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2006, Vol.19, No.4

  • 1.

    The validation study of parent-child interactive rating scale(K-MBRS & K-CBRS) in early childhood

    김정미 | Keumjoo Kwak | 2006, 19(4) | pp.21~37 | number of Cited : 19
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of Maternal Behavior Rating Scale(MBRS) and Child Behavior Rating Scale(CBRS) by Mahoney(1999) and confirm an appropriate manual and procedure for its use in Korean. The study consisted of a sample of 77 parent-child dyads, in range of 8 to 75 months of age. Parent were videotaped while playing with their children with a standard set of developmentally appropriate toys during about 10 minutes. These observations were coded with the Korean Maternal Behavior Rating Scale to asses mother's style interaction and Korean Child Behavior Rationg Scale to assess children's pivotal behavior. Collected data were coded by two raters independently with the items of K-MBRS & K-CBRS on a 5-point Likert scale. The results were as follows; First, K-MBRS and K-CBRS had sufficient internal reliability, Cronbach α of K-MBRS was .86. and K-CBRS was .81. Second, the result of factor analysis indicated that K-MBRS accounted three factor model, while two factor model is the best for the data of K- CBRS. Third, in addition this study was to analyze the effect of maternal interactive style over children's ages. As a result, maternal 'responsive behavior' and children's 'activity behavior' factor had an impact on children's age. However the younger their children are, the more responsive mothers were to interact with their children.
  • 2.

    Preschoolers' understanding of moral, social-conventional, and personal domains

    Park, Young Shin | 2006, 19(4) | pp.39~53 | number of Cited : 17
    Abstract
    Preschoolers' understanding of moral, social-conventional, and personal domains was examined with 4- and 5-year-old children. Children evaluated moral, social- conventional, and personal events on six criteria - non-permissibility, seriousness, rule independence, personal choice, generalizability and locus of control, and also provided the justification for their judgment. On all criteria, 4-year-old children distinguished the events from three domains and 5-year-old children only distinguished personal events from either moral or social-conventional events. However, they made clear distinctions among three domains in terms of justifications of their judgments. Most children judged that parents should make decisions about moral, social-conventional, and personal events, but only some 5-year-old children thought children should make decisions about personal events.
  • 3.

    The effects of perceived importance of intention and cognitive resource demanding on the development of children's prospective memory

    서지연 | Choi,Kyoung-Sook | 2006, 19(4) | pp.55~76 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the level of perceived importance of the intention and of the level of cognitive resource demanding on the development of performance for the prospective memory. Five, seven, and nine-year old children participated. The 1st experiment was designed to examine the effects of the level of perceived importance of intention. As a result, the prospective memory became significantly higher with age and with the perceived important of intention. The 2nd experiment was designed to find out the causes of the failure of performing the prospective memory even when the perceived important of intention was high. As a result, the higher the level of cognitive resource demanding was, the lower the prospective memory was. This result was interpreted as that the more cognitive resource demanding was, the more short-term capacity decreased. The present results suggest that perceived importance of intention is important for the success of prospective memory, but perceived important of intention is not enough to perform two or more task, thus a certain level of cognitive abilities is needed to distribute attentional resource for the tasks.
  • 4.

    The relationship between bilingualism and theory of mind

    이귀옥 | 이혜련 | 2006, 19(4) | pp.77~92 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of bilingualism on children's theory of mind ability comparing Korean-Chinese bilingual with Chinese monolingual children in Yanji, China. The subjects were 115 children 3 to 5 years of age, 55 of whom were bilingual and 60 were monolingual in Yanji. Bilingual children spoke Korean at home but Chinese in the community and at preschool. These children's Chinese fluency that assessed PPVT. The instruments used to measure children's theory of mind were four false belief tasks. A 3(age) by 2(mono-bilingual) ANCOVA was performed for theory of mind tasks and PPVT score as the covariate because monolingual children performed PPVT task better than bilingual children. The results show older children performed on the theory of mind tasks and bilingual children were better on the theory of mind tasks than monolinguals.
  • 5.

