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2005, Vol.18, No.4

  • 1.

    Prediction of 17-month-old infants' global Intelligence from 6-month-old infants' visual recognition memory and specific cognitive abilities

    Hyunran Sung | Hee-og Sim | Keumjoo Kwak and 2other persons | 2005, 18(4) | pp.1~15 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the prediction of 17-month-old infants' global intelligence from 6-month-old infants' visual recognition memory and specific cognitive abilities. The secondary purpose was to investigate whether specific cognitive abilities such as object permanence and imitative ability as well as demographic variables can contribute to the prediction of 17-month-old infants' global intelligence. Recognition memory was meant to be the novelty rate which was measured by a familiarization-novel stimulus preference procedure. 17-month-old infants' global intelligence was measured by means of CAS-2(Cognitive Ability Scale-2). The recognition memory of 6-month-old infants was significantly correlated with 17-month-old infants' global intelligence. 17-month-old infants' global intelligence was shown to have a significant correlation with the object permanence measured at 15 months old, and with imitative ability at 9-, 11-months old, respectively. Moreover, demographic variable was not significantly correlated with 17-month-old infants' global intelligence. It is noteworthy in this study that 17-month-old infants' global intelligence was predictable only through recognition memory which was the one and only variable among various variables measured at a relative early age around 6 months old.
  • 2.

    Gender differences in emotion recognition,affective perspective taking, and causal attribution of emotion of 4-year-old children

    SONG, HANA | 2005, 18(4) | pp.17~33 | number of Cited : 9
    The primary purpose of this study was to examine how children's gender accounts for variation in three abilities for emotional understanding; emotion recognition, affective perspective taking, and causal attribution of emotion. Seventy four four-year-old Korean children (41 boys and 33 girls) were interviewed using Denham's Puppet Task in which a puppet character in each story feels one of the four basic emotions. The original scale was translated into Korean, and modified through back-translation procedures and pilot studies. Children's responses in the task were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results showed that gender differences were significant in affective perspective taking and causal attribution subscales. Specifically, girls understand contextual cues about happiness and anger better than boys, but no significant gender difference was found for emotional understanding of sadness and fear. Girls were also better than boys for causal attribution of happiness. In addition, content analysis suggested that for both boys and girls, parents' positive and negative emotional behaviors were the most common reasons for happiness, sadness, and anger. However, only girls attributed their negative feelings to marital conflicts between mothers and fathers. Also, compared to boys, girls' happiness seems to be more influenced by weather.
  • 3.

    Adaptive values of children's self-overestimation

    Shin HyeEun | David, F. Bjorklund | 2005, 18(4) | pp.35~49 | number of Cited : 6
    Two studies investigated the functional value of children's poor metacognition by examining how adults perceive such self-overestimation. In Study 1, adults read scenarios about 7- and 10-year-old children who were either accurate or overestimated their performance on a memory task. They were then asked to rate these hypothetical children in terms of intellectual, social, and personality characteristics. Parents and teachers thought that the young children who overestimated their performance were more vulnerable, helpless, and imaginative, but less smart and independent than accurate one. In Study 2, adults were asked which of two children (one who overestimated his/her performance and one who was accurate) they would prefer to baby sit for. Although adults chose the accurate and overestimating children with comparable frequency, they professed different reasons for their choices. Moreover, this tendency varied with children's age. We suggest that children's overestimation of their ability may reflect an ontogenetic adaptation, which serves an adaptive function early in development, in part, by endearing them to adults.
  • 4.

