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2008, Vol.21, No.4

  • 1.

    Children's behavioral and mental inference by using the trait informations

    Jaisun Koo | Ghim, Hei-rhee | 2008, 21(4) | pp.1~16 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the developmental change of children's ability to use trait informations for making inferences about behaviors and mental states. A total of 181 kindergarteners, second-graders, and fourth-graders participated in this study. Children were presented two behavioral informations of a story character from which a personality trait could be inferred. Their tasks were to predict and infer the story character's behavior and mental states such as belief, desire, intention, and emotional response. The results indicate that preschoolers have ability to predict behaviors by using the trait informations. However, they could not use the trait informations as a basis for making mental inference. These results suggest that children change from the viewing traits as behavioral regularities to understanding them as causal mediators to produce mental states such as desire, belief, and feeling.
  • 2.

    English Reading Development of Early School aged Korean Children based on Hangul reading skill

    한찬숙 | 정윤경 | 2008, 21(4) | pp.17~37 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study investigated English word reading development of the Korean second graders who acquired grapheme-phoneme(G-P) correspondence rules. Forty four of children divided into two groups (High and Low in Hangul reading skill). In experiment 1, both high and low groups could read more familiar CVC words than unfamiliar CCVCC, and there were significant differences between High and Low group. In experiment 2, two groups could read more unfamiliar CVC words than familiar CVCV and there were significant differences between High and Low group, and 50% of the High group could read CVC as well as CVCV and bisyllables, however 50% of the Low group could only read CVC. These results suggest that Korean second graders can apply G-P rules as well as letter-sound correspondences of some larger orthographic unit according to the English word spelling patterns, their G-P correspondences skill is different according to the level of Hangul reading skill, and the grower their English reading skill, the more they were influenced by the type of spelling patterns than the familiarity of words.
  • 3.

    The Relationships among False Belief, Emotion, Language, and Social behavior in Four- and Five-Year-Old Children

    Kyung A Kim | Hyeonjin Lee | 권은영 | 2008, 21(4) | pp.39~55 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigated the relationships among false belief, emotion, language, and social behavior in four- and five-year-old children. The participants were 30 four-year-old children and 30 five-year-old typically developing children in two kindergartens. The children's abilities were measured by using language tasks, false belief tasks, emotional perspective taking tasks, and the Korean Version of the Social Skills Rating System-Preschool Form (K-SSRS). The results showed that 4-year-old children's false belief performance was significantly correlated with emotional perspective taking whereas 5-year-old children's false belief performance was significantly correlated with complement understanding and social skill scores. The findings also suggest that understanding of false-belief may be separated from understanding of emotion in terms of aspects of social behavior in young children. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that receptive vocabulary predicted social behavior in 4-year-olds, while the false belief performance predicted social behavior in 5-year-olds. In addition, the complement understanding predicted the false belief performance in 5-year-olds. These results suggest that the vocabulary along with the false belief performance is a predictor of social behavior in Korean children, the complement understanding is a predictor of false belief reasoning.
  • 4.

    The role of executive function in children's understanding of false belief

    Yu-Mi Lee | 박영신 | 2008, 21(4) | pp.57~73 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    The aim of this study is to examine domain-general perspective on theory of mind which indicates that children's understanding of false-belief is due to executive function and therefore young children with limited executive function fail in false-belief task. In Experiment 1, 3- to 5-year-old children's understandings of false beliefs were compared with the understandings of false signs and false photographs. 3- and 4-year-old children showed similar levels of performances on false belief and false sign tasks, which put equivalent demands on executive function. In Experiment 2, 3- to 5-year-old children who failed in false belief task in Experiment 1 were participated. Those children's executive functions were trained with the Dimensional Change Card Sorting Task. The training improved only 5-year-old children's understanding of false belief. These results support the domain-general perspective on theory of mind, which suggest that understanding of false belief requires executive function.
  • 5.

    The Stability of Intelligence from Infancy to Early Childhood: Four-Year Longitudinal Study

    Hyunran Sung | 2008, 21(4) | pp.75~87 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    The objective of this study was to investigate the stability between visual recognition memory of 6 month olds and intelligence of 17 month olds, and 30 month olds and 48 month olds. Cognitive ability was measured with CAS-2I in 17 month olds, K-BSID-Ⅱ in 30 month olds, K-ABC in 48 month olds. There were not significant correlation between the visual recognition memory of 6 month olds and intelligence of 30 month olds and 48 month olds. But there was significant positive correlation between the intelligence of 17 month olds and 30 month olds. There was moderate positive correlation between the intelligence of 30 month olds and 48 month olds. The performance score of 30 month olds was correlated with the intelligence of 17 month olds, but not correlated with the score of information subscale and correlated with the score of achievement subscale of 48 month olds. The education level of mother correlated with the intelligence of 30 month olds, and the education level of father was correlated with the intelligence of 48 month olds.
  • 6.

