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2004, Vol.17, No.2

  • 1.

    Moral Emotion in Korean and German University Students: Toward the Conceptualization of Moral Emotion

    Kim,Kyung-Hee | 2004, 17(2) | pp.1~18 | number of Cited : 4
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fundamental characteristics of moral emotion for the conceptualization and identify the cross-cultural differences, if any, between Korean and German university students. An open-ended questionnaire with three stories was administered to 166 Korean and 143 German students. The data analyzed through content analysis, and chi-squares were applied to examine cultural- and gender differences. Results indicated significant cross-cultural differences in moral emotion. That is, Korean students were norm-, family-, collectivism- oriented, whereas German students showed instrumental and individualistic orientation. Gender differences were partly identified. It was confirmed that moral emotion would be an emotional paradigm that not only positive, but also negative emotions. Implications and issues of further research were discussed.
  • 2.

    Responsiveness and initiative through infant-mother interaction in the social toy play

    Minhwa Kim | Keumjoo Kwak | 2004, 17(2) | pp.19~36 | number of Cited : 34
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined the responsiveness and the initiative of Korean infant and mother as aspects of social competence which are showed through infant-mother interaction in social toy play. Ninety one infant-mother dyads(mean=6.95 months) were videotaped in free play with various toys at the play setting of the laboratory. Responsiveness and initiative of each infant and his/her mother were coded with various levels in 15 seconds intervals and analyzed using cluster analysis and profile analysis. In results, 3 types of group were classified by maternal initiative types. And, the group of mothers who initiate to redirect and to maintain their infants' attention could not lead to much more high level response of infants than non-redirecting group of mothers. This phenomenon is either to the group of mothers who initiate to redirect and to extend their infants' attention. Although infants' initiative were not different through maternal initiative types, maternal responsiveness were significantly different through maternal initiative types. Non-directing group of mothers show significantly less ignoring responses than other groups of mothers. With the results we suggested that maternal responsiveness is more valuable to social competence at early infancy as well as later.
  • 3.

    The Effects of Phonological Processing Ability on the Reading Ability of Four- and Five-year olds

    Sunok Kim | Jo Hea-Soog | 공숙자 | 2004, 17(2) | pp.37~56 | number of Cited : 24
    This study examined the effects of phonological processing ability on the reading ability of four- and five-year olds. Forty-eight 4-year olds and fifty 5-year olds took the Phonological Awareness Test(syllable deletion, syllable blending, syllable discrimination, phoneme deletion, phoneme blending, phoneme discrimination), the Phonetic Recoding Test, the Phonological Recoding Test and a Reading Test. The results indicated that the total score for phonological awareness correlated significantly with those of phonetic recoding, the retrieval of phonological recoding and a reading correlated significantly with overall scores on reading for 4-year olds. For 5-year-olds, the total score for phonological awareness and that of phonetic recoding correlated significantly with their reading ability. While only phonological awareness was a significant predictable variable of reading ability for both age groups, syllable deletion and phoneme deletion, elements of phonological awareness were significant predictors for 4-year olds, syllable blending and syllable deletion for 5-year olds.
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  • 5.

    Theory of Mind and Representational Ability: Normal, Autistic, and Mentally Retarded Korean Children’s Understanding of False Beliefs and False Photos

    Ghim, Hei-rhee | Son, Jung-woo | Myung-Sook Chung and 2other persons | 2004, 17(2) | pp.81~100 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    The present study examined the Perner(1991)'s claims that the theory of mind development depends on the acquisition of a more general cognitive ability to metarepresent, that is the ability to represent the representational relationship between a primary representation and what it represents. In order to examine the Perner's claim, five groups of autistic, mentally retarded, and normal 3-, 4-, 5-year-olds'performance on the mental representation tasks (false belief tasks and deception tasks) and physical representation tasks (out-of-date photo tasks and false photo tasks) were compared. The metarepresentation capacity is required to pass the false belief, deception, and false photo tasks in common. In contrast, the secondary representation capacity is required to pass the out-of-date photo tasks. Three-year-olds passed the out-of-date photo task, 4-year-olds passed the physical representation task, 5-year-olds passed all. In contrast autistic children passed only the physical representation task. In addition, MR children passed all even though their performance was lower than that of normal 5-year-olds. When autistic, MR, and normal 5-year-old groups were closely matched for VMA, autistic and normal groups performed significantly better on the physical representation tasks on the mental representation tasks. This finding demonstrates that the understanding of false representations precedes in the physical domain than in mental domain. suggesting the domain specific development of theory of mind.
  • 6.