    Moral Emotions in Juvenile Offenders on Probation and Comparison Adolescents

    이희정 | Sungchil Lee | 2005, 18(4) | pp.51~67 | number of Cited : 8
    The purposes of this study were 1) to examine moral emotions among juvenile recidivists and non-recidivists in the probation, and 2) to assess the attributions about moral emotions especially callous-unemotional traits. Three types of socio-moral transgression events were used to 30 juvenile recidivists, 30 non-recidivists, and 30 comparison adolescents. The data were analyzed through chi-squares to examine juvenile recidivists, non-recidivists and comparison adolescents' moral emotions and moral attributions. The results showed significant differences among juvenile recidivists on probation, non-recidivists and comparison adolescents in moral emotions and moral attributions. Juvenile recidivists expected victimizers would feel happier and less guilty following acts of victimization(physical harmness, theft, and lying) than non-recidivists and comparison adolescents, while recidivists showed that victims would feel less angry than comparison adolescents. so our study supported that there are callous- unemotional traits in korean delinquent samples. Also Juvenile recidivists showed victimizers would attribute outcome-dependent attributions such as material gains and comparison adolescents would feel more empathy and causal-dependent attributions such as fairness and justice. Future researches on moral emotions, especially callous-unemotional traits in the theory of conscious development and emotional intervention programs, were suggested.
  • 5.

    The Effects of Adolescents’ Biological and Subjective age on their Problem Behavior

    Hwee-Sook Jang | 정윤경 | 2005, 18(4) | pp.69~86 | number of Cited : 4
    This study examined the effects of adolescent biological and subjective age on their problem behavior with middle and high school students. Statistical analysis revealed male and female high school students had the highest biological age, and male middle school students had the lowest one. Also the biological age was only related with the problem behavior of male adolescents and male adolescents with high biological age engaged in higher levels of antisocial behavior and violent behavior than their lower ones. But adolescents with high subjective age engaged in higher levels of antisocial behavior, imitation of adult behavior and violent behavior regardless of sex and age. Moreover middle and high school male students and high school female students with high biological and subjective age were likely to engage in problem behavior than their cournterparts with low biological and subjective age.
  • 6.

    Age differences in satisfaction with life

    Myung-Sook Chung | 2005, 18(4) | pp.87~108 | number of Cited : 68
    This study was conducted to examine differences across age groups in the degree of satisfaction with life. A total of 1,067 participants (145 middle school students, 135 highschool students, 184 university students, 465 adults, and 138 older adults) took part in the study. The participants responded to a questionnaire which consisted of two scales: the Satisfaction with Life Scale developed by Diener et al.(1984) to assess their overall life satisfaction, and a scale to assess their satisfaction in each of four domains of life. Physical, material, social, and productive domains of life were extracted from factor analyses. The findings of the present study were as follows. First, overall satisfaction with life was the highest for the older adults and the lowest for the highschool students. A similar pattern of the results was obtained for satisfaction in material, social, and productive domains of life, whereas not the older adults but the middle and university students were found to be the most satisfied in the physical domain. Second, among all the demographic variables examined, socioeconomic status had the greatest influence on the level of satisfaction in the four domains of life as well as overall satisfaction with life. Third, the age variable was found to interact with several other demographic variables: They were gender by age interaction in satisfaction with social relationships and productivity; education level by age interaction in the overall life satisfaction and satisfaction with physical health; and family type by age interaction in material satisfaction and satisfaction with social relationships. Finally, for the younger as well as the older people, satisfaction in material and productive domains had great influences on their overall satisfaction with life, whereas satisfaction in physical and social domains had relatively little effects. The implications of these results were discussed.
  • 7.

    Development of Proportional Reasoning:Why are some proportional reasoning tasks more difficult than others?

    정윤경 | 2005, 18(4) | pp.109~127 | number of Cited : 3
    Proportional reasoning is the one of the core abilities prevalent in our everyday life that involves relational representation about relative quantities. A body of literature was reviewed that has produced contrasting views about the onset age of proportional reasoning. Crucially, several task factors that may be responsible for the varying results in the previous studies were suggested. These factors include 1) relation being asked (equivalence vs. ordinality), 2) the acquisition of mathematical convention, 3) quantitative types of stimulus (continuous vs, discrete) and 4) availability of half-boundary. A few recent studies that directly tested the effects of these task factors were discussed. Educational implication on teaching mathematical concepts and the future direction of researches on proportional reasoning abilities are also addressed.