    Uses of Primary and Secondary Control and Psychological Well-being in College Students and Aged People

    Jo Seolae | CHONG,YOUNG-SOOK | 2008, 21(4) | pp.89~107 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    This study was examined the relations of uses of primary and secondary control and psychological well-being according to controllability of situations. 62 college students and 51 aged people checked how much they used the primary or secondary control with OPS scale and how often they felt the positive or negative emotions in controllable and uncontrollable situations. Also the subjects reported how much they were satisfied with their life. The results were as follows: First, aged people used both primary and second control more than college students in uncontrollable situations. Second, the more uses of primary and secondary control in controllable situation positively correlated with life satisfaction in both college students and aged people. In uncontrollable situation, the correlational pattern was similar to that of in controllable situation in college students but not in aged people. Finally, it showed that top 25% college students using primary or secondary control in controllable situation reported more positive emotion and greater life satisfaction than bottom 25%. The similar pattern appeared in aged people in controllable situation. On the contrary, in uncontrollable situation, top 25% using secondary control only in both college students and aged people reported more positive emotion than bottom 25%. The findings suggested that both college students and aged people are adjustable when they use primary and secondary control flexibly according to perceived controllability of situation.
  • 7.

    Exploratory Study for Developmental Tasks and Beginning Time of Early Adulthood

    Hwee-Sook Jang | 2008, 21(4) | pp.109~126 | number of Cited : 26
    Abstract
    This exploratory study examined what were the developmental tasks of early adulthood, which relationships were there between the achievement of developmental tasks and the subjective importance for each task and when was the beginning time of early adulthood with 2,583(man: 1,247, women: 1,336) participants from 18 to 39 years. Analysis revealed that seven developmental tasks were selected for early adulthood among 15 developmental tasks including 8 ons of Havighurst(1952). Although females reported a higher achieved status in six tasks, they reported a lower subjective importance in five tasks than men. As a whole the achievers of developmental tasks reported higher subjective importance at those tasks. Also 30 years for men and 28 years for women were speculated as the beginning time of early adulthood.
  • 8.

    The relationship among stress of adult women, mindfulness, self- compassion, psychological well-being and psychological symptoms

    이우경 | BangHeeJeong | 2008, 21(4) | pp.127~146 | number of Cited : 54
    Abstract
    This study examined the structural relationships among stress of adult women, mindfulness, self-compassion, psychological well-being and psychological symptoms. 405 adult women completed a packet of questionnaires measuring the stressful life event, role stress, mindfulness, self-compassion, psychological well-being, and psychological symptom. Stress, mindfulness, self-compassion, and emotional well-being were defined theoretical latent variables. Hypothetical model for the paths and role among constructs of interest was presented drawing on previous theoretical background and analyses were performed using Structural Equation Modeling. The results show mindfulness and self-compassion mediate between stress and psychological well-being. Regarding psychological well-being, mediation model of mindfulness and self-compassion indicated reasonable model fit, but the path of self-compassion to psychological well-being is not significant. Meanwhile mediation model of mindfulness and self-compassion between stress and psychological symptom indicates reasonable fit, and all the paths turn out to be significant. These results indicated that self-compassion and mindfulness mediated the link between stress and psychological symptom. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
  • 9.

    The Structural Relationships of Social Support and Mother's Psychological Status to Maternal Sensitivity in Children with Disabilities

    Eun-Sil Kim | 2008, 21(4) | pp.147~164 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference of social support, mother's psychological status and maternal sensitivity in children with disabilities according to the types of disabilities. Also, using the structural equation model(SEM), it was explored how social support, mother's psychological status affected maternal sensitivity in children with disabilities. Subjects were one hundred thirty five mothers of children with disabilities. Empirical data were obtained through a series of questionnaires such as marital satisfaction, support from people around, maternal depression and parenting stress. In addition, Maternal sensitivity was obtained through Maternal Behavior Q-set. The results were as follows; First, there was no difference of social support, mother's psychological status and maternal sensitivity in children with disabilities according to the types of disabilities. Secondly, mother's psychological status fully mediated social support to maternal sensitivity. Also, mother's psychological status negatively effected to her sensitivity.
  • 10.

    The Influence of Maternal Parenting on Adolescence Separation -individuation mediated by mother-adolescent Conflict-The Moderating Effect of Peer Attachment

    Hye Jin Kim | BangHeeJeong | 2008, 21(4) | pp.165~187 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to examine the casual relationship among maternal parenting, adolescence separation-individuation, mother-adolescent conflict in accordance with peer attachment. Participants were 596 high school students at the 3 high schools in Inchon and Seoul. They completed the Parenting Behavior Inventory Perceived by Adolescent, Conflict Behavior Questionnarie(CBQ), Separation-individuation Test for Adolescence (SITA), the Inventory of Peer Attachment(IPPA). The data were analyzed with Pearson's correlations, Multi sample analysis based on the structural equation modeling by the AMOS 5.01 program. The Result of this study are as follows. First, The adolescence separation-individuation process model was supported by the maternal parenting on adolescence separation-individuation caused by mother -adolescent conflict. Second, The adolescence separation-individuation model varied with sex and peer attachment. Moderating effects of peer attachment occurred only in girl's group.