    Reliability and validity of Children’s Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (CPANAS)

    이은경 | 이양희 | 2006, 19(4) | pp.93~115 | number of Cited : 35
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first purpose was to construct the Children’s Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (CPANAS). For this purpose 141 preliminary terms were administered to 724 children in grades 5 through 6. The participants were asked to rate on a 4-point scale the extent to which they had recently experienced each emotion state. The data were analyzed using multiple regression, factor analyses. Result of the exploratory factor analysis supported a two-factor structure: Negative Affect, Positive Affect. Children’s Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale was constructed with the 57 emotion terms including 24 terms for Positive Affect and 33 terms for Negative Affect. The second purpose was to check reliability and validity of the constructed scale. In order to do this, test-retest reliability, internal consistency and concurrent validity checks were conducted. The same test was administered in two weeks. Test-retest reliability was .64(Pearson’s r), with sub-scale reliability for positive affect and negative affect being .76 and .83 respectively. Internal consistency for the entire 57 items was .98(Cronbach’s α), with .97 for positive affect and .98 for negative affect. The scale was compared with K-CDI to test for concurrent validity and proved to be -.74 with positive affect and .68 with negative affect. Virtually all relationships between Children’s Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale and K-CDI supported the validity of Children’s Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale.
  • 6.

    Children's understanding of personality traits:with focus on trait inference and situational and temporal stability

    구재선 | 김혜리 | 김경미 and 3other persons | 2006, 19(4) | pp.1/20~ | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined 3- to 7-year-old children's understanding of personality traits in three domains: trait identification, prediction of other's behavioral response, and beliefs about the stability of trait. A total of 79 children's responses(Male, Ns = 36, Female, Ns = 43) were used for the analysis. Each child heard 12 stories describing six contrasting pairs of traits and had to answer three questions about each trait. The results of this study are as follows; first, children from 3 years could identify the trait term from target person's past behavioral information. Second, children from 4 years made different behavioral prediction in the same situation for target persons with different trait. Third, children from age 3 to 7 believed that negative trait would be change in a positive direction. These results indicate that preschoolers have ability to understand personality trait as a causal mediator of one's behavior. Also children from age 3 to 7 are instrumental-incremental theorists believing that personality traits are relatively malleable.
  • 7.

    Preschooler's use of fair means or foul means in moral judgment

    CHONG,YOUNG-SOOK | Cho, Young-Mi | 2006, 19(4) | pp.117~135 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study was conducted to examine young children's differential use of a fair means or foul means in moral judgment. Sixty preschoolers age from three to five were presented four stories combined means(fair vs foul) and outcome(positive vs negative). Subjects were asked to judge the goodness or badness of each character in the four stories on four point scale. they were also asked to assign prize or punishment to the character. Results showed that children as young as three can use differentially a fair means vs a foul means for making moral judgment: Young children including three-year olds rated a character using fair mean as much better and a character using foul means as much worse irrespective of types of outcome. Similar pattern was found in children's prize/punishment assignment. It was discussed the consideration for the importance of fair means in moral judgment.
  • 8.

    The effects of children's phonological awareness and reading ability on the writing ability: A short-term longitudinal approach

    조희숙 | 김선옥 | 정정희 | 2006, 19(4) | pp.137~155 | number of Cited : 32
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the effects of phonological awareness, reading abilities on children's early writing abilities would change over a testing period of five months Twenty-nine 6-year old children(19 boys) were tested for phonological awareness, word reading and writing abilities. The results indicate that in Time 1, phonological awareness and word reading were in significant correlation with writing abilities and that the total writing score is most affected by nonsense word reading, followed by phonemic deletion. In Time 2, it was found that phonological awareness was in significant correlation with writing abilities and that the total writing score is most affected by syllable counting. nonsense word reading. The total writing score obtained in Time 2 is most affected by nonsense word reading