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2007, Vol.20, No.1

  • 1.

    The Investigation of Protective factors and Risk factors in Child Poverty: On the 3-Year-old children

    곽금주 | 김정미 | 유제민 | 2007, 20(1) | pp.1~19 | number of Cited : 30
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigated protective factors and risk factors in children in poverty and their outcomes. The definition of child poverty in this study were children who received support in child care and education expenses due to low cost of living. Participants consisted of 476 mothers and their 3-year-old children who live in Seoul or`Kyounggi Province. Among the participants, 228 were children in poverty. To identify the effect of child poverty, data mining decision tree model was performed with the following variances; social support, parenting stress, home environment stimulation, and child outcomes. Decision tree model included significant predictor variable on child poverty as a child's sex, Decision tree model showed that responsiveness stimulation in HOME and social skill had important influences on boys in poverty. Physical environment stimulation of HOME and social support were predicted as protective factors in boys in poverty. However, physical environment stimulation worked as risk factors on girls in poverty. Relatively low language comprehension skills predicted risk factor on child developmental functioning, and this was influenced by parent's psychological and mental health. The results discussed that physical environment stimulation in HOME and social support were defined as protective factors for boys in poverty, but risk factors for girls.
  • 2.

    Understanding of mind after 7 years of age: Mindreading in ambiguous situations

    김혜리 | 구재선 | 김경미 and 4other persons | 2007, 20(1) | pp.21~49 | number of Cited : 20
    Abstract PDF
    This study has aimed to test in what aspect the child's understanding of mind develops beyond the age of 7. Three types of ToM abilities have been tested. These include; the ability to interpret others’ ambiguous social behaviors by reading their mental states, the ability to uncover the hidden meaning of a figurative statement such as irony, and the ability to understand that when a person says a "faux pas" it is due to a mistaken belief rather than from malicious intent. Each of the twenty subjects in the five age groups (7-, 9-, 11-, 13-, and adults) have participated in this study. The results demonstrate progressive attainment of the various ToM abilities as follows: children understand non-literal statements at age 7, ambiguous social behavior at age 9, and faux pas at 13 years of age.
  • 3.

    The Role of Auditory Memory in Vocabulary Acquisition and Picture-Book Reading of 24-Month-olds

    장유경 | 최유리 | 이근영 | 2007, 20(1) | pp.51~65 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    This study examined the role of auditory memory in early vocabulary acquisition and picture-book reading. A total of 309 24-month-old-infants and their mothers participated in the study. Infants completed a phonological memory task, a pattern repetition task, and a Corsi-block task. They also completed PPVT(Kim, Chang, Lim, & Beck, 1995). Mothers of the infants completed a vocabulary checklist(Pae, 2002) and filled in a questionnaire measuring their picture-book reading activities at home. In general, high auditory memory ability was associated with more expressive and receptive words. Also more vocabulary was associated with more frequent, longer and more focused picture-book reading activities. Findings suggest that the importance of auditory memory, especially, phonological memory, on early vocabulary acquisition.
  • 4.

    Relationships between Depression, Cognitive Deconstruction, Perceived Support from Friend and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents

    정영주 | CHONG,YOUNG-SOOK | 2007, 20(1) | pp.67~88 | number of Cited : 96
    Abstract
    The main purpose of this study was to test two possible paths from depression to suicidal ideation in adolescents. One is a direct path from depression to suicidal ideation, and the other is indirect path from depression through cognitive deconstruction to suicidal ideation. The second purpose is to examine the moderating effect of perceived support from friend as a protective factor against suicidal ideation. The data was gathered from 329 adolescents attending senior high schools in Ulsan and Pusan. In path analysis using with SPSS 12.0, we found the direct and indirect influence of depression on suicidal ideation and the indirect influence of depression on suicidal ideation via cognitive deconstruction. The direct effect of depression on suicidal ideation was more stronger than indirect effect. The direct influence of cognitive deconstruction on suicidal ideation was also significant. In testing the moderating effect of perceived support from friend, it was found that perceived support from friend moderated the negative effect of depression on cognitive deconstruction. but did not moderate the negative effect of cognitive deconstruction on suicidal ideation. In additional multiple regression based on six functions of friend's support, intimacy was negatively related with depression, helping was negatively related with cognitive deconstruction, and trust was negatively related with suicidal ideation. It suggests that enhanced perceived support from friend can play as a protective factor for suicidal ideation in adolescents.
  • 5.

