The present study examined whether the mindreading ability differed among different types of bullying. In order to assess the mindreading abilities of 73 third grade and 89 5-th grade elementary school students, we used the ambiguous social vignettes and not-ambiguous social vignettes followed by questions to assess the understanding of other's mental states. In addition, we administered the Bullying Behavior Scale and Peer Victimization Scale, and classified the children into four distinct groups - bully group, victim group, bully-victim group, and control group. Bully students scored higher than victim students, but not higher than control and bully-victim students. The results that bully students did not scored higher than the control students suggested that the bullying could not be explained in terms of mindreading ability. Results are discussed in terms of the need for further research into mindreading and empathy in children who bully.
The purpose of this study was to compare the development of emotional autonomy in Korean and German adolescents. A sample of 816 12-16 year olds completed a questionnaire battery concerning six aspects of emotional autonomy and two aspects of relationships with parents. A three-way ANOVA revealed significant cultural, gender and age differences. German adolescents scored higher than Korean counterparts in the subscales of emotional autonomy of parental deidealization, perception of parents as people and non-dependency on parents. But the scores in individuation and self-control were higher in the Korean adolescents. Emotional autonomy with scores in four subscales increased over the age range studied: parental deidealization, individuation, non-dependency on parents and responsibility. Sex differences were evident on two subscales: perception of parents as people and non-dependency on parents. Both Korean and German adolescents evaluated their relationships with parents as positive but Korean subjects scored higher than German counterparts in emotional pressure. Self-control was the only subscale which was positively correlated with relationships with parents.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive intervention on the cognitive development on the part of 20-month-old infants as well as the quality of mother-infant interaction during play. Subjects were chosen, with their parents' consent, among the follow-up infants who had participated in a short-term longitudinal study, scoring relatively low in cognitive, language, and social development. The cognitive intervention program was administered twice monthly for four months. Number, form, color, imitation, and object permanence of two groups were measured before and after the application of the program and the nother-infant interaction was videotaped. The average difference of post-test scores between two groups were analyzed using pre-test scores as covariance. The difference was significant in both number and imitation in intervention group. mother-infant interaction ad an mother's contingent encouragement was higher in intervention group and was reverse in non-contingent response to their infants. In addition, the mothers in the intervention group used number-related words more frequently than those in the controlled group. The extent to which mothers care and show interests during infants' play was higher significantly among mothers of experimental group whereas it was not different significantly between the two groups in providing with the infants opportunities to challenge to task. The cognitive intervention program used in this study did not yield expected significant results. However, it was assumed to improve the infants' cognitive development and to provide insight into the development of cognitive intervention program for further studies as well.
Intentional detection is defined as when people detect an object which moves toward special direction as an agent having a goal and desire to go there. This study examined whether people detect the motions of self-propelled objects like human silhouettes and the motions of nonself-propelled objects like geometrical shapes or flowers as intentional agents when they interpret their movements. This study also, examined whether people detect and interpret motions differently when they see different motions, non-meaningful motions, goal-directed motions and interacting motions between two objects. The results demonstrate that people have tendency to detect the motions of human silhouettes more intentionally than the motions of geometrical shapes and flowers, and detect the interacting motions more intentionally than non-meaningful motions and goal-directed motions. Especially when the motions of human silhouettes were presented, people detect and interpret them as fully intended motions even when non-meaningful motions and goal-directed motions were presented. However when presented with nonself-propelled objects, geometrical shapes and flowers combined with interactive movements, people demonstrated a strong tendency to interpret their movements more intentionally than the other motions. This study suggests that people detect and interpret different agent's motions and motions of objects differently.
This study examined the effects of gender, gender role identity and two personality characteristics on the perceived communication difficulty with male and female college students. Statistical analysis revealed in the same-sex communication female perceived more communication difficulty than male, but in the opposite-sex communication no gender effect was found. Gender role identity had significant effects on the same- and opposite-sex communication. That is, the person with the androgynous and masculine gender role identity perceived the lower level of communication difficulty than feminine and undifferentiated the one in the same- and opposite-sex communication. Also the person with the low level of neuroticism and high level of extraversion has low level of perceived communication difficulty. And regression analysis revealed extraversion has the greatest effect, which is followed by neuroticism, but the masculinity and femininity has no effects on the perceived communication difficulty in male and female.