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2007, Vol.20, No.4

  • 1.

    Develpomental Changes in Understanding Second-order Mental States

    이수미 | Ghim, Hei-rhee | 2007, 20(4) | pp.1~16 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    This study aimed at examining developmental changes in understanding of second-order mental states. Five-, 7-, 9-, 11-, and 13-year-old children participated in this study. Two second-order false-belief tasks were used. Tasks were modified versions of Perner and Wimmer's(1985) 2nd-order tasks and Sullivan et al.'s(1994) 2nd-order tasks. Children were asked 4 test questions(1st-order true belief, 1st-order false belief, 2nd-order ignorance, 2nd-order false belief) to test their understanding of mental states. The results were as follows: First, 5-year-old children were able to understand 1st-order mental states but not 2nd-order metal states. Second, understanding of false belief occurred later than understanding of knowledge or ignorance(true belief, ignorance). Third, 2nd-order false belief were demonstrated at age 7 and develops by 11 years old.
  • 2.

    Relationship among Attachment Style, Communication Competence and Marital Satisfaction

    Hwee-Sook Jang | Yi Young-Joo | 2007, 20(4) | pp.17~32 | number of Cited : 12
    This study examined the relationship among the attachment style, communication competence and marital satisfaction with male and female adults of the thirties and forties in the first decade of marriage. ANOVA revealed men with secure attachments had the highest marital satisfaction than the ones with other attachment styles. Among 4 dimensions of communication competence, altercentrism explained significantly the marital satisfactions of men and, expressiveness and self-disclosure explained significantly that of women. Also women and the one with secure attachments had higher communication competence than their counterparts. Regression analysis found the man's communication competence mediated the relationships of attachments and marital satisfaction, while women's communication competence did not interact with attachments.
  • 3.

    The effects of perceived parental conflict, maternal behavior, and social support on children's subjective well-being: A structural equative modeling analysis

    LEE, JEONG MI | LEE, YANG HEE | 2007, 20(4) | pp.33~58 | number of Cited : 48
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of perceived parental conflict, maternal behavior, and social support on school-age children's subjective well-being: emotional and psychological well-being. 889 children (M=10.68 years, SD= .91) were recruited from nine public elementary schools in Seoul, South Korea. Within the sample there were 464 boys and 425 girls from grades 4-6. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Cronbach's alpha, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation modeling (SEM) using SPSS 12.0 and AMOS 5.0. The results were the following; First, children's perceived parental conflict is negatively related to children's subjective well-being. Second, the effect of children's perceived parental conflict on children's subjective well-being is not mediated significantly by children's perceived maternal behavior. Third, the effect of children's perceived parental conflict on children's subjective well-being is mediated by the two factors, maternal behavior and social support. Fourth, maternal behavior is positively related to children's subjective well-being. Fifth, the effect of children's perceived maternal behavior on children's subjective well-being is mediated by children's perceived social support. Sixth, children's perceived social support is positively related to children's subjective well-being.
  • 4.

    Unrealistically optimistic beliefs in young children: relation to psychological adjustment

    최선영 | Keumjoo Kwak | 2007, 20(4) | pp.59~80 | number of Cited : 13
    The purpose of this study is to reveal the developmental difference in UOB(unrealistically optimistic beliefs) of the future and the relationship between UOB and psychological adjustment. In Study 1, 54 young children (age: M=4,3) and 47 older children (age: M=7,7) reported their UOB. The results revealed that young children had higher tendency of UOB. In Study 2, 54 young children in Study 1 and their mothers reported Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance, Child Behavior Checklist(CBCL) and Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire(PARQ). The results indicated that children with high optimism showed higher positive perception of self. In the group with high UOB, parents with undifferentiated denial parenting style had less impact on the child’s problem behaviors. This study examines UOB not as a psychological deficit but as a positive strength and proves that this trait brought psychological adjustment to children.
  • 5.

    Preschoolers' ability to use gaze information when understanding others' preferences

    김유진 | Song, Hyun-joo | 2007, 20(4) | pp.81~97 | number of Cited : 1
    Previous research has shown that 5- to 6-year-olds, perhaps not younger children, can use the duration of eye gaze to understand others’ preferences(Einav & Hood, 2006; Montgomery, Bach, & Moran, 1998). However, the experimental situation used in the previous research might not have been ambiguous in terms of the ultimate goals of the actor's actions. Thus children might have had difficulty linking an actor's gazing behaviors and future action preferences. Therefore, we made a change in our experiment and aimed to further examine the nature of Korean preschoolers’ ability to use eye gaze duration when understanding others’ preferences. Four-year-old Korean children participated in study 1 and 3.5-year-olds in study 2. Both of the experiments demonstrated that 3.5-year-old and older Korean children can consider other people’s looking behavior, especially eye-gaze duration, as a cue to others’ preferences. Possible cultural and contextual factors are discussed to account for the discrepancy between our and previous findings.