. The structural relationship was examined by using the survey data collected from 311 respondents who have experienced the entry log system at restaurants. We found that individuals' attitudes to PID are affected by perceived risk, perceived benefit, and subject norm. Government pressure was not significant. This study provides both theoretical and practical contributions by expanding privacy calculus theory to integrate institutional theory in deriving useful implications for prevention and control of COVID-19. Specifically, this study provides suggestion for the governmental policy settlements under the pandemic situation. Our findings contribute to acknowledging efficient strategic guidelines to prevent the epidemic infection.
  • 7.

    The Effects of Newtro-Package Design of Food Products on Familiarity, Uniqueness and Attractiveness Perceptions: Moderating Effect of Generation

    AhnSoHyun | Hwang Johye | 2021, 45(7) | pp.149~171 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Seeking for products and experiences that deliver concepts of ‘newtro’ has become a new consumption trend in the hospitality and tourism industries. Food companies use various newtro-concepts of package designs to stimulate consumers’ wants and purchases. The current research addressed the question of why consumers get attracted to products and experiences of ‘newtro.’ We investigated whether newtro-packages lead to perceptions of familiarity, uniqueness, and attractiveness, which in turn lead to purchase intentions. Furthermore, this study examined whether generation variable (Baby Boomer, X, Y, and Z) plays a moderating role in those relationships. The study was conducted using an experimental design and the stimulus of the package design were newtro, retro, and modern for beverage products. A total of 134 data were used for this study. The findings showed that while the package design did not influence familiarity perception, it influenced perceptions of uniqueness and attractiveness. Furthermore, generation had a moderating effect in the relationships between package design and perceptions. The result demonstrates different generations had different reasons for liking newtro concepts. Lastly, consumer perceptions of familiarity, uniqueness and attractiveness towards package design had positive effects on purchase intentions. This study provides marketing insights for designing products, packages, and experiences to cope with the continuing trend of newtro.
  • 8.

    The Effect Of Kiosk Adoption On The User’s Attitude And Hotel Revisit Intention : In The Era Of Contactless Service Environment Due To COVID-19

    leejumi | CHUNG NAMHO | 2021, 45(7) | pp.173~196 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The unprecedented global COVID-19 epidemic has changed not only the socio-economic structure but also the way companies operate worldwide. With the prolonged COVID-19 crisis, a new normal phenomenon is emerging throughout the hotel industry. The hotel industry is actively reflecting non-contact services beyond the service interface of the past. This study surveyed 408 respondents through an online survey with the aim of understanding the adoption of kiosks on users' attitudes and hotel revisit intentions due to changes in the non-contact service environment under COVID-19. It was found that the characteristics of users dealing with technology had a positive effect on attitudes toward the use of kiosk, while the convenience of technology itself did not significantly affect the attitudes. In addition, the strong use of kiosks, a characteristic of the hotel environment, did not negatively affect the attitudes. On the other hand, attitudes toward kiosks use were found to have the greatest influence on kiosk satisfaction, which means that each function proposed in this document is an influential variable in forming the attitude of hotel customers using kiosks.
  • 9.

    A Case Study of the Global Virtual Trade Shows in the With-Corona Era - Comparison between Digital CES and CANTON Fair Online -

    Chang Won Park | 2021, 45(7) | pp.197~219 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Virtual trade shows, a form of digital transformation, are emerging and are establishing as an essential marketing tool under the COVID-19 crisis. However, due to the sudden change caused by the COVID-19, practical preparations and responses for virtual trade shows as well as academic research have not been adequately conducted. This study intends to suggest the characteristics of a virtual trade show and its components and functions by focusing on the essence of the trade show. The CES and CANTON Fair, which are representative trade shows of the US and China and held online, were studied using a comparative study method. Findings of the results suggest that the virtual trade show needs to increase the transactions between sellers and buyers rather than implementing virtual images. In addition, results also proposed that virtual trade shows’ advantages, such as searching and statistical data collection functions, can be effectively applied to trade show marketing and improvement of participation performance. In particular, the real-time connectivity and the holding of various accompanying events can effectively overcome the limitations of non-face-to-face and attract high-quality buyers. Results of this study also suggest that it is necessary to strengthen the online operation capability of the trade show organizers and develop customized virtual trade shows that reflect the characteristics of each item for the trade shows to become a platform for trade transactions.