    Evaluation of a Korean version of the Therapeutic Relationship for Children

    Eun-Ryoung Bang | 최명선 | 2004, 17(2) | pp.101~122 | number of Cited : 34
    The therapeutic relationship in child psychotherapy has been the subject of little research to date, partly because of a deficit of psychometrically evaluated instruments. In our study, the Korean version of the Therapeutic Relationship Scaled for Chjldren (Shirk & Saiz, 1992; Kronmueller et al, 2003) has been evaluated using a sample of 144 child and 39 therapist. Using factor analysis, the three factors of the original American questionnaire and adjusted German version were replicated. Good coefficients of reliability for the dimensions were found. Our study provides a basis for further studies in child psychotherapy.
  • 7.

    The use of moral orientation of Korean adults in their experienced moral dilemmas

    백혜정 | 2004, 17(2) | pp.123~140 | number of Cited : 3
    The present study aimed to examine the use of moral orientations of 60 Korean adults(40 university students and 20 public servants) in their experienced moral dilemmas based on Gilligan's theory of moral orientations. The researcher has explored what kinds of dilemma situations the participants had experienced, what they had oriented to solve the dilemmas and what sub-categories had appeared in each orientation through analysing the participants' answers. As results, the dilemma situations that the participants had reported seemed to have common factors and were divided into three categories-the personal situation, the impersonal situation and the mixed situation. Also, the university students did not show gender difference in the use of moral orientations and both groups of the university students and the public servants tended to choose care orientation more than justice orientation. However, a group difference was found in the use of moral orientations across the dilemma situations. When exploring the contents in each moral orientation, the researchers has divided them into several sub-categories and found that the preference of the sub-categories differed across the groups. The researcher tried to explain these results in terms of cultural influences, dilemma situations and the characteristics of the groups.
  • 8.

    Relationship between ego identity development and drinking problems in college male students

    Shin,Haeng-Woo | 2004, 17(2) | pp.141~156 | number of Cited : 15
    This study examined the relationship between ego identity development and drinking problems. Four identity status (diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and achievement) groups were compared according to the degree of alcohol use, drinking motives and drinking problems, respectively. The significant difference among groups results came out only due to the degree of drinking problems. The moratorium group was most serious and at risk in the degree of drinking problems, but the achieved group reported relatively lower degree of drinking problems. It was also found that each identity status groups had different drinking motives resulting various drinking problems. Compared with non-problem drinkers, problem drinkers were higher in ideological diffusion, ideological moratorium, and interpersonal moratorium scores. On the other hand, non-problem drinkers reported higher ideological achievement score than problem drinkers. Finally suggestions on the relationship between identity development and drinking problems and the usefulness of applying ‘the developmental assets approach' for alcohol abuse prevention were provided.
  • 9.

    Development of Pregnant Women-Fetus Interaction Program and its Effects on enhancing Mother-Newborn Baby Interaction

    Jiyoun Yoon | Kang,Moon-Hee | 2004, 17(2) | pp.157~176 | number of Cited : 7
    The purpose of this study was to develop the pregnant women-fetus interaction program for enhancing their interaction and to evaluate the effects of the program using a control group with pre and post test design. The subjects of this study consisted of seven pregnant women in experimental group and six pregnant women in control group at the 26-34 weeks of gestation. The program was composed of 12 sessions in three stages. The first stage was to have the experimental group experience a close bond between pregnant women and their unborn infants. At this stage, the pregnant women in the experimental group had opportunities to communicate with their fetus. The second stage was to give the subjects chances for a professional evaluation of the status of their bonding efforts. At this stage, the pregnant women may accumulate their bonding with fetus. The third stage was to provide the subjects a model of various kinds of relating method to their fetus. Data were collected with prenatal and postnatal Marschak Interaction Method(MIM). Microanalyses of the interaction behaviors were carried out with videotaped records. The data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U Test, Friedman test, and Wilcoxon T-test. Results indicated that the program revealed statistically significant effects on enhancing the positive psychological mother-fetus(newborn baby) interaction. It also indicated that the contents and methodology of the program were appropriate to achieve the goals of the program.
  • 10.