    Perceived difficulties in communication and personality characteristics

    youngim choi | Hwee-Sook Jang | 2007, 20(1) | pp.89~104 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    This study examined gender difference in the perceived difficulties in communication and personality characteristics and the relation between the two variables. The significant gender difference in the perceived difficulties in communication and personality characteristics was found. The correlation analysis revealed the perceived difficulties in the same-sex communication have negative correlation with extraversion, agreeableness and faithfulness and the positive correlation with neuroticism in male and female. But in the opposite-sex one while male has negative correlation with extraversion, agreeableness, faithfulness, and openness to experiences and positive correlation with neuroticism, female has the negative correlation with neuroticism and positive correlation with extraversion. MANOVA revealed significant difference in the pattern of personality characteristics according to the level of the perceived difficulties in communication.
  • 6.

    The effect of Hangul Phonological Awareness skill on English Orthographic Analogy

    한찬숙 | 정윤경 | 2007, 20(1) | pp.105~122 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    The present study examined effects of phonological awareness of second graders in the English orthographic analogy paradigm. Experiment 1 studied children who only learned alphabet letter knowledge, and experiment 2 studied the same children who learned English word reading for fifteen sessions. 44 second graders were divided into two classes(High and Low of phonological awareness level) after they were tested on Hangul phonological awareness and participated in English word reading class after school. In experiment 1, studying children after completion of alphabet letter knowledge lessons found that although high and low PA groups showed a slight difference in increase in number of words read correctly among the groups, for body-coda unit and rimes, as well as vowel including texts the increase was significant. In experiment 2 investigated after completion of English word reading lessons found that the high PA group showed a significant increase in number of words read correctly for body-coda unit and rimes, as well as vowel, but the low PA group showed significant progress only for body-coda unit. The findings show that Hangul PA is transferred into English word reading, and orthographic recognition units are different in English word reading according to the level of Hangul PA.
  • 7.

    The relation of child's behavior during Problem Solving and related variations

    홍미림 | 방희정 | Lee, Soon-Hang | 2007, 20(1) | pp.123~145 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of child's behavior during Problem Solving and related variations(mother's behavior, attachment security, temperament). The subjects were 33 infants, age 30-43 months, with their mothers. In order to assess to Mother-Child Interaction, each mother-child dyad was observed in the Problem-Solving Session(Eriksons, Sroufe, & Egeland, 1985). The mother's behavior and the child's behavior were assessed using the Teaching Strategies Rating Scale(Erikson, Sroufe, & Egeland, 1985). Attachment security was assessed by Attachment Q-set(Waters, 1987), and temperament was assessed by the Toddler Temperament Scale(TTS; Saslow, 1993). The data of this study was analyzed by Canonical correlation analysis, Stepwise regression analysis, and Pearson's correlation. The results of this study were as follows: 1) There was significantly correlation between mother's behavior and child's behavior(excepting reliance of mother for help). 2) Attachment security scores were positively related with the child's experience for the session, child's affection towards the mother, and child's enthusiasm. 3) Among the temperamental factors perceived by the mother, the child's positive adaptability explains positive experience for the session. The child's negative mood explained the reliance of the mother for help. 4) Using Stepwise regression analysis, most of the child's behavior is explained by the mother's behavior, but the child's reliance on his mother for help was explained by the child's negative as mood perceived by the mother. Consequently, the child's behaviors during Problem-Solving Session were mainly related to mother's behavior and temperament. This study suggested that various psycho-social factors contributed to child's accomplishment