    Intellectually Gifted Elementary School Children's Psychosocial Adjustment

    윤초희 | Hongwon Kim | 윤여홍 | 2004, 17(2) | pp.177~196 | number of Cited : 24
    The purpose of the study was to investigate intellectually gifted elementary school children's psychosocial adjustment, employing self-concept, self-esteem, perfectionism and behavior problems as the indicators of psychosocial well-being. The participants of the study were gifted 4th and 6th graders who were categorized in two different gifted groups, highly gifted and moderately gifted, according to their IQ scores, and nongifted 4th and 6th graders whose IQs were ranged from 90 to 109. Each gifted group was subcategorized into two different groups, the gifted from gifted classes and the gifted from regular classes. To summarize the results, although different patterns emerged based on the grade level and sex, gifted children at all grade levels were consistently higher on academic self-concept, self-esteem and perfectionism, and had less emotional and behavioral problems compared to their nongifted counterparts. Regarding social self-concept, while gifted 6th graders had the lowest score, gifted 4th graders had the highest score. Also, giftedness was related more clearly to social self-concept in girls than boys. With regard to the difference by the educational placement, the gifted from gifted classes were higher on self-concept and self-esteem and had less emotional and behavior problems than the gifted from regular classes. Overall, the results are consistent with the view that giftedness enhances children's overall self-concept and decreases psychosocial maladjustment while the effect of the educational placement on psychosocial well-being still warrants further testing in future studies. Only by controlling confounding factors, further research will be able to identify the effect on gifted children's psychosocial well-being of congruence between gifted children's needs and traits and the educational environment which nurtures those needs.
  • 11.

    The role of comparison and lexical information in Korean child's acquisition of novel adjectives

    조윤희 | Hyeonjin Lee | 2004, 17(2) | pp.197~212 | number of Cited : 3
    This study purposes to examine the effect of lexical head nouns and the process of comparison on children's acquisition of adjectives across basic-level object categories (experiment 1), and within basic-level object categories (experiment 2). Experiment 1 used three conditions such as the lexical head noun condition, the non-lexical head noun condition, and the no-word condition across basic-level object categories. The results showed that children were able to generalize novel adjectives to the objects across basic level categories in the lexical head noun condition, but not in the no-word condition as well as the non-lexical noun condition. The procedure of experiment 2 was the same as that of experiment 1, except using objects within basic-level categories. The results showed that children were able to generalize novel adjective to the objects across basic level categories in the non-lexical head noun condition as well as the lexical head noun condition, but not in the no-word condition. It implies that the role of lexical information, the comparison process, and the category concept mayd interact to generalize the meaning of novel adjectives in Korean.
  • 12.

    The development and change of Sex-role identity

    IMSOOK CHOI | 2004, 17(2) | pp.213~232 | number of Cited : 19
    The purpose of the present study is to inquire the development of sex-role identity. The study will have its significance for providing a foundation of sex-role education todays. The subjects of the study were 598 students consisted of 202 middle school students, 200 high school students and 196 college students. Sex-role identity was measured repeatedly for 145 college students at the interval of one year. The conclusions of the study are as follows; First, developmental pattern of sex-role identity is different by gender. In the case of male students, middle school students are characterized by undifferentiated type of sex-role identity. However, high school students are represented by masculine type while college students androgynous type. In the case of female students, undifferentiated type is dominant among middle school students while feminine type is dominant among high school and college students. Second, the repeated measure of the sex-role identity shows that a significant change appears in sex-role identity among college students during 1 year. Approximately 43% of the college students have changed their sex-role identity in a period of one year. The undifferentiated and androgynous types show a higher proportion of change than the masculine and feminine types. A future study is expected to answer toward the question of why such changes occur among college students in one year